elect a pair of articles on an identical topic from your Annotated Bibliography. This pair can be comprised
of (a) one article to represent a research approach and another to represent another approach (e.g., one
quantitative and one qualitative) or (b) one scholarly, research-based study and one practitioner article.
Note: If you do not have two suitable articles in your Annotated Bibliography, you may find two suitable
articles on a similar topic from the Walden Library.
Analyze the articles and compare them in terms of the following questions:
�What comprises the data presented in each article?
�How are the data presented and interpreted?
Are the data summarized only, or does the article include appendices or tables that present the data for
the reader’s own interpretation?
�Are there other ways that the data could be interpreted?
�Are there other variables or factors that appear to have been excluded from consideration?
Qualitative Methods for DBA Research
A quantitative research is a research that is based on the demonstration of statistical
information. This research methodology entails statistical analysis, and one tests hypothesis or
draws a conclusion from the numerical evidence. Quantitative researches are exploratory in
nature; that is they aim at answering the ‘how’ and ‘why’ question. This research methodology
entails gathering a great deal of information via organizations or through small numbers of
people. Qualitative methods are commonly used when one is required to explore a complex issue
in depth, to determine people’s attitude and behavior when faced with a certain situation.
Information obtained from quantitative research is used to build theories that can later be further
examined using quantitative methods. Research designs involve organizing research activities,
such as data collection, to attain the predefined research aims. In qualitative research the key
research design are; verification vs. falsification, testing theories vs. generating theories, research
is independent vs. research is involved, experimental design vs. fieldwork methods, and large
samples vs. small numbers (Flick 99).
The most common qualitative methods are the focus group, participant observation, and
in-depth interviews. The method to be used depends on the specific type of data, that is, different
methods are suitable for collecting different types of data. Focus group method involves a
discussion among a group of individuals, which is led by a moderator. The group of individuals
share life circumstances, habit or need related to the research topic. This method is effective in
drawing out data on the cultural norms of a group and in bringing out comprehensive analysis of
concerns to the cultural subgroups or groups represented. Historically focus group was
conducted in person (face-to-face), but due to the technological development, they can be carried
out remotely through video conferencing, by teleconferencing, or through internet using desktop
video conferencing, online bulletin boards, text chat, online collaboration tools, or various forms
of web/teleconferencing. Focus group discussion involve between two to ten respondents
In-depth interview (IDI, one-on-one) is an interview with one respondent. How long the
interview lasts, depends on the context and the subject matter. This method is suitable for
collecting data on individual’s experience, perspectives, and personal histories, especially when
carrying out research on sensitive topics. In-depth interviews (IDI) may be carried out by phone
or in person at a research facility, a public location or the respondent’s workplace or home (Flick
Participant observation is a type of data collection method; it involves obtaining an
intimate and close understanding with a given group of people (a particular community or
subcultural group) and their practices. This is achieved by getting involve with the people in-
depth in their cultural environment, generally over a long period of time. This method is suitable
for collecting data on spontaneously occurring behaviors in their usual context (Liamputtong
It is advantageous to use qualitative research in DBA research, this is because in
qualitative methods the use of probing and open-end questions allows the respondent to answer
using the own words, instead of limiting them to choose from fixed choices as in quantitative
methods. Open-end questions tend to conjure responses that are; explanatory and rich in nature,
unpredictable by the researcher, and culturally and meaningful conspicuous to the participant. In
qualitative research, the qualitative methods allow the researcher the adaptability to investigate
initial participant feedbacks, that is, to ask how or why (Maxwell 101).
Joseph A. Maxwell. Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach: An Interactive
Approach. United States: SAGE Publications, 2012.
Uwe Flick. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. United States: SAGE, 2009.
Pranee Liamputtong. Qualitative Research Methods. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press,