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1)In order to make the system described more effective, identify possible revisions and/or additions to

each component of the PM process.

2)Keep in mind that revisions and/or additions are meant to solve a problem that needs to be identified.

3)The literature is split on the issue of team performance measures. On one hand, it argues performance
should be focused on team members such as the use of personal development planning and how to be a

good team member; yet that seems an individual focus.

4)On the other hand, a team is the unit of analysis and the team�s performance should be measured.
Consider that In this case, what would be the assessment of team process versus task?

5)What should receive importance in the performance management system?

In order to increase the efficiency of the performance management system, Public Service
Works, there are various possible revisions and additions that the Company could undertake to
each component of the PM system.



A number of studies related to performance management have established that training the users
of a performance management system plays a significant role in enhancing its success. Tan and
Lau (2012, p. 59) note that employees should be aware of what is expected of them during the
appraisal exercise and what they should work towards to ensure that they achieve the desirable
outcome. Raters on the other hand require training to ensure that they are familiar with what is
expected of their subordinates. This will help them in rating them fairly while guiding them
towards achieving the set objectives during the year (Smither and London, 2009, p. 54).

Promote collaboration

Any organization that seeks to promote profitability will foster collaboration between employees
and the management. In essence, there is need to have open lines of communication to ensure
that two-way communication is encouraged. Melnik, Petrella and Richez-Battesti (2013, p. 1304)
notes that performance management is more likely to prosper if there is freedom of discussion
and expression within the organization that when employees are unable to communicate openly
with their seniors. This is because issues affecting performance can be addressed effectively
before they escalate; thus leading to effective performance overall.

Employee feedback

Integrating employee feedback into the performance management system is one of the most
effective criteria of establishing whether the plan is effective or not. The performance
management system should give employees a chance to give their input on the system and also
provide a framework through which the issues raised can be responded to by managers.

In addition, the system should allow for regular feedback to ensure that the positive and negative
aspects of the system can be identified and corrected to reduce negative impact (Smither and
London, 2009, p. 59). Feedback, which may be formal or informal could also take on a 360 o
feedback approach where comments from customers, peers and supervisors can be included.

A majority of literature suggests the use of performance measures for teams in order to promote
achievement of organizational objectives. It is however, notable that the performance measures
taken often include individual personal development training on how to become an effective
team leader; yet these appear like measures aimed at improving individual performance. Given
this information, the observable question would be, “if the team is considered a unit, how can
performance be measured based on the team performance? Gottlieb (2003, p. 16) notes that a
team consists of individuals and that their collective actions are what leads to team results.
Developing individuals within the group therefore directly links to better team performance
because it means that the team members are likely to bring in the desired knowledge and skills.
Fostering team work and encouraging team members to work together is however encouraged;
with emphasis that each individual has a role and contribution to the group’s success (Smither
and London, 2009, p. 169)

In measuring performance of the team as a unit of analysis, the management should effectively
differentiate team process and task. In assessment of the team process, the most imperative

questions to ask include: how is the work divided among the team members? What is the process
of decision making? What is the procedure for information sharing? How is the emotional
climate following member interactions? Are there conflict resolution mechanisms? And how is
the group’s leadership executed or expressed? (Hulse-Killacky, Jim and Jeremiah, 2001, p. 109-
114). Once the team process is considered to be working, the team task can then be assessed by
answering the following questions. Is there goal clarity – what is expected, why it is expected
and what will be done to achieve it? What do the team members need to know and how will they
get the information? Are tasks clear for team members? What is the plan for implementation? Is
the group able to achieve the set objectives? What is the process of review and evaluation of the
outcomes? What are some of the challenges being faced and how can they be resolved?
(Gottlieb, 2003, p. 56-63).

What then should be given priority in the performance management system? Melnik, E, Petrella,
F, & Richez-Battesti (2013, p. 1311) note that the satisfaction of users of the performance
management system is among the most important consideration for any successful performance
management system. It is imperative that the ratees are well informed of what the company
expects from them and that the set objectives are reasonable in accordance with their

The raters and ratees must also be well trained on how their personal objectives are aligned with
the organizational objectives and how the performance measurement system should guide their
work. Raters on the other hand require training to ensure that they understand what to expect
from the ratees and how to go about the performance measurement procedures to ensure that

they do not affect the morale of the employees. Training also ensures that the managers, who are
also the raters, are in a position to guide employees in achieving set goals throughout the year.


Gottlieb, M 2003, Managing Group Process, Praeger Publishers, Goleta, CA.

Hulse-Killacky, D, Jim K and Jeremiah D, 2001, Making Task Groups Work in Your World,
Merrill Corporation, London.

Melnik, E, Petrella, F, & Richez-Battesti, N 2013, ‘Does the professionalism of management
practices in nonprofits and for-profits affect job satisfaction?’, International Journal Of Human
Resource Management, 24, 6, pp. 1300-1321, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed
18 June 2015.

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