National Institutions and HRM
For the country Japan, identify three national institutions, and respond to the following:
� What is the historical foundation of Japan?
� How might Japan�s national culture, institutions, ethics, and values influence its HRM practices?
Japan has longed for the development of national human rights institutions. Different
groups like Lesbian and gay community have been clamoring for a society that is no chained to
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discrimination. Following the Un Human Rights Council of Japan in 2008, the state report called
upon the government’s commitment towards improvement of human rights situation in Japan,
more especially the government was to establish an independent NHIRI. The civil society of
Japan has worked since then aiming at the establishment of an NHRI and has gained momentum.
The National Human Rights institutions of Japan include; the Bureau on Human rights
within the Ministry in charge of Justice and volunteers for Human Rights appointed by Minster
in charge of Justice. The function of the Bureau of Human Rights is to act on human rights
remedial activities as well as in the protection of human rights. The human rights protection is
done through eight Regional Legal Affairs Bureaus, 42 District Legal Affairs Bureaus and 287
local branch offices (Koike).
Private Citizens are the ones appointed as Human Rights Volunteers by the Minster of
Justice. It is done on fair and impartial grounds under the Bureau of Human Rights that is
according to the Ministry of Justice. About 14000 volunteers are been posted all over Japan. The
system of Human Rights Volunteers was implemented to ensure that individuals of different
fields work to ensure human rights are respected. It was meant to avoid infringements of
resident’s rights and protect human rights according to the local community (Koike). The work
of the volunteers is to speak about human rights hence making the public aware on the subject of
The Society of Japan is among the earlier pioneers in matters of cultural exchange during
the 20 th century. Japan became the first country to sponsor the first important exhibitions of
Japanese art. Materials from Japan art were used mostly in American universities to help
American students learn about the Japanese. In the 1920s, racial and political tension between
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Japan and United States worsened. In early 1930s, Japan Society rejected political stance and
preferred education to advocacy. The political crisis in 1941 led to war among European and
Asian countries leading to the closure of Japan’s borders by the Society of Japan. In 1952, the
relationship between Japan and America was reborn. But the efforts by President John and
Douglas Overton restored the relationship between Japan and America. The Japanese society
doubled its efforts by expanding its lecture series, publication of their culture and the enrollment
of their students in schools in New York. The aim of it was to educate Americans about
Japanese culture. (Japan Society).
The building of Japan House across the street from the United Nations in 1971 was as a
result of ambitions of John D. Rockefeller 3rd. The house was large and it included a galley,
library, auditorium and also a classroom space. In 1970s and 1980s, the Society expanded its
programs to include ground-breaking exhibitions, traditional sold-out performance, and classical
Japanese dance and music. And also comprehensive language program, major films and vibrant
lecture series that covered topics such as corporate and policy issues of their culture were
included. Currently, the societies of Japan continue to hold an important part in the relationship
between them and U.S. (Japan Society). In the recent past, Japan has witnessed an increase in its
programs hence, reaching out to various business leaders and school going children. Societies in
Japan are believed to be the trendsetters in examine Japan’s transitions in terms of their
relationship with their neighbors.
Globalization refers to a process that encourages the integration of cultural values and
societies through trade and communications among states that follow the strategic application of
Information Systems. The practice of Human Resource Management is made up of policies
designed to better an organization, and employee’s integration, flexibility, and their quality of
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work. Strategic Human Resource Management can help a country or an organization to gain a
sustainable and competitive advantage as opposed to its competitors (Koike).
With a HRM in place, a country like Japan is in a position to come up with competitive
strategies in partnership to their HRM policies and practices. Due to rapid change felt in most
businesses, the country has to deal with two important challenges that may face HRM. The issue
of national culture and cultural value difference are among the factors that can hinder an
organization from designing a well-structured HRM in relation to HRM policies and activities.
Japan management style; rely on individual groups as a way of providing solutions in
case of any problem. The unity expressed by Japanese through their culture has helped Japanese
organizations become highly productive. The Japanese management style in their HRM focuses
on Total Integrated Management Framework, therefore, enhancing quality management practice.
Japanese values, ethics, institution and national culture influences Japanese HRM practices in a
more positive manner (Japan Society).
Development of national institutions to help in improving human rights is a clearer move
taken by most European countries. The country of Japan has a national institution that protects
human rights to ensure no human is seen as inferior. Human Right Management is also a good
plan for those institutions that have goals of becoming more productive. Therefore, a conclusion
can be drawn to suggest that Japan can be a role model worldwide since their way of conduct is
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Koike, O. Reform of Human Rights Institutions in Japan.