The primary purpose of this paper is to identify two print advertisements of a product of
choice. In this case, I will use Coca-Cola Company that targets two different consumers in the
market according to this study. The paper therefore, seeks to determine the positioning of the
product in the market and the segmentation of the company’s products. Also included in the
paper will be an analysis of the target market of the company’s advertisements and their
effectiveness in communicating the message to its intended audiences.
The Positioning of the Products in the Advertisements
The Coca-Cola company has been in the soft drink industry for quite a period, with this
achieved through an approach that seeks to keep the company’s position safely. The company
has formally taken the privilege of drawing its strength globally since its products are known in
the entire world through an efficient marketing strategy. 1 In accordance to the ads detailed in the
appendix, it is evident that the company pays its attention to the cultural and social attributions in
the society as a strategy of positioning its products.
The first add gives a depiction of an image that relates well with youths who would want
their names registered on the Coke bottles for a proposal of marriage. The company has in the
second image used a social interaction as a possibility of sharing its product, a factor that depicts
the approach in using the social platform as an avenue to position its product globally and
According to the two images, it is critical to note that the positioning is different. This is
in consideration of the fact that experiences, and personal preferences of individuals may differ
in accordance to their different localities. 2 Marketers therefore make the products positioning
different to meet the individual needs of each customers and for the benefit of the company. This
remains the key element that has kept its positioning in the market, a factor that has supportedthe
company’s profitability and effectiveness.
The Five Bases of Segmentations Utilized
Market segmentation according to sources is an approach used by marketers in dividing a
market into groups or rather segments to suit the different needs of customers who exhibit
similar purchasing behaviors. In our case, Coca-Cola in segmenting the market acknowledges its
various buyers by developing a different marketing mix. 3 Through a mass marketing approach,
the company uses a marketing approach that treats the market as a total whole by providing its
1 .Hakhshir, Ghassan. “Positioning Strategies Development.” Annals of the University Of Oradea,
Economic Science Series 23, no. 1 (July 2014): 979-988.
2 . Ibid. 1
- Ibid. 2
Coke products for the buyers in the market. Through market segmentation, the company is in a
position of targeting different groups of customers through an approach that adapts the product to
suit the targeted segment. This example can, therefore, be depicted in the ads since they focus
In both the ads, it is evident that the setting of the region is urbanized, thus giving the illusion
that the company has segmented its product to the urban population.
In this, the ads depict a certain age and genders. 4 The first ad gives the illusion of a young man
proposing to a lady upon the putting of his name on the coke bottle. In the second ad, there are
two intellectual men of young age sharing their possibilities through indulging in the company’s
The Target Market within the Advertisements
It is critical to determine that Coca-Cola primarily targets the whole market rather than
particular sections of the population. However, this does not typically mean that the company has
not a differentiation strategy to meet the needs of the whole market. In the ads, it is notable that
the company has introduced a diet coke as a segment of its different products. 5 Through this, the
consumers, young in nature are given the privilege of writing their names on the bottles, a factor
that is enhancing the buying power of the young population. The diet coke according to the
image is a product also designed for people who would not want to take too much sugars and
calories, thus making it acceptable to different people in the targeted market.
4 . Ali Sair, Shrafat. 2014. “Consumer Psyche and Positioning Strategies.” Pakistan Journal of Commerce
& Social Sciences 8, no. 1: 58-73.
5 . Ibid. 3
On the second ad, the company has also developed an approach to working smart through
giving an illusion of intellectual young men sharing a coke over a chat. This ad gives the
impression that Coca-Cola Company seems popular within the young generation who would
share possibilities through a drink. 6 Both the ads, therefore, provide the company’s target groups
the privilege of choosing what they want, especially for the people who would not want to drink
much sugar. This makes diet coke the option for such consumers.
The Effectiveness of Communication in the Ads
According to the two ads, it is critical to determine that the advertisers have effectively
communicated the message to their target audiences. The ads have well-detailed information
giving the consumers the necessary knowledge they need to know about the products. The diet
coke ad enables different customers also to have their preferences acknowledged by the
company, a factor that would promote the buying power of the targeted audience. 7 However, it is
essential; to determine the fact that the advertisers did not include the products prices in the ads,
a factor that may challenge their audience in determining the prices of the products.
It is critical to mention that some private labels and brands often mimic the trade dress of
other leading market brands. This is how stimulus generalization occurs with the features linked
to the leading manufacturers brands generalized as a private-label. An instance of this can be
depicted in a positive relationship that involves a pleasurable feeling for certain products in the
6 . Ibid. 4
7 . Ibid. 5
market that can be steered by another product that is identical to an original brand. 8 The main
reason for copying of other brands is to increase a company’s sales through a parallel response
given by customers who perceive the product has the same individuality similar to the original
product. The primary objective of using this approach remains in the fact that it enhances the
projection of one brand to others.
How the Concept of Stimulus Generalization Has Been Used
Otherwise known as copycat branding, the stimulus generalization enables manufacturers
to get opportunities of developing product packages that are in a way similar to that of a leading
brand in the market. Manufacturer’s for that used the visual cues such as size, shape, color and
image of the main brand that attracts consumer’s attention within the marketplace. 9 It is,
therefore, essential to note that the stimulus generalization approach has mainly been used in:
- Family Branding;
I this, several products capitalize on the reputation of another manufacturing companies
name. Companies such as Campbell, Heinz, Google, Virgin, and General Electric rely on various
corporate brands to sell their products. 10
This approach allows well-known brands in the market to rent names. 11 This approach has
gained fame in the market today since many marketers link their products and services with the
already established brands.
8 . Hong-Youl, Ha. 2011. “Brand Equity Model and Marketing Stimuli.” Seoul Journal Of Business 17,
no. 2: 32-60.
9 . Ibid. 6
10 . Ibid. 7
11 . Ibid. 8
- Product-Line Extension;
In this, related products are inclusively added to an already established brand. This can be
depicted in Dole, which mainly deals in fruits and was in a position to incorporate refrigeration
juices and juice bars while Sun-Maid included raising bread from raisins. 12
- Look-alike Packaging;
Through this approach, distinctive packaging designs are created in strong associations
with particular brands. This method is primarily utilized by the makers of generic brands and
who wish to communicate a quality image by inducing the similar packages of a leading brand. 13
The imitation of successful brands is an approach that is likely to occur in a crowded market
According to this study, it is evident to note that the attitudes and behaviors that are
mainly conditioned to a particular brand may be transferred to another product into a similar
category and name as well as other products with the same name but of a different group. To
demonstrate this in an example, Wal-Mart opened its functions as an organized retail store for
multibrand. 14 As soon as the brand was registered in the consumer’s heads and recognized in the
market, the company developed a private label for the parallel and the unparallel merchandises, a
factor that saw a similar response from their consumers who purchased these products from the
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Copying From an Original Brand
12 . Ibid. 9
13 . Eisend, Martin. 2015. “Have We Progressed Marketing Knowledge? A Meta-Meta-Analysis of Effect
Sizes in Marketing Research.” Journal of Marketing 79, no. 3: 23-40.
14 . Ibid. 10
In this study, the quality and performance of a brand in the market remains one of the
essential factors in spurring the process of stimulus generalization. It is therefore, essential to
determine that companies can either be advantaged or disadvantaged in the copying of their
brands. This is ostensible from the fact that the quality of a brand determines the consumer’s
interest in the brands. 15 In the event that the quality of a copied product is lower than that of the
original brand, the consumers are likely to exhibit a positive feeling towards the original product,
a factor that benefits the brand manufacturer.
However, in any case the quality of the two competitors turns out to be equal, consumers
are likely to consider the pricing premium they pay for an original brand and choose to purchase
the copied product. In this, it is, therefore, essential to note that the consumers association with a
product can be influenced by their belief in a product. 16 A company’s reputation, therefore, plays
a role in creating a strong impact on brand evaluations.
It is empirical to mention that the strategic benefits of stimulus generalization may
outweigh the advantages within the confines of strategic marketing. In my view, the stimulus
generalization is likely to present itself with the opportunities of an open economy 17 that is
offered by different markets.
In as much as the market is not only limited to a single brand, the main disadvantage
evident in this case is in the challenges that consumers face in making a choice. In the case that a
customer is not pleased with a chosen version of products, they have the liberty to pick another
product with a similar brand name. 18 Some companies will therefore never get out of business
15 . Ibid. 11
16 . Ibid. 12
17 . Ibid. 13
18 . Ibid. 14
once they get hold of the marketing concept of establishing their ventures as brand names.
Similarities and Differences between the Two Products
The images attached in the appendix of this paper give two principal products; Nescafe
and Sainsbury’s full roast. The table below depicts the similarities and differences between the
two products with Nescafe being the original brand.
1.Same Content between the two products 1. Dis-similar shape on container or packaging
- Same color of container used in packaging 2. Dis-similar lead color used in covering the
content of the package.
- Same container size and shape 3. Different visual cue.
- Same Label coloring 4. Different brand names.
Through the use of visual cues, shape, color, and size of an established brand, consumers
are at times attracted to such private labels within a shopping environment, a factor that makes
the private-label products generated by the original brand in the market.
WhetherCopying Bring Benefits or Harm to Consumers
Copying a brand can generally displace other brands in the market which as second or
third in market share thus reducing the nature of innovative products, a factor that reduces the
choices of consumers. 19 It is therefore, essential to note that some of these products may be
19 . Ibid. 15
harmful to consumers since they give the users no reassurance of consistent quality since the
qualities of the products may vary.
The branded originals give the consumers an assurance that the quality of the
manufactures products purchased is compatible. At times, consumers may be influenced by the
prices of the copied products but the quality may be a challenge, thus causing more harm than
gain. However, in some cases, copying can be beneficial to the consumers in the event that the
product meets the exact demands of the consumer and is compatible with the original brand. 20
This may, however, be a challenge to the brand manufacturers since the copied brand may turn
out to be a competitor. In this, the customers will, therefore, determine the price variances in
purchasing these products.
Strategies to Counter Copying
Copying other brands has some negative implications to the marketers. In cases where
copying is a free ride, the markets encounter challenges on reduced incentives that allows them
to invest and compete on quality that impacts consumers. 21 Copying therefore damages the
reputation of brand manufacturers and their abilities to earn fair returns on their innovative
ventures. In order to counter the element of copying, it is essential that laws are established
within a country to protect the rights of the brand manufactures.
Marketers can therefore register their trademarks including their logos as a strategy to the
infringement of their brands. It is also essential for marketers of well-established brands to
encourage their consumers to discriminate against the buying of cheap imitations since the
20 . Till, Brian D., and Randi Lynn Priluck. 2000. “Stimulus Generalization in Classical Conditioning: An
Initial Investigation and Extension.” Psychology & Marketing 17, no. 1: 55-72.
- Ibid. 16
products are note up to their expectations. 22 In this, some marketers have adopted a strategy
called the masked branding that hides a product’s true origin, a factor that mitigates the chances
of consumers from experiencing the same conditioned response.
The study has therefore established the market positioning and segmentation approaches
used by Coca-Cola in the ads. Through this paper, I have also determined the prospects of
stimulus generalization as employed in the market and how to regulate a manufacturer’s brand
from infringements that come with copying.
22 . Ibid. 17
Ali Sair, Shrafat. 2014. “Consumer Psyche and Positioning Strategies.” Pakistan Journal of
Commerce & Social Sciences 8, no. 1: 58-73. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost
(accessed September 11, 2015).
Eisend, Martin. 2015. “Have We Progressed Marketing Knowledge? A Meta-Meta-Analysis of
Effect Sizes in Marketing Research.” Journal of Marketing 79, no. 3: 23-40. Business
Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 11, 2015).