Dissertation: Maintenance and Repair Organisation at Dubai World Central Airport
2.1 Purpose Statement 3
2.2 Role of the researcher 3
2.3 Participants 7
2.4 Research Method 9
2.5 Research design 12
2.6 Population and Sampling 15
2.7 Ethical research 17
2.8 Data collection instruments 19
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2.9 Data collection technique 20
- 10 Data organization techniques 23
2.11 Data analysis 23
2.12 Reliability and validity 25
2.13 Transition and summary 26
Appendix A 31
Appendix 2 32
Case Study on Strategies Human Resource Managers can use to Improve Company’s
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2.1 Purpose Statement
The purpose of this qualitative single case study is to explore strategies that HR leaders in
medium-sized organizations in Bangkok, Thailand can use to increase employee productivity.
The specific population for the study includes 15 HR professionals in CP All Public Company
Limited in Bangkok, Thailand who have successfully implemented human resource management
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(HRM) strategies to increase employee productivity in their organization. HR professionals who
adopt SHRM are able to manage the remuneration of employees by ensuring workers are paid
wages of 300 Baht or more, which motivates them to improve their work productivity. The
potential impact for social change is lower unemployment rate. When HR professionals in mid-
sized organizations in Thailand adopt appropriate HR strategies, employees would likely be
more satisfied with their jobs. Consequently, the satisfied employees may work for the
organization for a longer period, lowering employee turnover rates in these organizations.
Reduced turnover leads to reduced unemployment rates in the country, which is good for the
society in general. This is important considering that a high rate of unemployment may have
negative effects to the society.
2.2 Role of the researcher
According to Simon (2012), in qualitative research, the researcher is identified as the tool
of data collection. It means that he acts as the intermediary for collected data. Compared to
quantitative research where the researcher gathers data by checking records, use of
questionnaires, or machinery, the researcher is the mediator and as such, he is required to be
familiar with the human instruments. It is crucial for the researcher to establish personal
characteristics such as biasness, expectations, research assumptions, and skills that qualify him to
carry out the research. Additionally, a personal journal should be carried where personal
reflection and insights concerning the research are written down. The researchers should also
determine if their role is emic or etic. An etic role is such the researcher participates fully in the
process whereas in an epic role the researcher is mostly an objective observer. Simon (2012)
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further noted that an excellent qualitative researcher asks questions, listens to the respondent,
thinks, and asks more investigative questions to get in-depth aspects of the research question.
Moreover, the researcher applies ideas and theories from multiple subjects to analyze problem.
In this study, the research will seek answers to the research problem namely: what
strategies can human resource managers use to improve company’s profitability? The answers
will be sought through the use of semi-structured interviews. The researcher will design the
interviews, conduct the interviews, transcribe, analyze, and report the findings of the research
Relationship with participants, area, topic
The researcher is quite familiar with the topic after conducting comprehensive research of the
topic by reading books and related articles. However, the researcher is not familiar with the area
of the participants.
There are numerous ethical codes, policies, and principles that researchers are mandated
to apply by researchers through the constructivist and positivist models (May and Janne 2013).
Some of the ethical principles applicable in this research are integrity, confidentiality, honesty,
objectivity, and non-discrimination by provision of consent forms. It is paramount for
researchers to learn different approaches of assessing, interpreting, and application of various
research policies and make ethical judgments depending on the situation or the interviewee
(Rensik 2015). To deal with ethical issues, researchers should understand the research problem;
determine the information that is essential for the research, alternatives, and ethical codes
applicable in various research situations. The reasons for upholding ethics when conducting
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research are; ethics support the purpose of the research including getting truthful information and
avoiding errors, and; research involves the integration of different individuals and institutions
and as such, ethics promote collaboration by ensuring there is fairness and mutual respect.
Moreover, ethics ensure the researcher is accountable to the public, increase support for the
research, and support moral and social values.
Belmort Report provides ethical protocols that should be applied by researchers such as justice,
respect for individuals, and a sense of welfare or responsibility to research participants. While
carrying out this research, the researcher will see to it that participant’s confidentiality and
independence is upheld, and they will be free to make decisions. Moreover, beneficence will be
maintained by ensuring that no harm is done to the participants, and benefits will be derived by
minimizing any instance of acting against their wishes. By doing so, the researcher conforms to
Belmort Report protocol (Department of Health and Human Services 2016).
Qualitative studies: Avoiding biasness
The research will depend on information offered by participants through the interviews.
Bias will therefore be a subject of concern since it’s possible for participants or the researcher to
consciously or unconsciously tilt the information they give (Allen 2014). Though it’s important
to consider and respect the opinions and views of people towards the research questions, it is
important to note that some may have personal motivations to change their views. In qualitative
research, bias may be in form of, moderator biasness such that the researcher affects the quality
of offered information through facial expressions, body language, or dress code; sample biasness
where the respondents do not represent the population under study, and thirdly, biased questions
that direct the respondents on how to answer the questions. These types of biasness can be
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avoided by clarifying respondent’s answers, providing neutral questions, and interviewing
respondents that represent the population under study (Allen 2014). The research will also
mitigate biasness by not leading the participants to the research answers, following-up the
answers by asking similar questions, having prior information about the characteristics of the
population under research, and back up the answers with other qualitative researchers and
records similar to the study.
Rationale for an interview protocol
The interview protocol will comprise the training aspects of the interview such as how
the respondents will be chosen, note taking, and debriefing, and objectives of the study. A
consent form will be signed by each respondent to assure confidentiality and truthfulness of the
offered information, and an interview script will detail the procedure of asking the questions.
Moreover, the protocol identifies the amount of time required in each interview and for this
study; the limit will be 25-30 minutes. For effectiveness of the interview process, an interview
protocol should be used. Semi-structured interviews that outline the themes to be covered during
the research will be used. An interview guide will not specify exact questions that will be asked
so as to allow the respondents enough time to give long and comprehensive answers. The
interviews will either be recorded or taken on video depending on individual requirements of
individual respondents. The interviews will be supplemented through the use of notes to avoid
missing out critical aspects of the problem under study.
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In each research protocol, there are guidelines depicting who can or cannot participate in
answering the research question. The guidelines are referred to eligibility criteria and contain the
features that should be by all the respondents. The characteristics to be used in this study include
age, gender, experience, and position. The respondents should possess particular set of
characteristics to be eligible for the interview. By selecting participants with similar features, the
outcome of the research is usually regarding what is under research without undue influence
from other related or unrelated factors (Robert, Stacy, and Katherine 2014). As such, eligibility
criteria are important since it assists researchers to obtain accurate and reliable data. Moreover,
the criterion is helpful in determining individuals that may be adversely affected by the research
and thus eliminating them from the interview.
For this particular research, the eligible participants will be more than 18 years, are currently
employed at CPA All Public Company in Bangkok, and must have served under the capacity of
human resources managers for more than one year. The respondents should have accredited
skills and knowledge in strategic human resources management and should also be familiar with
the topic under study. The total number of respondents will be 15 and the interviews will be
conducted through the use of semi-structured qualitative interviews.
One of the most daunting tasks for any researchers applying qualitative methodology is
accessibility to the research respondents. Accessibility includes getting access to the organization
under study and making sure that the respondents involved during the interviews are informative
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(Shenton and Hayten 2014). Moreover, the participants must befit the eligibility criteria. Other
tasks involve informing the participants about the research problem and expectations of the
researcher in a timely manner, getting consent from the researchers and replying to their
concerns, getting a suitable sample for the research topic, and keeping in touch with the
respondents until the research is successfully completed. The researcher will therefore have to
use strategies to ensure timely accessibility to the participants, and assurance of cooperation to
avoid limitations that would lead to inappropriate covering of the scope of the study. In this
research, the strategies to be applied are contacting the firm’s authorities to get an endorsement
so as to gain entry into the organization and getting direct contact with the gatekeeper and ensure
that honest information is provided to gain trust. Additionally, the researcher will demonstrate
his capability and experience to enable getting entrance into the firm’s professional arena, and
maintaining constant communication with the managers and being receptive to their opinions and
suggestions on how to conduct the interviews.
Strategies for maintaining working relationship with the participants
It is of great importance for the researcher to maintain a working relationship with the
participants if the research is to be of high quality. For a start, the researcher should identify
participants that are eligible to the research question under study. When the respondents fit the
eligibility criteria, it is possible to come up with research questions are familiar. Cooperation
from participants can be harnessed by come up with a policy that assures of a prolonged
relationship, try to blend with the participants and the organization’s values, provide incentives
in situations that it’s applicable, and openly acknowledge the importance of the participant’s
opinions (Shenton and Haytor 2014). Approval of the research from the participants is crucial
since it implies they trust the researcher. Officially, the researcher will offer consent forms to
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assure the respondents that the information they provide will be confidential and anonymous. By
signing the consent forms, the researcher will confirm that they are not under pressure and they
are willing to participate. Moreover, the researcher will maintain constant communication with
the respondents before and during the research process, and even after the research for those
interested in the findings. Communication will ensure that there is no conflict in time and place
of conducting the interview and will ensure that the participants are comfortable with the
conditions. Integrity and trust are core elements as they lead to provision of credible and honest
answers from the respondents.
2.4 Research Method
This research will be conducted through the application of qualitative research method.
According to FHI (2011), qualitative research is a scientific investigative procedure that tries to
answer a specific question (strategies that HRM can use to improve firm’s productivity), apply
definite pre-determined procedures to answer the question, gather evidence, provide findings that
were not present before, and offer findings that can be applied beyond the study. Moreover,
qualitative research aims at comprehending on a particular research problem based on the
perception of the people involved. For instance, in this study, by conducting interviews with the
human resources managers of CP All Public Limited in Bangkok, the research problem will be
understood through the lens of the firm’s managers. Qualitative research is also applicable when
researchers want to obtain information that is culturally oriented so as to understand the values,
views, and behavior of the involved people. The managers understand the background of the
organization and it’s through their opinions about the value of the firm and the behaviors of
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employees and other stakeholders that they can adequately explain how the firm can improve its
The advantage of qualitative research is that it’s able to offer composite textual
explanations of how individuals experiences towards a certain research problem. The technique
gives a clue about the human side of an issue by providing opinions, views, and connections
between people. Another pro is its ability to establish intangible elements including social,
economic, ethnicity, and cultural status whose responsibility in the research may not be directly
available. Economic status and cultural background are some of the issues that affect
productivity and the managers will be able to express their views concerning the strategies they
deem necessary to improve productivity. These characteristics differentiate qualitative research
from other scientific methods. Generally, the most applicable qualitative research methods are
interviews, focus groups, and observations. The three methods are appropriate for specific
studies. Observations are usually used when studying naturally occurring situations, interviews
are appropriate when personal views and perceptions regarding the research topic are concerned,
and focus groups apply when multiple issues about a certain population are being analyzed (FHI
In contrast, quantitative techniques are objective and emphatic and collect statistical or
mathematical data through the use of questionnaires, polls, and surveys, or the researcher
manipulates existing data through computational systems such as SPSS with the purpose of
getting explanations regarding a certain phenomena. Quantitative research is therefore conducted
to access the relationship between variables in a population. Some of the differences between
qualitative and quantitative research are: qualitative research tends to explore situations while
quantitative research tends to confirm the hypothesis of a phenomenon, analytical goals in
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qualitative research are to give description on variations while quantitative quantifies variations;
qualitative is open-ended, flexible, and uses textual format to obtain data. On the other hand,
quantitative technique is close-ended, its design is constant from the beginning to the end of the
research, and data is obtained numerically (Yin 2014).
The major distinction that makes qualitative methods the most suitable for this study is
flexibility. Quantitative techniques are generally inflexible in nature. For instance, when using
questionnaires or surveys in conducting research, the researcher asks same questions to
respondents and in the same manner (Blockbank, Ulrich, and Beatty 2013). Response types that
the respondents have the choice of choosing from are fixed. The methods are advantageous since
it facilitates easier comparison across the respondents and the study areas. Nonetheless, the
researcher would be required to have definite comprehension of the questions that need to be
asked to allow the respondents to give a variety of fixed responses. For example, the researcher
in this study would have to write down specific questions that each HR manager will answer by
choosing an option from the provided list.
Qualitative methods are usually flexible since they enable the researcher to interact with the
participant such that questions are open-ended making it possible to ask different questions to the
participants (Gherardi and Perrota 2014). Open-ended questions allow respondents to answer in
their own words. Moreover, the relationship between the researcher and the respondent is less
official in qualitative research compared to quantitative methodology. Respondents can therefore
give detailed and elaborative responses. As such, researchers respond to the answers immediately
and are able to tailor the next questions depending on the information offered by the participants.
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However, the flexibility of the methods used in qualitative and quantitative studies varies
implying that flexibility does not measure the quality and comprehensiveness of a research
method. In this case, flexibility equates the type of comprehension of the research problem being
studied. The research seeks to understand the strategies that human resources managers can use
to improve productivity in the firm. As such, applying qualitative method in form of
questionnaires is the most flexible method since it allows the researchers to interact with
participants and access their views regarding the topic based on their environment (Blau et al.
2013). Strategies for profit improvement may be generalized but firms have different
organizational and cultural backgrounds and as such, interviewing the firm’s personnel makes it
possible to understand the problem and get conclusive answers based on their opinions and the
position of the firm.
2.5 Research design
The study will apply case study in form of semi-structured interviews. The strength of
case study is the ability to comprehend a complex problem or situation by adding strength and
experience to aspects of the topic that the researcher is already familiar with. Case studies tend to
emphasize attainment of comprehensive contextual assessment of limited problems and
situations, plus their relationships. Case studies have been widely used by researchers across a
range of disciplines. Case study are used to research on modern real life circumstances and offer
a guideline for applying the opinions derived from the research. Scholar Yin (2014) defined case
study method as an “empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within it’s
real life context when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident;
and in which multiple sources of evidence are applied (p. 23).
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Those opposed to case studies argue that studying a small sample does not offer grounds for
determining credibility and generalization of the findings. Additionally, other critics accentuate
that the intense exposure of the researcher to the participant or the object under study creates
grounds for biasness (Gerardi and Perrota 2014).
Single case study design is the most suitable for the research since it’s the most cost effective yet
provides the opportunity of getting detailed data for the research problem. More so, the study
will be conducted on a single company hence it will not require inclusion of diverse research
objects and participants. By focusing on a single firm, the researcher will be able to relate with
the organizational environment and views of the participants in a comprehensive manner leading
to substantive findings. +
Case study over other research designs
Experimental design first tests, treats, and then programs an opinion to establish whether there is
a difference. The design incorporates a control and a test group with the participants being
randomly selected for two groups. One group is tested while the other one is not treated and the
difference is the result of the research. The method is mostly suitable for clinical experiments,
involves diverse sample group and it’s costly (Bryman 2012; Yin 2014). As such, it’s not
suitable for this research since only one firm is needed for the study.
Phenomenology is suitable when studying human experiences and it enables the researcher to
understand the reason for a certain experiences (Bryman 2012). As such, it’s not applicable for
the research since it’s aimed at identifying things that can be done to improve profitability in an
organization not why they are not profitable.
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Correlational research establishes the relationship between events or variables by conduction a
correlational analysis (Walker 2012). The researcher intends to find out the degree in which
things are related. The design was not suited for this particular research since its objective not to
establish relationships but to answer the questions ‘what and how’.
Single case study is the most appropriate since it enables the researcher to identify a specific
population for study, get detailed feedback from the participants, and identify with the
respondents environment for better comprehension of the research topic.
According to Walker (2012) saturation is an element applied to facilitate collection of
quality and adequate data for the success of the study. Though most applicable in grounded
designs, saturation is ensured by offering evidence of the research claims through the use of
transcripts and video recordings. Moreover, the researcher will ensure that all viable questions
are asked during the interviews and allow the respondents to exhaust their opinions concerning
specific questions. Each participant will have adequate time for the interview, and all managers
in line with strategic human resources management will be included so that no information
2.6 Population and Sampling
The sample size will comprise 15 employees from the firm under study; CP All Public
Company in Bangkok. The participants will represent the total population of human resource
managers in public institutions and other related firms. The employees will be required to be
positioned as human resource managers and I’ve knowledge about strategic human resource
management (SHRM). The research will be conducted through semi-structured interviews to
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give room for more exploratory opinions. According to Becker and Huselid (2014), human
resources managers are in a strategic position within an organization to formulate approaches
and programs that can improve employee’s productivity and motivation. By understanding
SHRM, it’s possible for the managers to devise strategies that can improve productivity in the
firm. As such, it is crucial for the participants to be aware of SHRM and be employed in the firm
under study so that the research topic can be exhaustively covered.
Though valid data is essential to have credible research findings, it’s not possible to collect data
from every member of the community under study. As such, a given sample is selected in
qualitative research to represent the whole population (FHI 2012). The objectives of the research
and the features of individuals under study act as determinants of eligibility criteria. Researchers
have identified three common methods that are used to sample population which include quota
sampling, purposive, and snowball sampling (May 2011). In this research, the sampling method
that will be used is purposive sampling.
Purposive sampling assembles respondents into pre-determined criteria that are relevant
to the research topic (Yin 2014). The researcher will therefore choose 15 strategic human
resources managers in CP All Company Limited. The sample size that is chosen will be fixed
before carrying out the research. The researcher will use 15 respondents so as to save on time
and cost, and since they are in a position to fulfil the objective of the research. Moreover, the
sampling method was used since data review and assessment will be done together with data
collection. Unlike snowball sampling in which the researcher gets referred to participants by
people he gets in contact with, purposive sampling enables the researcher to preselect
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participants before commencing the research thus there is surety of the people who are
participating in the research and when. On the other hand, though a part of purposive sampling,
quota sampling subgroups the population sample into distinct characteristics. Since the research
is aimed at identifying the strategies that human resources managers can apply to increase a
firm’s productivity, the sample does not have to be sub-grouped into male or female categories
since human resources managers represent the entire profession irrespective of their gender,
culture, or age.
Selection of participants
For selection of respondents, only human resource managers from a particular firm will
be chosen. The managers must have served in their respective posts for more than a year and be
knowledgeable on the aspects of strategic human resource management. Moreover, the
respondents must be above 18 years, and consciously willing to participate in the interview
process. CP All is a big company with different departments and branches, and as such, the
researcher will ensure that each respondent is comfortable during the interview by selecting a
place that is devoid of distraction.
Theoretically, saturation of data is arrived at when the researcher gets to a point such that
collection of more data does not yield different results (FHI 2012). The researcher will therefore
establish the point where similar responses and opinions are given for particular questions since
it implies saturation point has been reached. By getting to saturation point, it means that the
collected data is valid and the collected sample size was a correct representative of the research
topic. Since 15 human resource manager professionals will already have been contacted prior the
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study, the researcher will have to interview all of them for conclusive data collection. When all
the participants give similar opinions to most of the research questions, the researcher will be
confident of the analysis since saturation would have been reached.
2.7 Ethical research
This section provides a summary of ethical issues related to qualitative research. Ethics in
research focuses on the relationship between the researcher and the participants, and professional
ethics are other relevant issues including plagiarism, data fabrication, intellectual property, and
mentor associations. The welfare of the participants should be of great priority to the researcher.
The Belmort Report articulates the three crucial ethical principles of qualitative research to be
respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.
Informed consent process
The researcher aims to maintain respondent’s confidentiality by provision of an informed
consent form. According to Robert et al. (2014), informed consent is a method used to ensure
that that the respondents understand the notion of being participants in a research and can
consciously make the decision of whether to participate or not. Respect for persons during
research is assured through use of informed consent. The informed consent form has to go
through the ethics committee for approval, is legally bidding, and has to be signed by the
participant, researcher, and possible a witness. Informed consent doesn’t necessarily have to be
obtained by signing a form, but the researcher and the participant must mutually agree on the
terms and conditions of the research to avoid conflict. As such, it is critical for the researcher to
obtain informed consent from the involved stakeholders before commencing research to facilitate
acquisition of credible data (Yin 2012). Informed consent may be written or oral and will be
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obtained by first explaining to the participants the nature of the research and getting approval
from the gatekeepers.
Participants will have the freedom of withdrawing from the research without giving any
explanations. The researcher will inform the participants their rights during the process including
the ability to refrain from participating at any stage of the process with respect to the objectives
of the research or any reason they deem reasonable. The terms of the research and the questions
will be explained in simple language for better comprehension and to avoid misinterpretation.
To compensate and appreciate the respondents for taking part in the research, incentives
will be offered. Time is crucial for human resource managers and by taking part in the research,
they forgo some of their duties and it’s important for the researcher to compensate. The
incentives may be inform of gift cards or cash incentives depending on the requirement of the
participant and cost of participating. However, incentives will be optional since some
participants find it offensive to be ‘paid’ for participating.
Measures to assure ethical protection of participants
Since qualitative research is conversational, the researcher will keep boundaries between what
the participants say and what they are told. Usually, after receiving a lot of information from
respondents, it is human to try and give as much. However, the researcher will protect the
participant’s information by not sharing it with anyone and it will be maintained in a safe place
for approximately five years as a way of protecting the confidentiality of participants.
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Approval from IRB
The rights of individuals involved in qualitative research are protected by the Institutional
Review Board. The committee of ethical experts reviews, monitors, and approves research
studies that incorporate people and as such, the researcher will conduct the research under the
guidance of the IRB policies. The consent to proceed with the semi-structured interviews will be
obtained from the university and the researcher will be in a position to analyze and publish
research findings. The names of the participants will not be included in the final report to
safeguard their privacy.
2.8 Data collection instruments
This section describes the process of collecting data during the research process.
Interviews and use of research materials and books will be used to get conclusive results.
Data collection instruments
As stated in Appendix (B), data will be collected through the use of semi-structured
interviews. The researcher will formulate a set of questions that will be uniformly asked to each
of the respondents. The questions will be arranged in a list starting with the most important and
general questions. The list of questions will serve as the interview guide (Raheim 2016). The
participants will be allowed to answer the questions exhaustively after which the researcher goes
to the next question. However, since the guide is semi-structured, depending on how the
participants answer the questions, the researcher may ask questions that may not necessarily be
in the guide or skip others. The participant will highly determine how the questions flow but
uniformity will be observed to ease the data analysis process. The questions will however not be
specific so that the respondents give views and opinions depending on how they understand the
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questions. In cases where the respondent gives irrelevant answers, the interviewer will just tick
A valid research is that which utilizes all the necessary methods and procedures that
ensure the study is conducted in a quality and exploratory manner. According to Borg (2013)
validity is defined as that which is credible, true, and reliable. Validity of research is determined
by assessing whether the same results can be found if another researcher carried out the study in
a similar process. Validity of the research will be made possible by carrying out test interviews.
As such, the researcher will conduct an interview with a colleague or one of the participants and
use all the tools that are supposed to be applied such as tape recorders and consent forms within
the stipulated time frame. Through the test interview, the researcher will assess the reliability of
the pre-set procedures to improve during the actual research. After the research, recordings will
be transcribed and reviewed during the analysis process.
2.9 Data collection technique
For this research, semi-structured interviews will be used such the questions will be a mix
of open-ended and closed-ended. The interview guide will direct the interviewer throughout the
interview process so that all the participants are given equal response time, and ability to answer
questions in a certain order. Semi-structured interviews allow the interviewer get comprehensive
opinion on a certain topic by asking open-ended questions.
Advantages of semi-structured interviews are:
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i. The researcher has adequate time to prepare and list the questions in an orderly and
flowing manner thus making it possible to exhaust the aspects of the research
ii. By preparing in advance, the interviewer gains enough confidence that makes him
appear competent during the interviewing process which in essence increases trust
between him and the participant.
iii. Interviews enable a two-way communication between the interviewer and the
interviewee and as such, both parties can ask questions for clarification making the
collected data more valid.
iv. Open-ended questions allow the participants to give views in their own terms and
understanding without feeling pressurized to answer in a certain manner. By openly
expressing one’s view, the researcher is able to capture different dimensions of the
question from the various respondents and get conclusive answers.
i. Interviews are time consuming, they are costly, and require the researcher to undergo
various procedures to commence on the study. For instance, the researcher has to get
permit from the firm and participants under study and get ethic permits to confirm
that the information obtained will be confidential.
ii. Validity and credibility of the research is only possible if the researcher involves
many respondents so as to get different opinions for comparison purposes (Huberman
and Miles 2011).
iii. Greater preparation measures have to be taken to ensure that the questions answer the
research questions while at the same time not leading participants to a certain answer.
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A pilot study is to be conducted after getting approval from IRB. The pilot study is
usually a mini-research that is conducted before the final and research to determine the
effectiveness of the stated procedures and research methods (Raheim 2016). The study takes
place after the researcher clarifies on the research topic, objectives, and research instruments.
A number of semi-structured questions will be designed and the interview conducted with
human research professionals who are not based in the firm under study. The interviews will
be recorded and notes will also be taken in the process. Afterwards, the recordings will be
transcribed and the researcher will then go through the transcripts to identify any gaps for
improvement of the actual research interviews. A pilot study is essential since it gives the
researcher an idea of the outcome of the final research and may identify processes and tools
that may not be appropriate for an exhaustive research.
For each interview, each participant will be checked to improve the reliability and
credibility of the research. Checking will be carried out before the interview, during the
interview, or after the interview. The researcher will also make clarifying the views provided
by the interviewers to ensure that it’s correct. The researcher will be analyzing the responses
as the interview continues and the respondents will be asked to confirm whether they agree
with the identified ideas or make proposals of the most credible themes or points that have
been established from the interview.
- 10 Data organization techniques
For qualitative research, data is supposed to be analyzed continuously as the research process is
being carried out (Tremblay et al. 2011). As such, the researcher will be stored and back up in
Section 2: Quality Indicator23
various places. First, data will be stored in information systems and reflective journals and
research logs will also be saved to facilitate the analysis processes. All the information including
the interview recordings, research templates and articles, consent forms, and member check-ups
will be organized in a chronological manner for easier retrieval. An information system is
credible since it allows the storage of large quantities of data that will be derived from the
research process (Stake 2010). For easier data analysis and coding, the researcher aims to
transcribe the recorded interviews. The information system will be backed up and protected
through the use of password encrypted systems. The notes will be labeled and stored in a filing
system that will also be locked up to avoid unauthorized access. It is of essence for the researcher
to redact all information obtained from the participants to enhance confidentiality. The process
ensures that the collected data will be after five years. The researcher will also ensure that data
collected from the participants will be destroyed after five years as required by IRB.
2.11 Data analysis
For analysis, the researcher will apply
triangulation model which tends to apply different formats to interpret data. The model is
essential since it facilitates provision of credible data after cross-checking from various sources.
Moreover, it will identify consistency among the various sources as well as determine factors
that influence the results. Another advantage of the method is that it increases understating of the
research topic. Coding technique will be applied to analyze the data and find common themes.
Common themes are the recurring ideas that arise during the analysis and are therefore used to
create a domain (Huberman and Miles 2011). The researcher has to understand the data before
it’s categorized. The data is not only categorized, but the researcher obtains implicit and explicit
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information about the raw data after which it’s encoded for interpretation. Interpretation is done
by assessing relationships between different themes, recurrence of the ideas, and frequencies.
Thematic analysis is the most viable since it enables the researcher to interpret complex data sets.
Concentration and identification with the data is crucial so that the researcher is able to
coherently and credibly analyze the data (Stake 2010). Since qualitative studies are cyclical,
collection of data and analysis will be conducted concurrently. Immediately after data collection
commences, analysis starts taking place. The general views derived from previous interviews
will be poised to the current interviews to gain specific comprehension for better analysis.
Questions that have similar opinions will be grouped though it would generally take time.
The research question is strategies that human resource managers can use to improve a firm’s
profitability. After transcribing the interviews, the researcher then accesses the contributions of
the interviewees to find common ground and determine whether the results are credible. It is
therefore important that during the interviews the researcher emphasizes the questions and seeks
clarification to ascertain he gets correct views. Atlasti software will be applied to analyze the
data which will be organized using low frequency and it will be compared to the current
literature for cohesive results.
2.12 Reliability and validity
In qualitative research, reliability entails the quality of the instruments used for the study.
Reliable data should be consistent and have the ability of generating similar results if the process
is repeated. To preserve the integrity of collected information, it is of essence for the researcher
to maintain honesty and trust with the respondent. The ability of the data to conform, be
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transferred, and get credible and dependable results intensifies trustworthiness in the research
Prior conducting the study, the researcher will ensure dependability of the information through
member checking and validating the research questions through the pivot research.
The researcher gets credible responses when the design of the research process and the interview
questions are clearly understood by the respondents as expected. Credibility can be harnessed by
the researcher avoiding any instance of being biased, applying prior experience to conduct the
research, and through triangulation. The researcher will ensure credibility of this research by
triangulating of data and member checking.
The essence of any research is to allow for transferability of research findings in similar or
related contexts (Borg 2013). The researcher will therefore ensure that detailed information
about the research are provided and also offer comprehensive findings that can be used by future
researchers or firms that may apply the findings to improve profitability in their organizations.
Confirming the research findings will be ensured by utilizing saturation strategies. The
researcher will apply an audit track that will be used to identify when similar opinions regarding
the issue are recurrent such that further research would not provide differing opinions. Fifteen
respondents are enough to saturate the information and confirm that it’s objective and can be
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analyzed. Member checking, establishment of instances of research biasness, and triangulation
will still serve to validate the data and confirm that it’s correct.
2.13 Transition and summary
The qualitative research, single case study sought to assess the strategies that human resource
managers can use to improve profitability in their firms. Specifically, the research the research
will be conducted in CP All Public Company. Fifteen human resource managers will form the
sample size and semi-structured interviews will be used to get opinions on the research subject.
Confidentially and ethicality of the research will be assured by signing the consent forms and
clarifying the research problem to the participants so that they consciously decide to participate.
Access to the organization will be done through getting contacts with the gatekeepers and other
stakeholders that are mandated to handle researchers. Participants will be free to withdraw from
the research without pressure or having to give reasons. Sampling will be done through the
purposive and the participants will be given detailed information regarding the research problem.
Selection criteria will involve identifying human resource managers are knowledgeable about the
strategic human resource management, who have worked in the aforementioned company for
more than a year, and understand the cultural and structural environment of the firm. The sample
size will be enough to get to a saturation point since 15 employees represent most of the
population under study will be assured of privacy and freedom while carrying out the research.
The researcher will store data in information systems and ensure there is back up in form of
transcripts and recordings. Analysis will be rigorously conducted through the use of Atlasti. The
researcher will ensure the research is credible, dependable, and objective. Public and private
firms are can benefit from the results that will be obtained in the research as it intends to get
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strategies that can be uniformly applied by human resource managers in different sectors to
increase profitability in their firms.
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synthesis of research and managerial implications. Research in Personnel and Human
Resources Management, 16(3), 53-101.
Blau, D., Bach, L., Scott, M., & Rubin, S. (2013). Clark Moustakas (1923–2012): Scholar,
teacher, colleague and friend. The Humanistic Psychologist,41(6), 97–99.
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Brockbank, W., Ulrich, D., & Beatty, R. (2013). The professional development: Creating the
future creators at the University of Michigan Business School. Human Resource
Management, 38, 111-118.
Bryman, A. 2012. Basic Research Designs. Center for Innovation Research and Teaching.
David, Resnik. 2015. What is Ethics in Research and why is it Important? National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences.