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National Institutions and HRM

National Institutions and HRM
Identify three national institutions in Japan, and respond to the following:
�What is the historical foundation of Japan?
�How Japan’s national culture, institutions, ethics, and values influence its HRM practices?

Historical foundation of Japan
The cases of homicide around the world clearly indicate that many criminals choose
murder as the definitive means and way of resolving conflicts. According to reports, 65 percent
of homicidal cases have been cleared over the past years, a factor that proves how this crime is
an escape route for criminals. In order to assist various law enforcement departments to raise
their clearance rates, it was significant that an efficient approach to solve these vices was
developed (Carroll, & Rothe, 2014).

National Institutions and HRM 2
This database was created in 1985 and has over the years seen the success in over 85,000
cases of investigation. The Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) is a web-based database
instrument that helps law enforcers and their agencies to link cases of sexual assaults, homicides,
unidentified human remains and missing persons with the aim of helping the police units to
coordinate communication approaches and investigate the roots of the crimes.
The database is always maintained by the FBI. The cases information that are submitted
to the ViCAP is always maintained in the national database and in the event of a case, this
information’s are compared to other sources that exist in the database with the aim of identifying
the similarities. These case submissions are in many occasions analyzed by crime analysts
though a formulated analytical skill that is informed and educated on such crimes (Carroll, &
Rothe, 2014). This paper therefore seeks to incorporate the ViCAP web-based database system
into the investigative measures of a law enforcing agency called Link Unit.
Mission, Goals and Objectives

Regardless of the size or structure of an intelligence unit, such urgencies need to have
their mission statements, goals and objectives that support and monitor the growth of their
efforts. It is against this background that Link Unit developed the mentioned goals, mission and
objectives of the urgency (Greenall, 2012). The Link Unit in its mission to incorporate the
ViCAP program into its approaches intends to provide the law officers aligned with the functions
of intelligence the opportunity to incorporate guiding principles that details itself in the
collection, analysis, and disbursement of crime investigations within the community.
These aspects can only be achieved in the event that intelligence is blended and weaved
with the ViCAP program and a stronger relationship is built within the community with the

National Institutions and HRM 3
intention of fighting crime and atrocities. It is also significant that the institutionalization and
sharing of information is a significant factor that can be applied by Link Unit with the objective
of mitigating crimes (Greenall, 2012). This program will also ensure that structures are
established to fight the crime rates and encourage the community to consider making the law
enforcers a better part of them.
To achieve our missions, goals and objectives, Link Unit will also ensure that trainings
are provided for its officers on the use of this program to and how to carefully analyze reported
cases of homicides and sexual assaults and to ensure that the criminals who commit these
offences do not walk Scott free. Link unit also takes the challenge of liaising with other
neighboring agencies within the criminal intelligence network. Link Units objective revolves
around actively participating in the sharing of intelligent information and receiving intelligence
outcomes through the use of ViCAP programs, and which will be used to enhance the initiatives
ability to cab instances of crime and mitigate its prevalence’s (Kraemer, Lord, & Heilbrun,

Role of Analysis within the Department

Analysis is used by law enforcement agencies in gathering information/evidence and
reviewing such information to establish and reconstruct crime. Analysis is described as the
logical thought process that is incorporated in the application of data and finding about a crime
investigation (Kraemer, et.al). In the event that a crime has occurred, it is significant that
information is collected through the asking of questions or through the execution of a search

National Institutions and HRM 4
warrant. During this time, ideas and hypothesis are developed, a factor that places the analysts
with the role of gathering the information,
Analysis therefore begins with the identification of a problem, summarizing and a
synthesizing the information, and also detailing the data received until an investigation is
concluded. The role of analysis varies from agency to agency with the sole responsibility of
making summaries to discover the facts behind an incident, and develop investigative plans that
can be followed by investigators (Kraemer, et.al). In other agencies, analysts are capable of
providing investigators with the assessments of an unfolding issue which in turn gives them the
direction of how to manage a crime incident. Other agencies also use analysis to support experts
with information in the court.
Analysis remains a part of any agencies policing and approach and has lasted for quite a
time to say. The process of analysis has evolved from pin mapping to a comparative system that
gives data tables, from the use of analytical patterns to user interfaces and eventually to
sophisticated analysis such as ViCAP (Papachristos, & Wildeman, 2014). The law enforcement
system uses analysis in different approaches with the aim of responding to crime.
With the constant cases of sexual assaults and homicides, it has been important to employ
robust intelligent and analytic approaches within the function of the state law. Today, the
analytic functions vary from an agency to another and base its approaches on the needs of the
organization. The enforcement of analysis has proved it effectiveness within the rural and urban
jurisdictions since it offers tactical and strategic analysis of various functions within an agency.
According to Papachristos & Wildeman, the current exponential growth in technology
and the consequential expansion of informative approaches, the increase in analytic capacity still

National Institutions and HRM 5
remains the most important resource for criminal justice in America (Papachristos, & Wildeman,
2014). Agencies such as the Link Unit now have the opportunity to invest in an increased
analytic capacity that goes an extra mile than the usual use of data that gives an analysis of the
past and current crime trends. Such organs also have a role to play in creating an efficient and
effective policing strategy that makes work easy within the law enforcement agencies.


Link Unit staffing approach entails an approach where the staff members provide support
in the wide range of cases inclusive but not limited to sexual assaults and homicides that are
geographically scattered. The staff member of Link Unit also will be responsible for the
provision on-site and time sensitive support to the team of managers and the investigative unit on
the complex cases that are received from the society. The staff member will be obligated in
providing case consultations for the active, new, and cold cases through conference calls, videos
calls on Skype among other media platforms (Ratcliffe, 2012). The staffs in the Link Unit will
have a coordinator to whom they will liaise with in considering activities that may attract a
potential threat to the society
Within the Link Unit will be a team of patrol officers and detectives. Some studies reveal
that the patrol officers have the responsibilities over the clearance of cases lies within the
confines of the patrol police since they arrive first at the crime scenes, conduct short and precise
interviews and determine if the evidences presented can affect an arrest (Ratcliffe, 2012). In
contrast to this, the detectives at Link Unit will be solely responsible for the processing of
paperwork through the ViCAP systems and also interact with suspects, who are identified by the
patrol officers.

National Institutions and HRM 6
It is imperative to realize that the patrol officers are in disposal of the citizenship
information which would aid them in identifying the prime suspects, and are credited with the
sole responsibility of arresting such victims (Ratcliffe, 2012). It is out of this that the Link Unit
intends to incorporate both the detectives and the patrol offices in the clearing of cases giving the
fact that they both have the ability to carry out follow-up investigative measures into the closure
of cases.


Link Unit intends to develop approaches of monitoring and giving detailed information
from its database in order to ease the course of a case involving sexual assault and homicide.
Link Unit will carry out its functions as a law enforcing agency by managing the cases that are
brought to its knowledge within the region of operation (Ratcliffe, 2012). The agency will
undertake procedures of case management with the aim of offering police reports and other
detailed information on which prosecution will be determined and based. Link Unit envisions
incorporating a team based approach in investigating homicide and sexual assault cases.
With the departments lead investigators, the agency also has an analytical officer, two o
whom are responsible in the running of the cases until completion. The supervisors within the
unit are responsible in handling the files of an investigation that ensures that there is accuracy in
the findings of an investigation throughout the process. The detectives from this unit will be
responding to homicides in a team that is well vast in providing support to endure that the
investigations are handled by highly trained and focused personnel for better results (Salfati, &
Bateman, 2005).

National Institutions and HRM 7
Through the agencies database, documents and data will be disseminated and organized
pertaining to cases, and also track the subsequent aspects of an investigation from the beginning
to the end through the use of the ViCAP system. The agencies team of investigators will be
responsible for the collection of information from the crime scenes by recording the statements
presented in the scene. The information will then be housed in the agencies systems in order to
trace the evidences of an activity (Salfati, & Bateman, 2005). The information is then organized
and presented to the investigating team for the continuity of the case. Through this, the agencies
systems can facilitate steady clearance of homicidal cases.

Recent studies have revealed the low homicidal clearance rates that result from several
factors including the availability of fire arms, infusion of drugs within the environment and the
increment of case loads that result from decreased manpower. In order to clear homicidal rates it
is therefore significant that intensive training programs are incorporated in Link Unit agencies.
Incorporating the program would require that the personnel responsible engage in a 10 week
formalized kind of training (Salfati, & Bateman, 2005). These trainings are basically geared
towards equipping the officers in this unit with the fundamental approaches of investigating
death cases.
The trainings will also incorporate the basic methods of carrying out crime investigations,
with the personnel assigned under the supervision of highly experienced team of investigators
who will be responsible for the provision of trainings. The detectives will then be partnered with
other investigators in order to help them apply the knowledge received from the trainings until it
reaches a stage where they can work alone. Homicide detectives therefore need thorough

National Institutions and HRM 8
trainings and should also go through periodic trainings with the objective of upgrading their
skills within the job capacity (Wright, 2013). It is therefore important to point out that the Link
Unit uses training as an enrichment opportunity in training its detectives.

Expected Products

Link Unit expects to incorporate a good working relationship with the attorneys within
the region that will foster a collaborative effort between the attorney and the team of
investigators. The attorneys’ will be involved in responding to calls on the homicide scenes with
a team of investigators from the unit. This will allow the prosecutor to have an idea about a
crime scene and in this okay an investigation into the happenings. The unit also plans to open its
doors to the media who will receive information from its database with the aim of helping in the
investigative measures (Wright, 2013).
The Unit also expects to build a strong case management system that has the capacity to
structure and organize the investigators and the unit itself. It is also important to mention that
through the Link Units system, the agency intends to provide access to other law enforcing
agencies that can use the automated investigative tools to advance their investigative efforts.
Participation in research is also another significant element that will ensure that programs are
developed to decrease instances of sexual assaults and homicides through the reduction of the
antecedents of these cases (Wright, 2013). Through this, the homicide investigative units will be
able to examine and complete crime cases within the jurisdictions of the unit in the region.


National Institutions and HRM 9
The Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) is a web-based database instrument that
helps law enforcers and their agencies to link cases of sexual assaults, homicides, unidentified
human remains and missing persons with the aim of helping the police units to coordinate
communication approaches and investigate the roots of the crimes with the objective of finding
the actual information that can be used during the prosecution.
These aspects can only be achieved in the event that intelligence is blended and weaved
with the ViCAP program and a stronger relationship is built within the community with the
intention of fighting crime and atrocities. It is also significant that the institutionalization and
sharing of information is a significant factor that can be applied by Link Unit with the objective
of mitigating crimes.

National Institutions and HRM


Bebenroth, R., & Kanai, T. (2010). Challenges of Human Resource management in Japan. New
York: Routledge Publishing Press.
Kasegawa, H., & Noronha, C. (2014). Asian Business and Management: Theory, Practice, and
Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Press.

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