Methodology and methods
Linking paradigm and methodology and choosing an appropriate methodology lie at the heart of research.
Whether using a case-study, action research, research that relies upon grounded theory, or
econometrics, the research design should ensure that the chosen methodological framework meets the
objectives of the research, and helps the researcher answer the research questions. For this essay you
will evaluate the characteristics of the methodologies used in the two papers from your field and consider
whether those align to your own research plans.
To prepare for this essay:
� Read the files for Week 3.
� Revisit the two papers from your degree field in the files that has been attached and consider the
paradigms and methodologies used
�In approximately 550 words, present the paradigms and methodologies used in the TWO articles
� What are the advantages and disadvantages of the methodologies implemented in these studies?
Methodology and Methods 2
� Which of these could (or could not) be used for your research and why?
� What could be your feasibility concerns in any case?
I. Article 1
Chang, Hueiju, and Hsi-Peng (2014) carried out research on the important nature of the
social media with regards to popular cohesion and message diffusion. Despite the fact that
several paradigms are employed in research such as positivism, critical theory, and critical
theory, these researchers apply the positivism approach (Ryan 2015). It was developed by a
French philosopher known as August Comte. His argument about paradigms was that actual
knowledge is one obtained from the researcher’s senses. As such, the research methodology used
include observation and experiment. Chang, Hueiju, and His-Peng use the elaboration likelihood
model (ELM) to observe the influence of quality and attractive messages on popular cohesion
and message diffusion. When coupled with relative significance and user expertise, the
usefulness and preference of a quality message lead to liking and sharing of the intention. As
such, business utilizing the social media for marketing purposes gain market shares for their
II. Article 2
Saini and Budhwar (2008) employ the critical theory model which is very different from
the earlier discussed approach. The argument of this method revolves around the employment of
ideology critique and the action research. This method was to serve as a means to provide social
scientists with an investigation plan for their researches. Following the research by Saini and
Methodology and Methods 3
Budhwar, who were investigating the human resource management practices of small and
medium enterprises (SMEs), they utilized the case study methodology. This allows the
contextual analysis of phenomena and deducing proper conclusions from the same. It is a form of
action research where the researchers can analyze information, generate solutions which are
implemented (Huss 2016). Their analysis revolves around the argument that the people
management practices in SMEs are hindered primarily by their ‘bounded rationality’ (Saini and
Budhwar 2008). This implies that these entrepreneurs usually believe that they are doing all they
can to manage their people resources. Following their analysis, they discovered that their focus is
primarily on financial, emotional and social support for their workforce.
Following the first methodology employed in the first article, positivism, there is a
unique advantage it offers. This paradigm produces quantitative traits in the research implying
that data trends can be easily monitored and generated as opposed to the qualitative form of data
(Ryan 2015). The data is very reliable. On the other hand, the critical theory model collects
information that is analyzed to produce solutions to be acted upon. Its merit is the solutions
generated are dependent on the reality of the situation. It can also employ both the positivism and
post-positivism approaches (Rubin and Babbie 2011). As opposed to the positivism
methodology, however, the critical theory’s limitation is that it cannot be used to generate
multiple conclusions or interpretation from the data (Huss 2016).
IV. Best approach for my study
The positivism paradigm bests suits my research because of its ability to generate
quantitative data for analysis purposes. The data is therefore not limited to one or two
interpretations similar to the critical theory model. The critical theory model focuses on
generating solutions from the presented reality of a situation demanding action research to make
Methodology and Methods 4
the necessary changes which would limit my research. Positivism, on the other hand, allows the
manipulation of the obtained data to create speculations regarding the future of the business. In
the case of the positivism approach, the research is not as feasible as the critical theory. This is
because the latter approach involves the collection of data from limited sources, unlike
positivism which would require a larger sample size making it the least feasible paradigm (Al
Methodology and Methods 5
Al Zeera, Z. (2001). Wholeness and holiness in education an Islamic perspective. Herndon,
International Institute of Islamic Thought.
Chang, Y., Hueiju Y & His-Peng, L 2015. Persuasive messages, popularity cohesion, and
message diffusion in social media marketing. Journal of Business Research, 68, pp. 777-
Huss, E 2016, ‘Toward a social critical, analytical prism in art therapy: The example of
marginalized Bedouin women’s images’, Arts In Psychotherapy, 50, pp. 84-90.
Rubin, A., & Babbie, E. R. (2011). Research methods for social work. Belmont, CA,
Ryan, P 2015, ‘Positivism: paradigm or culture?’, Policy Studies, 36, 4, pp. 417-433.
Saini, S D. & Budhwar S P 2008. Managing the human resource in Indian SMEs: The role of
indigenous realities. Journal of World Business, 43, pp. 417-434.