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Course Materials: Jeff Todd Titon et al. Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World�s
Peoples, Shorter Version/3rd Edition. Belmont, Ca.: Schirmer,2009, ISBN: 978-0=495-57010-3 (includes
3 audio CDs).

A minimum of 250 words for each threaded discussion is required for your answer to each discussion
question. Students may post anytime during the week to either discussion.

� Length of 250 words minimum
� Relevance to assigned discussion topic(s)
� Depth, originality, thoroughness, writing quality

Reference: text chpt. 9.
Listen carefully to CD 3:4 “Iluman tiyu.”
Describe what you hear regarding its time characteristics (rhythm), pitch aspects, timbre/instrumentation,
form, musical personality and function



Similarity in Audience’s Reactions

Western and Arabic countries are very much different but it is the various forms of art
such as music that bridge the gap. During the delivery of a piece known as ‘Shaghal’ by a group
of Arabic performers at a university in the United States, the audience acted in a sort of
conditional way. Even though it was an Arabic tune, to them the reaction was the same just like
they would to a Western beat.
As is common during the performances of western tunes, members of the audience
ushered the ensemble on stage with applauses as a way of acknowledging their efforts (Titon et
al., 2009). Largely, they also engaged in making exclamations, which according to Titon et al.
(2009) motivated the performers. Just as they would in the middle of the performance of western
music, the audience went completely silent at 0:58, probably suggesting the level of attention and
the grip that the piece had on them.

Another salient similarity in the audience’s response to music from both parts of the
world is their chipping in during the chorus. During the delivery (from the excerpt), at 1:14, the
members of the audience joined the musicians in delivering a phrase.
The performance
Owing to the nature of most tarab, loosely translated into ecstasy (a type of Arabic
musical genre), the Shaghal employs interactivity common in live performances. During the
concert, members of the audience, as Titon indicates (2009, 325), join the performers in between
their delivery. There is even a member who makes an exclamation, Allah, at the beginning of the
In order to create a captivating tune, the musicians use different types of instruments, for
example, the pear-shaped long-necked lute, buzuq, a violin and a short-necked lute known as ud
in Arabic. The ensemble alternates the use of these instruments to create a novice musical piece.
As Titon notes, although the performance took place far away from the Middle East, it is
this interactivity of the performance and inclusivity of these instruments that leave the audience
amazed. These rely on the experienced and highly talented team to thrill them with the rich
Arabic piece.



Titon, T.J. et al. (2009). Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World’s Peoples,
(Shorter Version/3 rd Edition). (pp. 319-326) Belmont, Ca: Schirmer, ISBN: 978-0=495-
57010-3 (includes 3 audio CDs).

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