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Maintenance and Repair Organisation at Dubai World Central Airport

Dissertation: Maintenance and Repair Organisation at Dubai World Central Airport

Table of Contents
Abstract: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……3

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  1. Background and Objectives: …………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….4-6
  2. Literature Review: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7-20
    The Interpersonal Trust Scale: …………………………………………………………………………………9-10
    Absence of Awareness: ………………………………………………………………………………………….10-11
    Qualitative Report Analysis: ………………………………………………………………………………..…11-12
    Quality or Descriptive Clarification Regarding Barriers and Opportunities: ……………12-13
    Status and Scope of Maintenance ASAPs: ……………………………………………………………..13-
    Self-detailing of Errors: ……………………………………………………………………………………………..15
    Detailing Behavior in Maintenance: …………………………………………………………………………..16
    New Case Study: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..16-18
    Advancement of Aviation Safety Action Programs: ………………………………………………18-
  3. Research Plan: ………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………25-44
    3.1 Data Collection, Analysis, Findings: ………………………………………………………………………………29-36
  4. Conclusion and Recommendations: …………………………………………………………………………………..….…… 45-46
  5. List of References: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……53-60

List of Figures
Figure 1: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
Figure 2: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………30
Figure 3: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………31
Figure 4: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34
Figure 5: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………35
Figure 6: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36
List of Appendices
Appendix A: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. 47-49
Appendix B: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49-50

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Appendix C: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………51-52


This project report aims on the maintenance as well as aviation safety programs which are
implemented for the purpose of encouraging maintenance station and air carrier employees to
voluntarily forward reports on errors, a practice which is fundamental in making sure there is
identification of potential causes of accidents and/or incidents. Under aviation safety programs,
proactive action is taken to resolve safety issues rather than by disciplining or punishment the
concerned individuals. The key outcome of this project report are: Analysis of the currently
available maintenance and safety programs at the airport, Identification of factors necessary for
the establishment of maintenance aviation safety action programs at DWC Airport, Explore the
sustainability of MRO market at DWC, Analyze and understand key factors that forces airlines
to choose this new MRO, and Investigate factors that have potential to encourage compliance to
maintenance aviation safety action programs at DWC Airport.

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  1. Background and Objectives

Maintenance and safety play a significant role in maintaining airline fleets throughout
the world through appropriate ASAPs. ASAPs provide a safety term for all the services that
relate to assuring the safety and airworthy of aircraft. Ayeni et al (2011) noted that the global
market worth of the ASAPs market is $50 billion. ASAPs providers and implementers
typically provide four main capabilities: Engine, Airframe, Airport, as well as Component
Services. Dubai World Center (DWC) is located at Dubai City. The airport opened first as a
cargo operations center but later opened for passengers handling services and flights in 2013.
The airport is touted as the next world’s largest global gateway due to its capacity of more
than 160 million passengers every year. For this reason, many airlines will operate from the
airport and this will necessitate the need for maintenance and repair organization, which must
be accompanied by appropriate safety programs. Air transport, cargo operators, and airlines
operate schedules that require high utilization and serviceability levels and minimum cost.
Since they have high capital and utilization costs, they require a large amount of support by
the ASAPs. The airlines operate large fleets of aircraft, and since many of their aircraft are on
the lease, they require that they have high maintenance so that they can maximize their value
in agreement with the requirements of the lesser. This paper explores the feasibility of
The United Arab Emirates has four airlines operating from various countries such as
the Emirates airline & Fly Dubai operating from Dubai International Airport, Etihad
operating from Abu Dhabi International Airport as well as Air Arabia operating from Sharjah

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International Airport. All of these airlines operate fleets of varied aircrafts ranging from
Airbus A330 to heavy duty and new generation Boeings B800; whereby the number of
aircrafts owned by Emirates Airline, Fly Dubai, and Etihad are 260, 49 and 122 respectively.
The management of ASAPs by these airlines is either in-house or through outsourcing. For
example, Emirates and Etihad accomplish maintenance of their fleet and management of
ASAPs at their facility; whereas Air Arabia outsources this from Joramco in Jordan, Amman.
In addition, Fly Dubai outsources aircraft maintenance and management of ASAPs from
ADAT in Abu Dhabi.
The main objectives of this study include:
a. To investigate the impacts of establishing maintenance aviation safety action programs at
Dubai World Central Airport.
b. To explore the services and functions to be offered by the maintenance aviation safety
action programs at Dubai World Central Airport.
c. To recognize key factors that will encourage global airliners to embrace the appropriate
fleet maintenance aviation safety action programs at Dubai World Central Airport.
d. To establish the internal and external factors that impact maintenance Aviation Safety
Action Programs (ASAPs) at Dubai World Central Airport.
e. To establish appropriate recommendations and conclusions which identify approaches of
solving the negative impacts of these factors on maintenance Aviation Safety Action
Programs (ASAPs) at Dubai World Central Airport.
It is essential to determine that the maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs are an
imperative approach in the process of making sure that there is seamless running of operations at

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an airport whether locally, regionally or internationally recognized, which can influence the
goals stipulated by the respective airports negatively or positively. In this case, the maintenance
Aviation Safety Action Programs can be impacted by a number of components in a work
environment due to the vital role they play in ensuring airport operations take place without
incidences or accidents that can possibly translate to significant levels of losses. The aim of this
study therefore, is to draw a focus on some of the programs established by Dubai World Central
Airport with regards to maintenance and aviation safety action. In particular, this study will make
sure that some of the variables affecting the maintenance and aviation safety action both
internally and externally are succinctly detailed.
As a result, this paper proposes establishing maintenance aviation safety action programs
at Dubai Central airport including safety equipment such as escape slide rafts and life jackets,
among others. In addition, the study will also consider the safety maintenance operations at the
aircraft structural repair workshop, brakes, and wheels overhaul workshop, engine module
replacement facility as well as Non-Destructive Test facility. Therefore, considering that Dubai
World Central Airport present operations are within a limited number of airlines, the ongoing
plans to ensure that it is converted to multi runways operation makes it essential to prioritize
maintenance and safety programs. This is attributable to the fact that, the major infrastructural
development plans envisaged to take place in the near future will require ambitious as well as
comprehensive maintenance aviation safety action programs.

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  1. Literature Review

According to Ait-Kadi et al (2009), ASAPs play a significant role in making sure that
optimal safety levels are sustained including providing maintenance that is in relation to the
process of promoting airworthiness of the airport as well as the air carriers’ condition. Also,
Easterby-Smith et al (2012) noted that ASAPs provide maintenance of damaged components
of the airport or an aircraft as a strategy to ensure they operate properly in order to improve
safety. Choules (2013) evaluated the need for ASAPs for commercial aircraft as well as large
airlines including Emirates, Fly Dubai, Etihad, and Air Arabia in order to provide them with
support throughout their operational network and found that these programs were of vital
significance. According to Jankowicz (2004), minor maintenance and safety actions may be
needed at remote destinations, even though it is more significant if they are done at the
operational bases of respective air carriers.
According to Jankowicz (2004), in his study to examine the need of ASAPs for
military aircraft operators found that operators of military aircrafts required high
maintenance and safety action service reliability and availability considering the complexity
of their functions and they are more expensive compared to other aircrafts. Furthermore, Ait-
Kadi et al (2009) suggested that unlike the airlines, small aircrafts such as helicopters which
operate in a an area that is relatively small, and cannot fly for long distances than typical
airlines as well as other aircrafts with fixed wings require less aggressive ASAPs.
According to (Michael, 2014), the CAA must give satisfactory hazard administration
preparing to security reviewers to set them up to react successfully with hazard
administration ideas as laid out in the Safety Management Systems (SMS) prerequisites. It
must make the move from conventional “check the container” review ideas to an execution

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based assessment that is normal inside the State SMS program. It is no longer adequate for
wellbeing reviewers to cite a SMS section or part – they should know about these desires and
convey successfully to the administrators to guarantee that associations will viably execute
the components of hazard evaluations inside the SMS rules. The CAA must create and give
powerful hazard administration instruments and models to help administrators with usage
and work intimately with them to guarantee they know about the ideas.
According to (Jop Havinga, 2014), a Just Culture is one in which learning and
responsibility work in each other’s support. Considering individuals responsible by pointing
the finger at them clashes with learning. Learning relies on upon the readiness of specialists
to share their encounters, even episodes and close misses. Responsibility, be that as it may, is
frequently deciphered as censuring experts for oversights. This makes a contention amongst
learning and responsibility. This proposes three concurrent headings to accomplish a Just
Culture: a) not utilizing occurrence reports as confirmation for disciplinary activity, b)
choosing and getting expansive support for who gets the opportunity to choose what is
satisfactory and unsatisfactory conduct and c) changing from fault and in reverse looking
responsibility to forward-looking responsibility.
(Patankar and Driscoll (2005) likewise noticed that support ASAP programs have a
tendency to be “arranged” while flight ASAP programs have a tendency to be “direct.”
Therefore, the examination of upkeep ASAP reports is significantly more intricate and
tedious errand than that of flight ASAP programs.

According to (Manoj S, 2013), one hundred ASAP reports were broke down utilizing a
business off-the-rack text analysis apparatus called LexiQuest. This instrument empowers the

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investigator to submit account content reports and it breaks down these reports to distinguish
related ideas. The examiner can then pick particular connections for further examination. This
was an exploratory review to decide the potential materialness of such a framework in the
examination of ASAP reports. The two wide difficulties found through the review explore in the
principal period of this venture were absence of relational trust and absence of mindfulness about
upkeep ASAP programs. Many research thinks about have distinguished relational trust as a
basic and fundamental consider proactive blunder administration programs (cf. Taylor and
Christensen, 1998; Taylor and Thomas, 2003; Patankar and Taylor, 2004; Patankar, Taylor, and
Goglia, 2002; Patankar and Taylor, In Press). While it is generally recognized that trust is basic,
it is likewise seen that “trust is hardest to build up when you require it the most” (Duck, 1998 p.
69). Consequently, it is imperative to comprehend the particular activities or inactions that may
contribute toward a positive or a negative impact on the general trust scale.

The Interpersonal Trust Scale: The relational trust scale has developed as a standout
amongst the most critical measures over the span of various longitudinal reviews that deliberate
the adequacy of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) programs (cf. Taylor and
Christensen, 1998; Taylor and Thomas, 2003; Patankar and Taylor, 2004; and Patankar and
Taylor, In Press). In light of these reviews, it is realized that there is a wide variety in such trust
among the different upkeep associations—relational put stock in has a tendency to be higher in
littler associations and military units and lower among bigger associations—the scope of trust
qualities appear to show that up to a third of the mechanics don’t tend to trust that their
administrators will act in light of a legitimate concern for wellbeing. Patankar and Driscoll
(2005) not just affirmed that finding over a national specimen of more than 5,000 support staff,

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additionally found that the workman administration confide in organizations with ASAP projects
was altogether higher than those without ASAP programs. The survey things that constitute the
trust scale—both in the MRM/TOQ (Taylor and Thomas, 2003) and in the Maintenance ASAP
Questionnaire (Patankar and Driscoll, 2005) are as per the following:
• My boss can be trusted
• My boss thoughts would be followed up on if answered to boss
• My boss secures private data
• I know legitimate channels to report wellbeing issues

Absence of Awareness: An absence of mindfulness with respect to the ASAP program is
not only an advertising issue, but rather it involves deliberately instructing the partners in the
esteem, application, and general hugeness of the program. The writing on deliberate instruction
of the partners is restricted; in any case, understanding from MRM explore shows that a general
mindfulness preparing program has been effective in advising the partners of the significance
and estimation of the MRM program, in building up a typical dialect that fuses the key wording
and constructs a common understanding or mental model, and in including the partners in
distinguishing key issues that should be tended to for the program to grab hold and develop to a
more elevated amount of acknowledgment and advancement (Taylor and Christensen, 1998;
Patankar and Taylor, 2004). Information with respect to support ASAP programs appears to have
spread for the most part by individuals who were keen on growing such projects instead of an
organized push to teach the partners. Since worker’s guilds have a tendency to speak to
professionals from various associations, they fill in as an important channel for exchange of best
practices over hierarchical limits (Taylor and Christensen, 1998; Patankar and Taylor, 2004).

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Furthermore, the FAA offers an instructional class on ASAP for its monitors and has likewise
distributed and Advisory Circular (AC-120-66B). Enter individuals in the business have utilized
these assets to build up the ASAP programs for their separate organizations; be that as it may,
there is no confirmation of a formal preparing program in any of the organizations. A few
organizations have begun to join ASAP essentials in their current MRM preparing program.
While this is a viable intends to raise the mindfulness, it is not boundless. One other organization
has utilized the “voyaging street appear” way to deal with have their Event Review Committee
(ERC) go to different line and base upkeep stations to talk about the ASAP program up close and
personal with the mechanics. They report that this approach has brought about a huge increment
in their sole-source reports (Patankar and Gomez, 2005). Another component that is beginning to
increase some energy is the Maintenance and Engineering Subcommittee of the far reaching
ASAP/FOQA Aviation Rulemaking Committee.
The support subcommittee was shaped in October 2004. From that point forward, the
council has begun to increase expanding perceivability and intrigue. Its participation is
expanding and it is molding a plan that won’t just raise the consciousness of upkeep particular
ASAP issues, additionally help with building support particular mistake arrangement plots that
could be mapped with the general industry’s Voluntary Aviation Safety Information-Sharing
Process (VASIP).

Qualitative Reports Analysis: Challenges and Opportunities: Typical ASAP reports
have a tendency to be story content information. Such reports are submitted to the program
supervisor and afterward either the chief or the investigator codes the report utilizing an
organized coding plan, for example, Boeing’s Maintenance Error Decision Aid (MEDA) (Rankin

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and Allen, 1996) or an interior form that joins some extra fields that are essential to that
organization. The common investigation procedure is by all accounts restricted to the utilization
of an organized grouping framework to code the approaching reports and to the introduction of
its outcomes as bar outlines or recurrence tables (Patankar, 2005). The flight ASAP people group
is creating VASIP, an information sharing model that will permit numerous organizations to
share their ASAP reports. All together for such a framework to work, the information order plans
should be perfect. Specialists from NASA and University of Texas analysts occupied with a
venture to build up a mapping framework that would permit the accomplice organizations to
utilize their current order frameworks by making an interpretation of the coding plan to empower
significant correlation over the organizations (Chidester, Harper, and Patankar, 2005).
The support group now has the remarkable chance to build up a typical arrangement
framework that would not just guide over the accomplice organizations for support ASAP
reports, additionally interface with the flight ASAP programs and empower cross-space
information mining (Chidester, Harper, and Patankar, 2005).

Quality or Descriptive Clarification Regarding Barriers and Opportunities: Prior
period of this exploration showed that the two fundamental obstructions to actualizing an
effective ASAP program in flying upkeep associations were absence of relational trust and
absence of mindfulness. A data sharing meeting was composed at Saint Louis University to
advise carriers, repair stations, and FAA auditors about ASAP programs and to request their
input in view of their encounters with either attempting to get an ASAP program endorsed or in
running the officially affirmed program. This was an open discourse and its outcomes are
exhibited in the outcomes segments of this report.

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In 1998, after the Aloha Airlines Accident, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have supported a few research
extends in the zone of upkeep security. Every one of the reports coming about because of the
FAA-financed examine activities are accessible through the FAA’s sites. Considering that the
ebb and flow explore proposition looks to decide the achievement/disappointment calculates
Maintenance Aviation Safety Action Programs, the survey of writing will concentrate on the
general status and extent of the Maintenance ASAPs and thinks about relating to self-announcing
of blunders. (Manoj S., 2004).
Status and Scope of Maintenance ASAPs: Early enthusiasm for proactive non-
correctional measures is obvious in the Maintenance Resource Management Roundtables
directed at US Airways (Taylor and Christensen, 1998). A MRM Roundtable, as it was called,
comprised of an agent from the organization, a delegate from the International Association of
Machinists and Aerospace Workers, the FAA Principal Maintenance/Avionics Inspector, and the
mechanic(s) who submitted the mistake. A notice of comprehension (MOU) was marked
between the organization and the FAA that would set up that the expectation of a roundtable
examination was to gather security basic data that would not have approached without immediate
and fair cooperation by the individual who conferred the blunder. The tripartite group (FAA,
organization, and worker’s guild) attempted to avoid the common accuse culture (c.f Marx and
Graeber, 1994) and look for a superior comprehension of the causal components prompting the
mistake. By receiving this approach, the group was fruitful in winning the work constraint’s trust
and genuinely actualizing exhaustive and systemic arrangements. Because of such a program, a
few key issues were settled without bringing about a FAA authorization activity against the
repairman or the organization. Sadly, the roundtable framework was drilled at just a single

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organization and was hard to copy at different organizations in light of the fact that other
individuals (counting FAA assessors and organization supervisors) were not as agreeable to such
a framework. (Taylor and Christensen, 1998).
Mechanics who did not have entry to a roundtable discourse, had two different
alternatives: they could either present an answer to NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System
(ASRS) or utilize the direction gave in Advisory Circular 00-58 (c.f. FAA, 1998) to record a
deliberate self-revelation report. The ASRS report may give restricted security to the individual
correspondent, yet the journalist’s protestation can’t be followed up on by the organization
administration or the FAA on the grounds that the individual reports are de-distinguished;
notwithstanding, NASA will give measurable data to the FAA if a noteworthy number of reports
recognize a similar issue. A self-exposure report recorded as per AC 00-58, then again, will give
extra legitimate insurance and convey the columnist’s worry straightforwardly to the organization
administration and the FAA. This counseling round is intended for a non-specific (not
constrained to support) announcing of administrative infringement by all people and in addition
associations. Practically speaking, associations utilize this convention more every now and again
than people. In this way, this approach is seen by the business as principally an association level
revelation as opposed to individual-level divulgence. The current ASAP program is centered
around the individual making the self-exposure, giving particular legitimate security to the
correspondent and in addition supporting a cooperative connection between the FAA and the
Rationally, there appeared to be an understanding between the FAA and the upkeep
group that the workman who really confers the mistake holds key data that was basic to the
advancement of a genuine extensive arrangement. Such understanding is upheld by broad

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research in the region of mistake causation (Battles, Kaplan, Van der Schaff, and Shea, 1998;
Gambino and Mallon, 1999; Van der Schaff, 1991 referred to by Harper and Helmreich, 2003).
The blundering workman has no motivator (other than moral commitment) to reveal his/her
mistake unless there was a powerful non-reformatory process set up. Hence, the FAA issued
direction materials to create Maintenance ASAP understandings (The pilot group had officially
settled an ASAP program – in 1996). The motivation behind a Maintenance ASAP assention is to
give a non-reformatory discussion to mechanics to approach and uncover their blunders to the
FAA and the air bearer so that at systemic arrangements could be actualized and comparable
blunders, because of comparative causes, could be limited. Since the consultative roundabout
relating to Maintenance ASAPs utilized dialect like the flight area and was hard to apply in the
support space, there was some trouble in securing Maintenance ASAP understandings. As of
December 2003, there are six organizations with effective Maintenance ASAP understandings
(c.f. FAA 2003).
Self-detailing of Errors: It is clear from the exponential ascent in the quantity of ASRS
reports documented by mechanics since 1996 that mechanics will report their blunders (Patankar
and Taylor, 2001). In an examination of mistakes bringing about administrative infringement,
Patankar (2002) found that most of the infringement were in the territory of the prescribed
standard practices and methodology for air ship mechanics (Title 14 of the Code of Federal
Regulation, CFR, § 43.13); while, rest of the infringement have a tendency to relate to upkeep
manuals and support/assessment forms (14CFR § 121.369). Expecting that the ASRS reports
give security against corrective activities by the FAA on account of accidental administrative
infringement, it is sensible to surmise that mechanics are probably going to document an ASRS
report on the off chance that they imagine that they may have damaged an administrative

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necessity or in the event that they feel that their manager is abusing an administrative
prerequisite. Given that the ASAP understanding does not secure people or organizations against
manage infringement, the rousing elements for people and in addition organizations should be
concentrated further.
Detailing Behavior in Maintenance: In a current investigation of revealing practices
among 178 upkeep work force in Australia, Fogarty (2003) detailed that authoritative
components/culture impacted the people’s eagerness to report support blunders. Fogarty finished
up “workers will probably report botches in circumstances where administration is informative,
open, and focused on wellbeing values.” In a comparative review, Harper and Helmreich (2003),
recorded the accompanying as elements that may impact an individual’s eagerness to report their
own particular blunder: (a) required versus deliberate framework, (b) journalist insurance, (c)
capacity to influence change, (d) dread of prosecution and disciplinary activity, (e) mentality
toward the utilization of current announcing frameworks, (f) convenience of the new/proposed
framework, (g) moral duty to address changes, and (i) administration’s support of the
new/proposed revealing framework.
New Case Study: On December 1, 1974, an unfortunate occurrence set off the
arrangement of a framework for security detailing in the aeronautics business. This incident
included a Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 514 which was inbound to Dulles Airport and
needed to go through harsh turbulent skies which drove the flight team to confound the approach
outline. Accordingly, this flying machine plummeted beneath the base safe elevation which is
indicated for that specific zone and crashed into a Virginia peak. In any case, it was uncovered in
the later examinations that before this TWA crash, another United Airlines flight barely gotten
away from a comparative impact when a similar approach and area were utilized (Greenya,

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1977). Both these occurrences began to demonstrate the missing talked in the wheel – wellbeing
announcing. This denoted the start of the idea of wellbeing announcing and its significance in the
flying business. (Reynard, 1986) Within the setting of flight, security can be characterized as
“the state in which the likelihood of damage to people or of property harm is lessened to, and
kept up at or underneath, a satisfactory level through a proceeding with procedure of peril ID and
danger administration” (International Civil Aviation Organization, 2013).
Dr. Davies of Canadian Anesthesiologists’ Society characterized security revealing as the
procedure of contributing the information identified with the episodes which may have a
probability in hurting people or harming the property. (Davies, 2015) keeping in mind the end
goal to comprehend the idea of security revealing, as indicated by him, we should obviously
comprehend its motivation. The reason for wellbeing detailing in the aeronautics business is to
guarantee that an association gets security related data which could then be utilized to oversee
and move forward security inside that association. (Davies, 2015; Cicero, 2008). As indicated by
Mahajan, one of the principal ever examinations of basic occurrences in avionics was finished by
Flanagan as ahead of schedule as the 1940s (Mahajan, 2010). The essential target of his
examination was to enhance wellbeing and execution among the military pilots (Flanagan, 1954).
It is additionally imperative to comprehend that the wellbeing division or association would have
had distinctive wellsprings of information, for example, reports from their staff, observation
advances, and other regulatory databases. Among these sources, reports from the working group
were viewed as the most basic (Davies, 2015). A decent quality report must be displayed such
that it ought to permit a point by point examination of the chain of occasions that prompt the
episode. This report must have the capacity to catch the clinical episodes highlighting the ranges
of data important to comprehend the reason for the occasion (Mahajan, 2010).

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As indicated by NASA, as the reports were gathered, dissecting them precisely to
distinguish the dangers required in the framework and suggesting the fundamental changes inside
or outside the framework into limit the hazard were the essential obligations of an investigator.
Executing the prescribed changes and recognizing the journalist about the gathering of the report
was the following vital stride in the ASRS (NASA, 2015). To enhance input, the associations
could likewise pass on that the restorative changes were realized by the data accomplished from
the reports, which would can possibly build up an uplifting state of mind among the working
staff about detailing (Reed, 2014). Furthermore, if the prepared data could be shared among the
different associations, both government and exclusive, at both the national and universal levels,
the security culture would spread effortlessly and successfully (Bower, 1966). The entirety
thought was about spreading the security related learning with the assistance of handled data
from the announced information. Dispersing wellbeing data in this way ought to have considered
the between conditions between the different hierarchical divisions and frameworks (Bailey,
The security office or association could be effective just when the workers could report
unreservedly and to the best of their insight, staying alert that the revealing framework was non
corrective and safe. Along these lines, a develop wellbeing condition could be built inside the
association (Westrum, 2004). Additionally, when the representatives were prepared to be
proactive in wellbeing inconsistencies, and remunerated by the association when they do as such,
the association could manufacture a significantly more grounded security culture (Westrum,
2004; Davies, 2015).
Advancement of Aviation Safety Action Programs – Aviation Safety Reporting
Framework ASRS is one of the wellbeing apparatuses at first established to recover direct

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information identifying with security occurrences and mischances. It is in truth the world’s
biggest private deliberate flight revealing framework. This administration program can be
alluded to for instance of how interagency co-operation can make an effective, steady and most
proficient specialist for wellbeing upgrades in a steadily changing political situation (NASA,
2014; Billings, 1976). The ASRS was established in 1976 through a Memorandum of Agreement
between the FAA and NASA. It was amid this time the proactive wellbeing or process based
security was picking up significance. In this way, the need was to plan a framework to take out
the dangerous conditions amid the flight operations and furthermore to anticipate avoidable
mischances and episodes in the whole National Aviation System (NAS) (Billings, 1999). Yet,
there were some prompt attentiveness toward the FAA to execute the new framework into the
flight group. In the ASRS, pilots, air activity controllers, flight orderlies, mechanics, ground
work force, and others required in the flight operations submit reports to the ASRS when they
are included in, or watch, an occurrence or circumstance in which aeronautics wellbeing may
have been traded off. Albeit all entries are willful, the FAA understood that it’s administrative
and requirement standards would make the avionics group hesitant to trust and use the new stage
(Reynard, 1986; Eisenbraun, 1981). Keeping in mind the end goal to discover an answer for this
issue, the FAA then moved toward NASA to go about as a much regarded outsider that would
control the program and take care of the interests of both sides. NASA acknowledged the FAA’s
proposition to start this interagency collaboration program in 1976. NASA has been regulating
the program’s subtle elements which has included: directing its items and administrations,
ensuring privacy and guaranteeing that the investigation results were conveyed to the mindful
wellbeing offices (Billings, 1999; Corrie, 1997).

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Along these lines, the then last form of the ASRS had taking after targets when it was
established (Billings, 1976):
 To avoid mishaps and fatalities.
 To be an appropriately organized classified, willful, non-corrective occurrence detailing
 Prohibition from its insurances a few sorts of occurrences, for example, criminal acts and
deliberate perilous acts including legitimately characterized mischances, for example,
commandeering, besieging et cetera.
 Utilization of wellbeing information assembled from episode answering to distinguish
framework vulnerabilities and pick up a superior comprehension of the underlying
drivers of human blunder (reciprocal to the information produced by compulsory, factual,
and observing frameworks)
 To ask, and as often as possible answer, the subject of why. There is no substitute for
knowing why a framework fizzled or why a human failed. The ASRS can likewise be
characterized as a framework that joins number of various air transporters all through the
U.S. flying body. The sole motivation behind this framework was to “gather, examine,
and react to intentionally submitted avionics security reports keeping in mind the end
goal to reduce the probability of aeronautics mishaps” (NASA, 2015).

The information gathered was utilized to recognize the insufficiencies and disparities in
the NAS which could then be alluded to mindful specialists. This important information gathered
by ASRS could further be utilized by the government organization in support to approach

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definition and arranging along these lines enhancing NAS all in all (Connell, 2000). The very
establishments of the human element security could be fortified utilizing information gathered by
ASRS (NASA, 2015). The accompanying segments clarify the imperative elements of ASRS that
aided in its prosperity and conveyed forward into ASAP.
While there is an abundance of writing with respect to money saving advantage
investigation in high hazard businesses, there is little writing that specifically addresses such
examinations in aviation safety systems (Lercel, 2011). Administrative direction recognizes the
suitability of a business administration way to deal with wellbeing (ICAO, 2009), and
additionally demands that such examinations ought to be performed to anticipate the financial
effect of such movement on the organizations entrusted to do it (FAA, 2010). General data on
flight financial aspects and the present condition of cost task into various branches of avionics
organizations is promptly accessible, and it addresses such subjects as carrier measurements
(Vasigh, 2008) costs particular to air ship operation (Wensveen, 2011) and cost bookkeeping
classifications (Vasigh, 2010). A survey of money saving advantage investigations as connected
to other high outcome ventures has delivered understanding into money saving advantage
examination of proactive mischance avoidance programs and their impact on damage rates in the
aeronautics business (Cox, 2011), the cost of wellbeing capital and working cost (CAPEX,
OPEX, individually) in the Process Industry (Lercel, 2011) and occurrence particular costs,
immediate and backhanded (CASA,2009).The Australian government has given meanings of the
terms related with different techniques for money saving advantage examination (Net Present
Value (NPV), Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), Inside Rate of Return (IRR) and Sensitivity
Analysis, and so on.) for its own particular Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA,2009).

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The viewpoint of the administration of wellbeing as an authoritative procedure and of
security administration as a center business work plainly puts extreme security responsibility and
obligation regarding such capacity at the largest amount of flight associations (IATA,
2011)(without preventing the significance from securing singular wellbeing duty regarding the
conveyance of administrations). No place are such responsibility and obligation clearer than in
choices in regards to designation of assets (ICAO, 2009). Wharfs (2009) insinuated the way that
the assets accessible to flight associations are limited and Cox (2011) concurs with him that there
is no flying association with unlimited assets. Assets are basic to lead the center business
elements of an association that straightforwardly and in a roundabout way bolster conveyance of
administrations (Mahadevan, 2010). Asset distribution thusly winds up plainly a standout
amongst the most imperative, if not the most critical, of the hierarchical procedures that senior
administration must record for (Wensveen, 2011).Unless the viewpoint of wellbeing
administration as a center business capacity is clung to by the association, there is the potential
for a harming rivalry in the distribution of assets to direct the center business works that
straightforwardly and in a roundabout way bolster conveyance of administrations (Wald, 2010).
Correspondingly, a FAA-asked for report (FAA 2008) gives investigation of key financial
qualities, regularly called ―critical‖ values, utilized as a part of the direct of advantage cost and
different assessments of ventures. These incorporate even recondite cost things, for example, the
estimation of time lost by holding up explorers, regardless of whether on individual or
organization business (Cox, 2011). The reason for this venture is to give a standpoint into the
potential round-up of SMS costs and the resulting budgetary advantages owing to the interest in
SMS of both material and labor in a university avionics program. It depends on the basic start
that it is a superior to designate significant money related and HR to a university aeronautics

23 | Page
security program like SMS, which will counteract or lessen mischances than to forego SMS and
retain the budgetary effect of mishaps that could have been kept away from. A noteworthy
advantage of successful security mediations is evading costs related with wellbeing occurrences
which generally may have occurred without such activity (FAA, 2010b). SMS usage will inure to
the event of Part 121 carriers and Part 141 university aeronautics as estimation of turned away
losses, air ship harm, and mischance examination costs by distinguishing security issues and
spotting patterns before they result in a close miss, episode, or mishap. (IATA, 2011a). A
genuine test is that, truly, wellbeing experts have battled with deciding an arrival on venture of
such projects that maintain a strategic distance from security related costs (Lercel, 2011).

Another research journal in consideration in which according to Feldman (1999) a
representative has five introductory options when seen with wrongdoing at work: to disregard,
submit, partake, protest or leave (these are definitely not totally unrelated after some time). Dehn
and Callard (2004) recommended four decisions: hush, inward revelation, outside exposure, or
releasing the data secretly. While Skopinker (2004) proposed three choices: attempt to change
the circumstance, rationally detach yourself or leave. The huge number of sentiment shows that
announcing issues and the way to deal with managing safety events could be mind boggling. One
would contend that in a circumstance where safety concerns has obviously been imparted there
ought to just be one choice that of announcing safety problems to the individuals who are in a
position to amend them. One might say that detailing is gainful to association and society all in
all; in any case, it is critical to uncover the other face of revealing that is inspired by “awful”
expectations some of which may prompt awful activities and awful results. Such correspondents
could look for monetary rewards, vindicate or even acclaim. At the point when confronted with a

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detailing occasion it is regularly hard for associations to decide the genuine goals of the
columnist. This may clarify why associations once in a while strike back against such activities.
Without inward support, journalists might be confronted with no choice yet to reveal data
remotely through outer announcing channels, for example, the media where they can be heard
and get the consideration they accept is required. Empowering interior announcing gives
administrators more control to the current issue and makes open doors for associations to manage
their own unfortunate behavior in a compelling and capable way, henceforth blocking the
requirement for outer detailing and its subsequent harm. Conflictingly, numerous workers would
reveal data remotely on the off chance that they have no trust in administration activities or trust
their worries won’t be considered legitimately. Consequently, associations must have the
capacity to give adequate reactions to inward revealing (Micel and Near 1994) and create strong
emotionally supportive networks through which representatives would not delay to report their

In the US flight wellbeing revealing frameworks (ASRS) was acquainted and founded in
1976 with advance detailing of security worries all through the pilot, lodge group, and designing
groups. They were proposed to help avert future choices making issues (Wilford 1986). The
framework permits representatives to finish and mail a shape to the Batelle Memorial
Establishment in Ohio where a group of specialists examine representatives assert and forward
an unknown duplicate to the fitting NASA authorities. In the event that worries happen the day
preceding a planned dispatch of a space carry then these can be conveyed by means of phone to a
dispatch security officer (ASR (US) 1976). In working this framework NASA makes a
supposition that concerns sent by representatives are gotten and managed properly.

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  1. Research Plan
    This project is going to be a quantitative research. According to Saunders et al (2012), an
    appropriate research methodology is essential for any research process to be carried out
    effectively. The project will involve an exploratory case study to explore the operations of
    maintenance and safety programs at DWC Airport that are currently faced with high uncertainty
    levels. In addition, limited information exists concerning the specific maintenance aviation safety
    action programs adopted by various airlines as well as the additional programs that airlines ought
    to adopt, particularly at the DWC Airport (Ross, 2003). The significance of exploratory case
    study research in this project is that, it will play an essential role in the identification of the
    salient features and factors that can potentially affect an establishment of maintenance and
    aviation safety action programs at Dubai World Central Airport, as well as determining the
    boundaries limiting the implementation of maintenance and safety action programs in aviation.
    Easterby-Smith et al (2012) noted that, inductive research method is an approach that allows
    specific observations to be made subsequent to moving them towards wider views, assumptions
    as well as theories. As a result, inductive research is envisaged to result to the development of
    the research hypotheses. However, analytical research in the aviation industry can play a

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significant role towards helping in succinct understanding of present and future trend of
maintenance and safety action programs in the aviation industry through the meaningful insights
obtained. Various strategic and analytical management tools to be used in this study to evaluate
the phenomenon under investigation include: PESTEL, SWOT, Performance Driver analysis,
and Porter’s Five Forces analysis to investigate the strategic imperativeness, the socio-economic
conditions, restrains and drivers in the aviation industry as well as the effectiveness and
efficiency while establishing a maintenance aviation safety action programs at DWC Airport.
With an overall employee population size of 80, 000 among the four airlines from which
only 5,000 are directly concerned with Aviation Safety Action Programs (ASAPs), the latter
becomes our target population size including current administrators of maintenance aviation
safety action programs, airlines executives based at the airport, aviation consultants and
regulatory body executives, safety personnel, as well as representatives of aircraft manufacturers.
Thus, the project will involve participation of a randomly picked sample size of 100 participants
from whom primary data will be collected. Therefore, the research sample will particularly
consist of airlines executives based at the airport, aviation consultants and regulatory body
executives, safety personnel as well as representatives of aircraft manufacturers randomly
selected from the employee lists of the four airlines as the sampling frame. During this study, I
plan to investigate the airlines and airport maintenance and safety action programs as well as
current and future strategies among various airlines that are utilized by DWC Airport towards
heightening safety levels through their respective implementation plans together with the
necessary operational elements including the technical expertise, human resources, capacity and
available resources. This will be achieved by conducting specific statistical analysis using the
information gathered from research participants based on SPSS.

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This means that the qualitative data required for this study will be gathered primarily from
the randomly selected research participants through a survey. As a result, survey will be conducted
through self-administered questionnaires to aide gathering information from airlines and airport
personnel based at Dubai World Central airport with regards to maintenance and safety action
programs currently in use as well as those envisaged to be implemented in future. The responses
obtained from randomly selected research participants questionnaires will then be used as the
primary data for this project. Alternatively, the secondary data will primarily be collected from
online sources and databases (Ghauri and Grønhaug, 2005). For instance, data concerning the
present maintenance and safety and the extent of action programs adopted by the airport as well as
various airlines will be established by reviewing literature from secondary sources.
In order to ensure that the research is appropriately carried out and the findings or results
are credible and reliable, it is important to make sure that valid and unbiased sources of data are
used. As a result, in this project I am planning to use both primary and secondary sources of data.
Therefore, am planning a direct administration of questionnaires [directly as well as via e-mails] to
current administrators of maintenance aviation safety action programs, airlines executives based at
the airport, aviation consultants and regulatory body executives, safety personnel as well as
representatives of aircraft manufacturers in order to collect qualitative and quantitative data for this
study. The questionnaires with a set of questions will be forwarded to the randomly selected
participants followed by structured interviews and email follow-ups to allow collection of valid
and reliable data. Furthermore, I plan to physically visit the case study airport in order to interact
and interview maintenance and safety programs’ administrators or managers through arranged
focus group discussions so that I can get first-hand view of the subject. This will be achieved by

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conducting informal interviews as well as holding discussions with relevant personnel concerning
day-to-day maintenance and safety action programs during my visit.
The primary and secondary research has been carried out by keeping in mind those 5
objectives that has been mentioned in the objectives section. So, surveys conducted at DWC
airport give the results on the objectives that has been created while designing the research
proposal. The survey conducted start from the first objective. Different questions has been created
regarding every objective and responses from the employees working at DWC airport have been
gathered and plotted in terms of pie charts. These pie-charts are then discussed in detail
respectively according to the need of this research project. The main focus if to cater the primary
research in detail instead of doing secondary research which is already available on different sites.
Mentioning here that the primary research of the project was to conduct interviews, prepare
questionnaire and surveys for the employees working at DWC airport and asked them about their
experience regarding the maintenance and aviation safety action program (ASAP) at DWC airport.
So the first object is as follow:
a. To investigate the impacts of establishing maintenance aviation safety action programs at
Dubai World Central Airport
In order to investigate the impacts of establishing maintenance safety action program at Dubai
World Central Airport, I prepared a questionnaire asking the employees regarding their experience.
The questions created are as follow:
 What do they feel regarding the aviation maintenance in Dubai World Central Airport?
 Do maintenance safety action programs really work in Dubai World Central Airport?

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 How do they think that there is a significant need require to apply the maintenance safety
So, these are the 3 questions which have been asked to the employees working at DWC airport.
Approximately these questions have been answered by around 4000 people. The responses
obtained from every question is as follow:

 What do they feel regarding the aviation maintenance in Dubai World Central Airport?
 Around 87% responses were labelled as “good”
 Around 12% responses were labeled as “Satisfactory”
 Around 1% response were labeled as “Worst”



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Figure 1

As one can observe from the above result that majority of the people were answered as good
regarding the aviation maintenance at DWC airport. Keeping in mind that these questions were
asked only by the people working at Dubai World Central (DWC) airport and not by the general

 Do maintenance safety action programs really work in Dubai World Central Airport?
 Around 85% responses were labelled as “good”
 Around 11% responses were labelled as “Satisfactory”
 Around 1% response were labelled as “Worst”
 Around 3% responses were labelled as “Don’t know”


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Figure 2

As one can observe from the above result that majority of the people (around 80%) were
answered as good regarding the working of aviation maintenance safety program at DWC
airport. Keeping in mind that these questions were asked only by the people working at Dubai
World Central (DWC) airport and not by the general public.

 How do they think that there is a significant need require to apply the maintenance safety
 Around 59% responses were labelled as “Yes”
 Around 29% responses were labeled as “No”
 Around 12% response were labeled as “Don’t Know”




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Figure 3

As one can observe from the above result that more than half of the people (around 59%) were
answered as “Yes” regarding the need require to apply the maintenance safety program at DWC
airport. Keeping in mind that these questions were asked only by the people working at Dubai
World Central (DWC) airport and not by the general public.
So, the first objective has successfully accomplished by conducting a survey and asking the
above three mentioned questions to the employees working at Dubai World Central airport. The
findings from these questions were summarized in form of pie charts illustrating the
investigation process.

b. The second objective is to explore the services and functions to be offered by the maintenance
aviation safety action programs at Dubai World Central Airport.
According to Dubai Civil Aviation Authority (DCAA), the services and functions that should be
offered by DWC airport are:
 Flying Security Section
 Mischance Investigation Section
 Perilous Goods Section
So discussing them one by one. Starting from the first one which is:
 Flying Security Section

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The Aviation Security Section is in charge of guaranteeing, through a procedure of
Inspections and Audits, which the security forms at each of Dubai’s Airports Comply with
International and National Standards. The Section surveys and acknowledges Aircraft Operator
Security Programs of new and current administrators that fly into Dubai’s airplane terminals. The
Section likewise audits and acknowledges the Airport Security Program of both Dubai
International and Al Maktoum International air terminals.
 Mischance Investigation Section
The Accident Investigation Section is in charge of guaranteeing that mishaps and episodes,
including harm to air ship or wounds to individuals, are researched and detailed upon with a view
to guaranteeing remedial activities and non-reiterations.
 Perilous Goods Section
The Dangerous Goods Section is in charge of the endorsement procedure of uses via flying
machine administrators to help Dangerous Goods into or through Dubai airplane terminals. The
Section completes normal reviews of Dangerous Goods storerooms and taking care of procedures,
so as to guarantee consistence with Dangerous Goods Regulations.
So these are the three basic services that must be offered by Dubai World Central (DWC)
airport. A questionnaire has been created which consist of the following three questions.
 What do they feel about the flying security section?
 Is mischance investigation section work appropriately?
 What are their feedback regarding perilous goods section?

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This time the questions has been asked to the general public available at DWC airport at
the time of conducting the survey. This is done due to avoiding the biased response that might be
observed if the questions were asked to the employees working at DWC airport. This is because
they want to make the reputation of their airport. So, the real circumstances might be overwhelmed
by these responses. The best strategy has been adopted and implemented in order to cater the real
circumstances regarding the services offered by the maintenance aviation safety program at DWC

 What do they feel about the flying security section?
 Around 80% responses were labelled as “Not satisfactory”
 Around 10% responses were labeled as “Satisfactory”
 Around 5% response were labeled as “Good”
 Around 5% were labelled as “Don’t know”

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Figure 4

As one can observe from the above result that more than half of the people (around 80%) were
answered as “Not satisfactory” regarding the need require to apply the maintenance safety
program at DWC airport. Keeping in mind that these questions were asked only by the people
working at Dubai World Central (DWC) airport and not by the general public.

 Is mischance investigation section work appropriately?
 Around 40% responses were labelled as “Not satisfactory”
 Around 25% responses were labeled as “Satisfactory”
 Around 25% response were labeled as “Worst”
 Around 10% were labelled as “Neutral”

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Figure 5

As one can observe from the above result that more than half of the people (around 40%) were
answered as “Not satisfactory” regarding the need require to apply the maintenance safety
program at DWC airport. Keeping in mind that these questions were asked only by the people
working at Dubai World Central (DWC) airport and not by the general public.

 What are their feedback regarding perilous goods section?
 Around 80% responses were labelled as “Not satisfactory”
 Around 10% responses were labeled as “Satisfactory”
 Around 5% response were labeled as “Good”

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 Around 5% were labelled as “Don’t know”



Figure 6

As one can observe from the above result that more than half of the people (around 80%) were
answered as “Yes” regarding the need require to apply the maintenance safety program at DWC
airport. Keeping in mind that these questions were asked only by the people working at Dubai
World Central (DWC) airport and not by the general public.

c. The next objective is based on the recognition of key factors that will encourage global
airliners to embrace the appropriate fleet maintenance aviation safety action programs at
Dubai World Central Airport. In order to cater and determine those key factors, it is observed

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that the human factor is most important and appropriate factor that must be handled
Since enhancing human execution can help the business lessen the business flying mishap rate, a
great part of the emphasis is on outlining human-plane interfaces and creating methodology for
both flight teams and support experts. Boeing likewise keeps on looking at human execution all
through the plane to enhance ease of use, practicality, unwavering quality, and solace. What’s
more, human elements experts partake in dissecting operational security and creating strategies
and apparatuses to help administrators better oversee human mistake. These duties require the
pros to work intimately with specialists, wellbeing specialists, test and preparing pilots,
mechanics, and lodge teams to legitimately incorporate human variables into the outline of all
Boeing planes. Their territories of obligation incorporate tending to human considers: [1]
 Flight deck outline.
 Outline for viability and in-administration bolster.
 Blunder administration.
 Traveler lodge plan.

In the course of recent decades, more secure and more solid plans have been in charge of
a significant part of the advance made in decreasing the mischance rate and expanding
productivity. Upgrades in motors, frameworks, and structures have all added to this
accomplishment. Also, plan has dependably been perceived as consider avoiding and alleviating
human blunder. When Boeing starts another plan movement, past operational experience,
operational destinations, and logical information characterize human variables outline

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prerequisites. Logical strategies, for example, mockup or test system assessments are utilized to
evaluate how well different outline arrangements meet these prerequisites. Fundamental this
exertion is a human-focused plan theory that has been approved by a large number of flights and
many years of experience. This approach delivers an outline that applies innovation in the most
ideal approach to fulfill approved necessities: [1]

 Client input.
 Proper level of robotization.
 Team cooperation capacity.
 Correspondence, Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management enhancements.
 Client input.
Boeing includes potential clients in characterizing top-level outline necessities for new
plans or real subordinates and in applying human variables standards. A decent illustration is the
abnormal state of aircraft association in planning the 777. From the earliest starting point,
operators flight groups and mechanics worked next to each other with Boeing configuration
groups on all plane frameworks. Eleven of the underlying administrators additionally taken an
interest in devoted flight deck configuration surveys ahead of schedule in the outline procedure.
An autonomous outer group of senior human elements researchers additionally taken an interest
in a parallel arrangement of audits. In the last audit, flight teams and different delegates from
every administrator invested energy in the 777 building pilot test program to assess the plan in an
assortment of typical and non-normal circumstances. These exercises guaranteed that
administrator prerequisites were considered from the earliest starting point, and approved that the
usage incorporated a sound pilot-flight deck interface. [1]

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Suitable level of mechanization
Boeing flight decks are intended to give computerization to help, yet not supplant, the
flight team part in charge of safe operation of the plane. Flight group mistakes regularly happen
when the team does not see an issue and neglects to remedy the blunder so as to keep the
circumstance from weakening. Subsequently, Boeing flight decks fuse natural, simple to-utilize
frameworks. These frameworks bolster instrument shows with visual and material movement
signs to limit potential perplexity about what capacities are robotized. In the fly-by-wire 777,
visual and material movement prompts are given by backdriven controls. These controls fortify
situational mindfulness and help keep the flight group completely mindful of changes jumping
out at the airplane status and flight way amid all periods of mechanized and manual flight. [1]

Team collaboration ability
Flight team correspondence depends on the utilization of sound, visual, and material
strategies. Every one of these strategies must be utilized properly in the correspondence that
happens amid flight. This incorporates crewmember-to-plane, crewmember-to-crewmember, and
plane to-crewmember correspondence. Thusly, the copied flight controls of all Boeing planes are
likewise interconnected. Both control wheels turn together when either is moved so that the
control contributions of each flight group part are quickly evident to the next. The same is valid
for section developments. The material and visual input given by inter linkage is a great deal
quicker than verbal coordination and better empowers pilots to help each other in time-basic
crises. [1]

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Correspondence, Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management interface
Later on, flight groups will be relied upon to accept significantly bigger parts in course
arranging and metering for methodologies. Subjective building has officially accepted a critical
part as the business considers the impacts of new innovation on the abilities, workload, and
coordination with different planes required of both flight groups and air movement controllers.
For instance, collaboration among human elements pros, information connect interchanges
architects, and end clients has brought about noteworthy changes in the plan of the interfaces that
flight groups and controllers have with the PCs that bolster their errands and in the operational
utilization of information connection messages. The progressions improve client perception,
diminish mistake rates, and result in diminished preparing necessities. [1]
Maybe the easiest illustration is the movement from a flying machine correspondence
tending to and detailing framework interface to a future air route framework (FANS) interface
for information connect. Boeing at first concentrated the impacts of uplink message arranges on
pilot perception in 747-400 operational trials. Lessons educated were utilized when planning the
information connect interface in the Pegasus flight administration framework joined into current-
creation 757 and 767 planes. These same changes are being connected retroactively to the 747-

  1. Another case is the 777 interchanges administration interface, which utilizes multifunction
    presentations and cursor controls to disentangle administration of information connected
    correspondences and can be tweaked by administrators. [1]

In the course of recent years, plane upkeep has profited from an expanded concentrate on
how human elements can add to security and operational proficiency. In support, as in flight

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deck outline, Boeing utilizes an assortment of sources to address human elements issues,

 Boss technician cooperation.
 PC based viability configuration apparatuses.
 Fault Information Team

Boss Technician Cooperation
Demonstrated on the part of boss pilot, a central technician was designated to the 777
program and to all ensuing plane projects (717, 737-600/ – 700/ – 800/ – 900, 757-300, and 767-
400 Extended Range [ER]). Likewise with the central pilot, the technician goes about as a
promoter for administrator or repair station partners. The arrangement of a central workman
became out of the acknowledgment that the upkeep group contributes essentially to the
accomplishment of carrier operations in both security and on-time execution. Drawing on the
experience of carrier and generation mechanics, unwavering quality and practicality designers,
and human variables pros, the central technician manages the execution of all support related

PC based viability configuration devices
Starting with the 777 program, Boeing quit fabricating full-scale plane mockups, which
in the past decided if a repairman could achieve a plane part for expulsion and reinstallation.
Presently, utilizing a PC helped three-dimensional intelligent application (CATIA), Boeing
makes this kind of assurance utilizing a human model. Amid outline of the 737-600/ – 700/ – 800/

  • 900, Boeing utilized human demonstrating investigation to establish that the

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electrical/electronic inlet should have been upgraded to enable a technician to get to all wire
groups for the extended arrangement of flying related with the refreshed flight deck idea.
Notwithstanding guaranteeing access and perceivability, human components authorities lead
ergonomic examinations to evaluate the human capacity to perform upkeep methods under
various conditions. For instance, when a workman needs to turn a valve from a clumsy position,
it is imperative that constrain required to turn the valve must be inside the repairman’s capacity
in that stance. For another case, when an upkeep operation must be expert in poor climate around
evening time, secure balance and suitable dealing with powers are important to shield the
technician from a fall or from dropping a bit of gear. [1]

Fault Information Team (FIT).
Human components contemplations in upkeep likewise prompted the arrangement of the
FIT. Amid advancement of the 737-600/ – 700/ – 800/ – 900, Boeing contracted the FIT to
advance compelling introduction of upkeep related data, incorporating worked in test gear
(BITE) and support documentation. The FIT contract has since extended to advance consistency
in upkeep procedures and outline over all frameworks and models. The objective is to empower
mechanics to keep up all Boeing business planes as proficiently and precisely as could be
allowed. This cross-practical group has delegates from upkeep, designing, human variables, and
administrators. [1]

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d. The next objective is to establish the internal and external resources that impact maintenance
Aviation Safety Action Programs (ASAPs) at Dubai World Central Airport. The internal
resources include a few capacities that should be performed in request to bolster the ASAP
program. Contingent upon the size also, extent of the program, the quantity of full time
representatives doled out to this program will change, yet the greater part of the
accompanying capacities should be performed by the ASAP Program Office. (FAA, 2009)
ASAP Program Manager:
In charge of the ASAP program also, essential contact between the ASAP program and
organization administration; in charge of following and taking after up on change proposals.
ASAP Administrative Support: in charge of correspondence among the Program Manager, the
Event Review Advisory group, administration, workers, and other inward furthermore, outside
partners. ASAP Analyst: in charge of breaking down the ASAP reports—information
accumulation, underlying driver investigation, and database support. (FAA, 2009)
Occasion Review Committee (ERC) Members:
Typically, three gatherings should be spoken to—organization (administration),
representatives (worker’s guild or non-union), and controller (FAA). Two individuals from each
gathering are required: three of them will fill in as essential individuals. (FAA, 2009)
Fill in as the substitute individuals.
Notwithstanding the above center individuals (which may or may not be full time
arrangements), the program will depend on support and commitments from a few worker
delegates (for example, Shop Stewards) and line directors over numerous utilitarian units, (for
example, preparing, stores, quality control, and so forth.). Additionally, the FAA agents serving

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on the ERC will likewise depend on support from the Certificate Holding District Office and in
addition from FAA Headquarters. The Maintenance ASAP Information Sharing gathering is
continuously accessible to loan bolster, tutor new individuals, and share best practices. (FAA,

The external resources include the association of the ASAP projects could be
accomplished through any of the accompanying means or a blend of means: (FAA, 2009)

 Have joint data sharing gatherings inside the organization

 Take an interest in joint data sharing gatherings over the business

 Take an interest in the ASIAS program: Contact the Office of Aviation Safety

How would we approach interfacing the ASAP programs?
 Have one program office that handles all ASAP programs
 Have a formal structure that requires certain level of data sharing and coordinated effort
among numerous program supervisors
 Empower casual data sharing among program administrators (FAA, 2009)

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Conclusion and Recommendations
The ASAP program at DWC airport need to be restructured and should also add the
following points in order to make its impact much more stronger than before. The points are:

 Safety Policy
 Safety Risk Management
 Safety Assurance
 Safety Promotion
So starting from the first one which is:
Safety Policy
Under the expansive umbrella of the SMS program, a flying association may bolster the
Fifth Generation Maintenance Human Factors program, the Maintenance ASAP program, and
the Safety Culture Assessment program. Every one of these projects have common advantages
and also general advantages to the individual workers, the association, what’s more, the flying
open. The flying association could make a pledge to the representatives over the organization
that the Fifth Generation Maintenance Human Factors program is an authoritative need: suitable
assets will be given to actualize furthermore, bolster the program; change activities related with
the ASAP program will be precisely considered utilizing the Safety Risk Management approach
and proper input will be given to all reports; hierarchical security culture will be surveyed
consistently and particular change endeavors will be executed; and worker and administration
assessment and reward frameworks will join satisfactory support for SMS. (FAA, 2009)

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 Safety Risk Management
The SRM procedure gives a target methods for evaluating dangers. This procedure could
be fused in the ERC consultations so that all suggestions originating from the ASAP ERC
consider the hazard perspectives—seriousness and probability—before making their proposals.
Thusly, if the ASAP ERC’s suggestion for a specific change activity is not acknowledged by the
organization administration, a comparing SRM method of reasoning could be given by the
administration. (FAA, 2009)
 Safety Assurance
Tracking the progressions proficient as an immediate consequence of the ASAP program
would be the best approach to meet this SMS prerequisite. Such activities ought to archive the
confirmation of hierarchical change and accentuation on systemic arrangements and the move
towards a Culture. (FAA, 2009)
 Safety Promotion
The estimation and change of security culture is implanted in this SMS prerequisite in
two spots. To start with, it is a general subject over the SMS program; second, it is particularly
called out in the Safety Promotion mainstay of the SMS program. Standard association wide
studies to gauge wellbeing society, improvement of proper mediations to enhance the wellbeing
society, and organization of follow-up security culture overviews to decide the impacts of the
first intercessions is a decent approach to meet this necessity. (FAA, 2009)

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The Safety Risk Management approach permits the actors and the governing body to
study the risks of not actualizing a specific security, mediation—the monetary value of the
mediation could be appraised against the cost of the occasion (the probability of an effect of the
social function and the sincerity of the affair). Additionally, some other intercession procedures
could be developed. Despite the particular intercession systems utilized, the exchange about the
dangers included is profitable in moving forward the security culture of the connection. (FAA,
At the stage when an ASAP program brings about undertaking level transforms, it affects
only that undertaking and thus the advantages associated to that change are thin in extension. In
any event, when the progressions affect a hierarchical unit or the whole association, or indeed,
even the business, the advantages duplicate. Afterward, the degree of profitability at the
authoritative or national story is probably getting to be generously higher than the arrival on
venture at the errand level. (FAA, 2009)
A. Organizational Cultural Safety-
Culture can be characterized as the earth in which things develop. Fundamentally, a
culture exists in each association, called the authoritative culture of that association. The qualities,
convictions, rehearses, approaches, standards, and so on all by and large shape or characterize that
culture. Additionally, this culture has framed over various years and every one of the general
population in that association have added to that culture. From a security point of view, Safety

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Culture speaks to natural and psycho-social components that impact mentalities also, practices,
which affect hazard and execution in high-outcome frameworks. (FAA, 2009) Natural viewpoints
incorporate the great building structures, workplace, and geographic area, and additionally
authoritative structures, approaches, procedures, and practices that shape singular practices after
some time. The psycho-social variables are the blend of mental and social elements that impact the
general population’s states of mind toward wellbeing. For instance, mental things incorporate
anxiety, exhaustion, propensities to take dangers, assurance, inspiration, and so on; while social
components incorporate things, for example, social acknowledgment of decisiveness, affirmation
of stress and exhaustion, the need to look after gathering amicability, and so forth. (FAA, 2009)
Most security culture examines concentrate on the psycho-social angles; in any case, most
obstructions are either natural or authoritative. Normal obstructions incorporate authoritative
structures, strategies, methods, rehearses, worker assessment criteria, bookkeeping strategies, past
encounters of the representatives, and so on. So as to move the security culture in the coveted
bearing, there must be a top-down responsibility regarding contribute assets, separate the
obstructions, and add motivating forces to remunerate the coveted individual and in addition group
execution. Fundamentally, keeping in mind the end goal to change culture, individuals must
change. Keeping in mind the end goal to change individuals, the inspirations must be lined up with
the hierarchical objectives and contrary inspirations must be evacuated. (FAA, 2009)
Representative and administration assessment frameworks assume a basic part in changing
an association’s way of life. On the off chance that the assessment frameworks don’t change, the
systems to impact social change are probably going to be deadened. In the event that old

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reformatory practices and strategies stay set up, they will invalidate the new activities. (FAA,
Keeping in mind the end goal to change an association’s security culture, composed
endeavors are required from an assortment of authoritative units, for example, the accompanying:
Human Resources, Legal Counsel, Business and Finance, Operational Units, what’s more,
Bargaining Units. (FAA, 2009)
B. International Disregard for Safety-
It should be inspected from two viewpoints. The primary viewpoint is that of a flat out
case. For this situation, the accentuation is on “aim.” If a repairman submits a demonstration of
vandalism or annihilation that is obviously expected to hurt the security of flight, the outright case
might be substantiated. Then again, in the event that it is not such a straightforward case, the
standards in the association or even at a specific office should be considered. For instance, in the
event that it is a typical practice at an office to take after administrator’s requests notwithstanding
when they may not be in consistence with the administrative necessities or might be infringing
upon security measures, the workman’s activity may not be judged as a deliberate negligence for
wellbeing. (FAA, 2009)
At the point when furnished with test cases for audit by Event Review Committees from
various associations, there was some inconstancy in what is viewed as a deliberate negligence for
wellbeing. This variety in judgment was principally subject to the hierarchical standards in their
particular associations. It was likewise noted in ensuing meetings that the pattern behavioral
desires from mechanics and directors change after some time. For instance, it might not have been
bizarre for a workman to just conform to an administrator’s order regardless of the possibility that

51 | Page
the repairman realized that consistence with the mandate may constrain him to disregard
government controls or organization approach. Be that as it may, in the wake of documenting an
ASAP report, this issue ought to have been tended to at a systemic level and both mechanics and
also directors ought to have been prepared on the most proficient method to deal with comparative
circumstances later on. On the off chance that the old standards proceed and the mechanics keep
on abuse controls under administration mandates as well as administration proceeds to direct
mechanics to abuse controls or place them in circumstances where the mechanics don’t have
whatever other practical choices, the conduct of both sides may be judged as purposeful
carelessness for security. (FAA, 2009)
There are numerous different issues that fall in the hazy area and warrant a group level
choice on regardless of whether the activity constitutes deliberate dismissal for wellbeing. Despite
the situations, the judgment in regards to deliberate nonchalance for security ought to lay on the
separate Event Review Committee. Note––as an aftereffect of the DOT IG report, a particular
meaning of deliberate dismissal is a work in progress by the FAA. (FAA, 2009)

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C. Relationship between the Voluntary Disclosure Reporting Program (VDRP) and the
A deliberate revelation program is intended for a FAA Air Agency Certificate holding
association, for example, a carrier or a repair station to deliberately unveil any unintended
infringement of Federal Aviation Regulations. This program takes into account the association to
work with the FAA in a synergistic way to remedy systemic issues. Organization infringement
acknowledged by the FAA are shut with authoritative activity in lieu of lawful requirement
On account of support activities that might be included in a deliberate divulgence, it is not
abnormal for an intentional exposure to trigger ASAP reports from mechanics. In such an
occasion, it is fitting for the association to advise the proper mechanics or assessors and urge them
to present an ASAP report. Such reports are considered non-sole source to the FAA on the grounds
that the data about the conceivable and unintentional administrative infringement was given to the
FAA by means of the Voluntary Divulgence Reporting Program (VDRP). It is similarly feasible
for an ASAP answer to trigger a willful divulgence by the organization. In the event that the first
Well-spring of data on an organization infringement submitted under the VDRP is a sole source

53 | Page
ASAP report, the ASAP report stays sole source to the FAA. An ASAP program gives assurance
to the representative while the Voluntary Revelation Program gives assurance to the business.
Along these lines, if the organization records an intentional divulgence that distinguishes an
infringement by a technician, the repairman may get a Letter of Investigation from the FAA.
Notwithstanding, in the event that the technician documents an ASAP report inside the
recommended time span of the appropriate ASAP Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the
infringement will be taken care of as per the ASAP MOU. In the event that an ASAP program is
most certainly not accessible to the technician, it is prudent to document a report with the Aviation
Security Reporting System (ASRS Report). ASRS Reports are private. Many ASAP programs
have chosen to naturally give duplicates of the ASAP reports to ASRS. Such a practice guarantees
commitment to the national database of support mistakes and furthermore shields the
correspondent from the burden of lawful authorization sanctions for a conceivable administrative
infringement, regardless of the possibility that the technician’s ASAP report is prohibited from the
ASAP. The ASRS program does not ensure against FAA requirement activity where mishaps or
criminal offenses are included.

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List of References

Ayeni, P., Baines, T.S., Lightfoot, H., & Ball, P. (2011). State-of-the-art of ‘Lean’ in the aviation
maintenance, repairs, and overhaul industry. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, p.0954405411407122.
Ait-Kadi, D., Duffuaa, S.O., Knezevic, J., & Raouf, A. (2009). Handbook of maintenance
management and engineering. London: Springer.
Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., & Jackson, P.R. (2012). Management research. Thousand Oaks,
NJ: Sage.
Choules, C. (2013). Maintenance and repair organization Exposition.
Jankowicz, A D. (2004). Business Research Projects, (4 th Ed.). New York, NY: Thomson
Mr. Michael Doeron, (2014). Aviation Risk Management – Accountabilities, Challenges and Tools

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