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Impact of Training and Development on Organizational Performance in Qatar

Impact of Training and Development on Organizational Performance in Qatar

Please let the writer correct what are required as per the instructor notes below:

  1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (write around 120 words)

2.Please create the table of the content.
(The table of contents/format is missing)

3.Some of the chapters have chapter conclusion section but some don’t so check and write thee
conclusion in chapter which is missing.

  1. The most important note: I am concerned a bit more with the data analysis chapter in which you
    have reported the findings following questions raised in the questionnaire and have not yet made
    relevant comments with respect to the overall research questions stated in chapter 1. Please note the
    use of questionnaire survey is to gather data only and you should interpret the data to answer your
    research questions. This would require critical discussion as well i.e. to have references cited in your
    discussion may want to do this in the chapter conclusion section.
  2. Check and correct the grammar.



Training and development is considered among the most imperative strategies that firms in
the contemporary corporate world due to its potential to provide employees with the right
knowledge and skills to implement organizational objectives. This research aims at
determining the impact of training and development among firms and employees in Qatar.
The research also aims at establishing the challenges faced during training and development
and how they can be addressed to ensure optimal outcome in the organization. In addressing
the objectives of the research, two questions are presented including: How does training and
development affect an organization’s overall performance? What are the challenges
encountered by both the firm and employees in training and development? The research is
conducted in 10 firms in Qatar, where 71 employees respond to an online survey and 40
managers are interviewed. Based on the study results, it is apparent that training and
development plays an instrumental role in enhancing the performance of organizations.
Employees included in the research noted that their skills had increased considerably and that
they could perform their roles with greater expertise. Training and development also played a
role in promoting their career development. Similar findings were obtained from managers
who noted that the organizational performance improved tremendously, given the enhanced
employee motivation and job satisfaction, enhanced customer satisfaction, increased sales,
increased innovation, better teamwork, enhanced conflict resolution and improved
profitability. Challenges including time management, resource limitations, training quality,
irregularities in the selection of employees for training, cultural issues, poor alignment of
training goals with organizational objectives and employee attitudes. These challenges are

addressed and suggestions are provided based on results from the research, with major
recommendation being employee involvement in the training and development process,
which ensures that the right content is adopted for the research and that it meets the needs of
employees in terms of timing and content. This research effectively establishes that there is a
direct relationship between training and development and organizational performance.



I acknowledge the inimitable guidance and support from my supervisor. You played a
pivotal role in ensuring successful completion of the research. I would like to thank
……………… who was instrumental in inspiring my area of research and encouraging me
through the research process. I would also like to acknowledge managers from the various
firms in which I conducted my research. Thank you for the support accorded and going out of
your way to provide permission to conduct the study as well as participating in interviews. To
my family, thank you for being my pillar of strength and believing in me.


Table of Contents

Abstract 2



1.1 Introduction 10

1.2 Background to the Study 11

1.3 Statement of the problem 14

1.4 Purpose of the Study 14

1.5 Significance of the Study 15

1.6 Objectives of the research 15

1.7 Research questions 15

1.8 Justification of study 15

1.9 Scope and Limitation 16

1.10 Theoretical framework 16

1.11 Summary of the Chapter 17


2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Training and Development in Qatar Companies 18

2.3 Training and Development as Human Resource Strategy 20

2.4 Types of Training 22

2.5 Impact of Training and Development on Performance 24

2.6 Training Needs 25

2.7 Challenges Facing Employee Training and Development 26

2.8 Theoretical Framework 27

2.9 Summary of the Chapter 28


3.1 Introduction 30

3.2 Research Design 30

3.3 Data collection and research methods 31

3.4 Research Population and sample size 33

3.5 Sampling Procedures 33

3.6 Data Analysis approach 35

3.7 Validity & Reliability 36

3.8 Ethical Issues 37

3.9 Summary of the Chapter 38


4.1 Introduction 39

4.2 Characteristics of respondents 40

4.3 Impact of training and development on performance Results 43

4.3.1 Research question 1 43 Opportunities for training 43 Types of training 44 Impact on Training and Development Individual Performance 45 Impact on Organizational Performance 46 The role of training and development on organizational performance 48 Impact of training and development on motivation 49 Employee satisfaction with training program 50 Alignment of training and development to organizational needs 51

4.3.2 Research Question 2 52 Challenges in internal training 53

8 Challenges in external training 54 Recommendations to address challenges in training and development 56

4.4 Chapter Summary 58


5.1 Introduction 59

5.2 How does training and development affect overall organizational performance? 59

5.2.1 Impact of Training and Development on Individual Performance 61

5.2.2 Impact of training and development on motivation 63

5.3 What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees in training and
development? 64

5.3.1 Resource Limitations 65

5.3.2 Time Management 66

5.3.3 Alignment of training and development to organization’s needs 67

5.3.4 Unfair Opportunities 67

5.3.5 Quality of Training 68

5.3.6 Employee attitudes 69

5.7 Summary of the Chapter 70


6.1 Introduction 71

6.2 Restatement of Research Objectives, Questions and Theoretical Framework 71

6.3 Summary of Results 73

6.4 Conclusion 76

6.5 Recommendations from the research 77

6.6 Recommendations for further research 78

6.7 Summary of the Chapter 78



1.1 Introduction

Employees are undoubtedly the most important asset any organization can have, and their
level of expertise and motivation greatly affects the performance of the organization. Their
input in the organizational performance through creativity and innovation can help a
company have a competitive edge in the marketplace (Kehoe & Wright 2013). Many
companies spend many resources in seeking, developing and training the best talents.
Training helps employees have a firm understanding of their duties and responsibilities, and
undertaking them in accordance with the organization’s vision (Elnaga & Imran 2013).
However, it is important for employees to understand that training encompasses an important
aspect of their career development, and helps them beyond their job areas.

Qatar is one of the countries in the world, which wholly depends on oil for their subsistence
productions and general national revenues. There exist many companies, which produce
several goods directly from oils, while some provides consultancy and similar services to
these companies and industries. It is therefore important to understand how these companies
manage to utilize high performance human resource strategies, amidst falling oil prices that
affect revenues and subsequently, programs that support employee development such as
training and rewards.

Training and development faces significant challenges from several facets of organizational
management. Lack of an effective training program can negatively affect employee
motivation and performance (Elnaga & Imran 2013). The aim of this study is to investigate
the human resource programs regarding employee training and development employed by
companies in Qatar, and the changes they face, with the intention of providing the best
training and development procedure that ensures maximum employee engagement in
organizational development.

1.2 Background to the Study


a) The Necessity for Employee Training

Many employees enter the workforce having undergone rigorous academic process that
prepared them for their future careers. However, different organizations exist in very
competitive and ever changing spheres of operation, which requires a dynamic approach that
is different from the academic angle that most employees come with into the marketplace. It
necessitates organizations to invest in the training and development of their employees in
order to tailor them for the company’s expectation (Kehoe & Wright 2013). Each company
encounters different challenges in the market and uses specific management strategy that
requires employees to have the requisite skills in order to make appropriate work-related

According to Breugst et al. (2012), the main aim for employee training and development is to
bridge a skill gap that is present in the company. Additionally, the market constantly
experiences competitiveness that forces competitors to change business strategies frequently.
Constant training and employee development work as a tool for refreshing employees’
knowledge of the working of the market and the ever-changing customer expectations in
order to remain competitive. For example, the popularity of smart phones among people
necessitates companies to engage their customers more through social media, which requires
employees of companies to be knowledgeable on how to accomplish such tasks. Customer
loyalty to an organization’s brand has a direct relation to the quality of services offered in an
organization (Dhar 2015). Therefore; employee training is a necessity to ensure they
understand customer expectation.

Another reason for training employees is to improve productivity and job performance.
Productive employees result in the company easily achieving its goals and easily meeting its
targets. A company that retains highly skilled employees gains a considerable competitive

advantage because of the high output and creative production regimes (Lee et al. 2013).
Employees will generally leave a company because of lack of guidance, poor feedback, lack
of career development initiatives from their manager, and learning nothing new in the job.
According to Westermann et al. (2012), employees reach a position of burnout and boredom
for repeating the same procedures daily, and require positive interventions to boost their
morale and make their work more fun. Therefore, training and development helps in
refreshing them and making their assignments more engaging.

b) Employee Development in Qatari Companies

Crude oil is a high value product traded in U.S. dollars and whose performance affects many
markets (Mileva & Siegfried 2012). Many companies in Qatar use it for production of
medicine, chemicals, plastics, petroleum products and running the country’s irrigation
schemes, making it a very important aspect of the national economy. Rising prices of crude
oil affects stock market prices, value of goods, heating and transportation costs that generally
affects service provision (Chaibi & Gomes 2013). However, this is beneficial for an oil
producing country like Qatar as it causes increase in revenue that subsequently improves the
profitability of local companies. Subsequently, falling of oil prices affects the earnings of oil
producing nation, as they have to produce more in order to achieve higher earnings, which
affects the productivity of their local companies that rely on oil. This causes other emerging
economies to thrive while the local economy struggle due to their weakening currency and
volatile stock markets (Basher, Haug & Sadorsky 2011).

There are very few studies carried on the effect of the falling oil prices in the international
markets on local Qatari companies since 2014. In fact, many studies concentrated on the
effect on local currency, market volatility, stock prices and exchange rates. Naifar and Al
Dohaiman (2013) suggest that falling oil prices has a direct relation to inflation, especially of

oil producing country due to reduced returns and weakening local currency. The spill over
effect is that these companies will have to produce more in order to keep revenue values high
due to the falling commodity prices on the international markets. Oil shocks and falling oil
prices has hit hard most oil dependent economies like Qatar, forcing governments and
companies to adopt austerity measures (Hamdi & Sbia, 2013). Government has reduced
spending; overstaffing and wastefulness, while Qatar Petroleum in 2016 sacked almost 1,000
workers to cut on costs (World Bank.org, 2017).

Reducing workforce is one of the ways most companies use in a bid to cut costs and reduce
expenditure. However, the remaining employees have to work twice as much in order to
cover up for their departing colleagues. This could have psychological effects as well as
fatigue or burnout from increased responsibility. This may cause low employee turnover and
absenteeism (Westermann et al. 2012). Cutting spending may also affect employee
development initiatives such as reward systems, training programs and bonuses that aid
greatly in promoting employee motivation (Campbell et al 2012). Therefore, the companies
in Qatar need to have cost-friendly employee training programs that does not strain their
budgets amidst call by the government to stem up austerity measures.

Many companies and government institutions risk losing their highly skilled expats due to
lower salaries and lack of development initiatives (Cafiero 2016). Lack of coherency in the
needs of the employees, and increased job instability has a negative effect on employees’
turnover. Therefore, in the midst of implementing austerity measures, companies can still
employ cost-friendly initiatives in keeping the remaining workers while employing effective
educational programs in order to enable remaining employees handle multiple tasks
effectively. Job training is important and faces several problems, which may render it

ineffective. This study aims to provide a proper method that ensures employees receive
training tailored for their jobs and their job description.

1.3 Statement of the problem

The role of education and development in business settings is changing towards a more
education type. It has become common for firms to tailor human resource to fit the goals of
the organization by affecting skills and knowledge unique to the firm. This research seeks to
identify problems in employee training and development and suggest strategic measures
ensure a cost-friendly and meaningful training.

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The study employs a qualitative study design aimed at gathering information from employees
from Qatari companies, using open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.
This will help in understanding undocumented problems associated with training and
development and how to bridge these gaps using the best evidence based methods that leads
to lower costs and increased efficiency. The study will utilize 100 randomly selected subjects
to provide this information from their company practices.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study aims at describing problems related to employee training and development with a
purpose of providing an alternative to these problems. The study takes pace in Qatar because
of its significance as an area with one of the best human resource management practices in
the word. The solutions will help human resource managers adopt cost friendly and more
effective employee training and development procedures in order to meet company goals.

1.6 Objectives of the research


This research will address two major objectives as follows:

  1. To explain the role of training and development on the performance of organizations
    in Qatar.
  2. To identify the strategic measures organizations can pursue in training and

1.7 Research questions

The following research questions were answered in the research:

  1. How does training and development affect an organization’s overall performance?
  2. What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees in training and

1.8 Justification of study

The impact of training and development has received an overwhelming research and
pragmatic strategies to help businesses empower their workforce with the latest skills.
However, learning is a regular and continuous activity that needs new techniques and plans.
To remain competitive in a changing world, managers and leaders must remain relevant
regarding skills and knowledge. This study seeks to add to the current literature novel
concepts and approaches in training and development.

1.9 Scope and Limitation

The research was limited in the number of participants used for the study due to the
complexity of conducting semi-structured interviews. They researcher will only use 100

respondents to represent organizations in Qatar. The study will therefore be prone to a small
amount of sampling error.

1.10 Theoretical framework

Over time, organizations have changed the way they used to conduct training and
development. It used to be job-focused and limited to technical skills (Bartlett, 2001). As the
nature of training has changed, new literature and approaches have come in place to explain
the role of training and development in enhancing performance. One of these theories is the
Action Theory put forward by Frese & Beer (2007). The theory attempts to explain how
learning is controlled and gives insight on how people can change behavior to meet the
requirements of the firm. Unlike the cognitive and information processing theories, Action
Theory links behavior and specific working outcomes (Milhem, Abushamsieh & Aróstegui,
2014). It is concerned with the process involved in the interaction that exists between the
environmental inputs and behavior and how cognition regulates this behavior.

The theory is a systematic tool for explaining how using focus and structure components
regulates knowledge of cognitive process in performance. The managers should have the
confidence in the value of collaboration and communication among the departments, and also
commit to and implement a regular employee performance. Finally, it is important for the
organization to belief in the power of personal connections and relationships among the staff.

1.11 Summary of the Chapter

Employee training and development is an important company initiative as it aims at
increasing employee productivity and job specificity. Understanding the best cost friendly
and effective initiatives in employee training is imperative in sustaining best human resource
initiatives. Therefore, this study seeks information from employees in the best companies in

Qatar known for quality human resource practises, in order to understand problems
associated with employee development and providing solutions to managers. The study is
qualitative in design and is polycentric in nature. The literature review provides further
information on the subject and the theoretical framework behind the study. This expounds on
the need of effective training programs that leads to higher employee productivity.


2.1 Introduction

Organizations are working hard to be successful and out-compete the competitors in the same
industry. Organizations are striving to be the best and lead in the globe market. In order to
achieve this, organizations must have the right employees. It is through employees that a
company can meet its goals. Employees are now known as the most valuable asset of an
organization. There is an emerging trend of treating employees as the human assets because
the success of any organizations depends on the appropriate utilization of the human assets.
As a result, training and development is an effective method of improving the performance of
employees. Training and development are used to improve the ability, wisdom, and skills of
the human resource. Training enhances the performance of employees. It polishes the skills
of workforce making it the most important factor in employee performance. The State of
Qatar is an oil-rich country. The main source of income is the natural resources and heavily
relies on the oil industry. Oil prices are experiencing a sharp increase in the global market
(Cafiero 2016). This has had a huge impact on countries that rely on oil as the only source of
income. Countries such as Saudi Arabia are looking for alternative sources of income and
reducing the dependency of the country on oil. Future development of Qatar is important to

ensure that Qatar fully utilizes its resources, Qatar must continue benefiting from its natural
resources, and this is only possible through improvement of human capital. One of the main
ways of improving human capital is through education and training. The falling oil prices
have greatly impacted on the performance of companies in Qatar. Some organizations have
reduced cost by reducing the workforce. Reduced workforce couple with a poor performance
of organizations has resulted in low employee morale (Chaibi & Gomes 2013). Companies
must come up with right strategies to continue being relevant in the market and raise
revenues. Training and development are essential in the Qatar industry to improve the
performance of employees. The main aim of this literature review is to review past studies on
the role of training and development on the performance.

2.2 Training and Development in Qatar Companies

Oil, natural gas, and related companies are the backbone of the Qatar economy. The oil sector
contributes 95% of the total government revenues (Cafiero 2016). Recently, oil and gas
companies have faced numerous challenges. The companies are experiencing a sharp
decrease in revenues due to the reduced oil prices. Additionally, employees are leaving the
industry making it difficult for these companies to retain most valuable employees (Chaibi &
Gomes 2013). Oil companies are now reorganizing to retain top performing employees.
According to Jolo (2013), there is no link of communication between Oil and Gas Bases
Industry and education institutions in Qatar. As a result, education institutions are failing to
provide oil companies with workers equipped with the right skills. Education institutions are
successful in equipping workers with general skills, but the oil industry requires workers who
have certain technical skills. Jolo (2013) noted that the skills that are demanded by the oil
companies are technical and they supplied moderately by the education institutions. There is
a gap in skills because the institutions do not fully equip students with technical skills that are

required in the oil industry. Companies are expected to offer training and development
programs to ensure employees develop the specific skills that are required in the industry.
Lack of training and development has been cited as a major obstacle to the development of
workers competence and performance in the Qatar oil industry. Rodriguez and Scurry (2014)
looked at various empirical studies conducted in Qatar on training and development and
noted that there is a huge skills gap in the oil industry. Rodriguez and Scurry (2014) noted
that to match the skills gap between education institutions and companies, training and
development is not an option in oil based companies. Qatari workers require a special type of
training in order to fit in the oil industry.

According to El (2015) research conducted in other oil based countries show that
development and training are critical in enhancing the motivation of employees. Research
conducted in Oman concluded that employees are not only concerned about monetary
benefits but the non-monetary benefits are equally important (El 2015). An Oman-based oil
company was used to conduct research on the factors that motivate employees in the oil
industry. The study concluded that employees are looking for organizations that will
empower them through training and development (El 2015). Rodriguez and Scurry (2014)
point out that in an empirical study conducted in UAE, it was concluded that money is
important to employees but it is not sufficient to retain employees. The study showed that
training and development played a key role in employee retention in the oil industry. Training
and development empowered employee and equips them with skills on health and safety.
Additionally, it improves their competence and enhances the productivity at the workplace.
This ultimately results in a high retention level.

Based on studies on the impact of training and development in oil industry one can point out
certain challenges. There is a need to identify the specific training and development

strategies that oil industry can apply. The oil industry is unique because of the type of jobs
involved and the requirement for health and safety. The oil industry and Qatar must develop
strategic measures that organizations can pursue in training and development. There is a gap
in research as most of the study concentrate on the general and training development. This
research will improve existing studies by filling the gap by identifying the specific training
and development methods that will work in the Qatar oil industry.

2.3 Training and Development as Human Resource Strategy

Human resource management is the organization of human resource to ensure that a company
has the right employees who can promote the vision, strategy, and aims of the company.
Human resource management aims at securing, maintain and using an effective workforce to
achieve the goals of the company and ensure that a company remains relevant in a
competitive market (Dhar 2015). Ford (2014) explains how the Briscoe study, which is
widely used in human resource management, classified the core human resource functions
into training and development, staffing, performance, compensation, employee relations, and
benefits and appraisal. Jehanzeb and Bashir (2013) point out that training and development
are the most effective human resource management. It ensures that employees remain
productive and they can easily adapt to the changing job needs.

According to Dhar (2015), training and development are the transfer of knowledge, skills and
abilities that affect require handling specific tasks. Training and development are used as
Human resource strategy to address the current and future challenges of business. Training
and development improve the knowledge, skills and attitude of employees hence it is
necessary for reaching aims of a firm. Studies have been conducted to measure the efficiency

of training and development as human resource strategy. According to Elnaga and Imran
(2013), training and development is an important function of human resource management
because it closes the gap between current performance and expected future performance.
Training and development are used to identify the needs of the workers and based on these
needs suitable training and development programs are developed. Training is effective human
resource strategy because it provides employees with knowledge to manage various aspects
of their life (Jehanzeb and Bashir 2013). Training ensures that employees remain relevant at
the workplace by equipping them with new skills and advanced knowledge.

As one of the major areas in human resource development, training and development have
attracted the attention researchers. Research conducted in this area has had a lot of impact on
the training and development in organizations. As researchers continue with the quest in
training and development research; they must continue to identify the importance of training
in the oil industry. In most countries, the intensification of training and development has
been caused by a rise in competition due to globalization. In Qatar, companies have not
heavily invested in employee development as opposed to other countries such as the U.K.
where training is considerably emphasized (Weerakkody et al. 2015). The sharp fall in oil
prices and the reduction in workforce provide researchers with an opportunity to investigate
how training and development can restore the oil industry. There are different types of
employees in Qatar the skilled employees and semi-skilled employees hence it is important to
identify the methods that will be effective in enhancing the knowledge and skills of
employees to polish their careers and remain relevant in the market.

2.4 Types of Training

Training methods are divided into two broad categories the on-the –job training and off- the-
job training. On-the –job training is conducted while employees are performing their daily

work activities whereas off-the-job training is conducted away from the usual work
environment. On-the-job training involves various training methods coaching, job rotation,
and mentoring (Storey 2014). Job rotation and transfers improve the skills of employees
through the movement of employees from a lower position to a high position. Job transfer
involves the movement of employees from one country to another. Job rotation provides
employees with an opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills on different company
operation (Weerakkody et al. 2015). Job transfers especially when it involves employees
from other countries provide employees an opportunity to acquire knowledge on the
operations of the company in different countries. The knowledge that is acquired through job
rotation and job transfers is beneficial to a company. Job rotation is used as motivation tool
by organizations. Job rotation reduces the boredom of repeating the same task every day
(Elnaga and Imran 2013). Additionally, when employees are moved to a higher position, they
are motivated. Coaching and mentoring is used when the experienced employees coach the
less experienced employees. Mentoring and coaching are applied to new recruits to provide
them with the right job training. Mentoring is useful because it builds strong relationships in
the company. Additionally, it is a good succession strategy for the company where the old
employees who will leave the company equip the young employees with the knowledge they
have acquired. Orientation is one of the widely used on-the-job training for new employees; it
focuses on familiarizing new employees on the job and the organization (Storey 2014).

Off-the-job training involves various methods such as conferences, workshops, and role
playing. Conferences and workshops involve presentations to a wide audience. Conferences
are a cost effective method of training as it reaches a large number of employees at the same
time. However, it has certain shortcomings. It may only benefit the employees who learn
faster and follow the training session (Phillips and Phillips 2016). Role playing is used when
employees are to act out work scenarios. Employees are provided with information on the

company and expected to act out their role or provide ideas on how they would go about a
certain company problem. Role playing is an effective training method in sales and
marketing. Formal training courses are used to develop skills required by an organization
(Kehoe & Wright 2013). The course programs may involve traditional classroom training and
various work related activities.

Empirical studies on the types of training have revealed that Qatar companies must consider
some factors when choosing the type of training methods the strategy of the organization, the
goals of the company, resources available, target group to be trained, and the need to be
identified (Kirat 2015). Oil companies in Qatar mainly look for technical skills hence it is
important to determine the type of training methods that can develop these skills. Kirat
(2015) recommends companies in Qatar to focus on on-the-job training methods to train fresh
employees. Existing employees can use the off-job-training to improve their knowledge and
develop more skills that will be used to develop the entire organization.

2.5 Impact of Training and Development on Performance

Employee performance can be looked at in terms of the outcomes. Alternatively, employee
performance can be measured in terms of the behavior. Employee performance is measured
against the performance standards of the organization. Certain measures are used to indicate
the performance of employee they include quality, effectiveness, profitability, efficiency,
productivity and effectiveness (Kehoe & Wright 2013). Recent research indicates that
employee training and development plays a key role in enhancing the performance. Training
and development improve the competencies of employees. It equips employees with
knowledge, skills, and attitude that are not only necessary in the current job but also in their
future jobs. Training contributes to the overall improvement of the performance of an
organization. Training has been proved to generate positive impacts on the performance of a

company. Gaining new skills and knowledge provides employees with the confidence that
they need to complete their tasks. The employees can complete more tasks effectively.
Training deals with skills gap in an organization (Storey 2014). Today, the needs of
employees are changing at the same rate as the changes in the market. A company must fill
the skills gap in an organization by developing various training and development programs
throughout the year.

Performance is improved through aligning the skills with the goals of the company.
Achieving company goals is a top priority activity for every organization. Training and
development provide the company with a good opportunity of providing employees with the
right skills to achieve company goals.

According to Lee et al. (2013), training and development show a positive relationship with
job satisfaction, and motivation. Training and development provide employees with
knowledge that keeps the employees relevant in the market. As a result, employees are
satisfied with their jobs. Training and development also indicate that a company is willing to
invest in the employees. The employees feel that the companies value them hence they are
more motivated (Lee et al. 2013). Training and development intrinsically motivate the
employees since they can complete tasks more efficiently (Kehoe & Wright 2013). The
productivity of employees’ increases and output increases as well which in turn increases the
revenue of the organization (Storey 2014).

The past studies on the impact of training on performance have revealed interesting findings.
Studies have proved training improves performance through the development of knowledge,
skills, ability, competencies, and behavior.one of the issue that have been identified in past
study is that some studies look at the performance with regards to employee performance
whereas other studies look at the organizational performance. Organization performance and

employee performance are related in the sense that employee performances improve the
general organization performance.

2.6 Training Needs

Training programs can fail to achieve the objectives when there is a mismatch between the
skills gained and those skills that a company requires (Kehoe & Wright 2013). Training
needs must be identified before conducting training to ensure that a training program focuses
on the skills that employees require. For a training program to meet its goal, it is important to
conduct a training needs assessment. Training needs assessment ensures that the resources
used in training are directed towards the training programs that the company urgently needs.
A training needs assessment can expose performance deficiencies through five ways. The
first one is investigating the gap between existing skills and the skills the company requires
the second one is an organization assessment. A company can analyze weakness, strengths,
and competencies (Storey 2014). As a result, the organization identifies the training programs
that can eliminate the weaknesses and enhance the strength of the company. The third one is
occupational assessment where the skills of a certain occupation are examined. In occupation
assessment, an organization can check job description and determine the competencies that
the employee needs to develop to meet the job requirements (Milhem et al. 2014). The fourth
one is the individual assessment. This one focuses on personal goals of the employees. In
training and development, a company must ensure that the personal goals of development of
an employee are met. The fifth one is the identifying the training need that will meet the
environmental and industry changes. Companies must ensure that employees have the right
skills given the changes in the market such as technology changes.

With reference to previous studies on training needs, Qataris companies can understand the
needs of planning training. Previous studies indicate that the benefits of training are achieved

through planning. The first step of planning is identifying the training needs. According to
Weerakkody et al. (2015), Qatari companies must start assessing the training needs before
embarking on any training development programs. As a result, companies will focus on
developing skills that are relevant to the company and will improve the productivity of

2.7 Challenges Facing Employee Training and Development

Training and development, like many other company activities, faces various challenges. The
first one is training a huge workforce. Phillips and Phillips (2016) noted that some companies
employ a large number of employees and handling training becomes a huge challenge. The
main challenges of handling a large workforce include accommodation, foods, arts, and
entertainments. The second challenge is finding convenient training time that will have
minimal impact on the company workflow. When employees are undergoing training and
development program, there may be a shortage of workers resulting in a disruption in the
workflow of the company. Sometimes a training program can increase the workload of
employees at work (Phillips and Phillips 2016). The employees attend the training, but a large
amount of work is piling back at the company, such situations make the training programs
less effective.

The third challenge is convincing employees that training will be beneficial. Research
indicates that it is challenging to convince managers to attend training programs. Junior
employees are more willing to attend training program compared to managers. The third
challenge is location. When the organization does not have a training hall, it is forced to book
hotels or schools, which increase the cost of training. The last challenge is the adverse
changes in policies and procedures. Companies are now employing employees from different

backgrounds. Some employees do not understand English. Companies are forced to train
employees differently and develop training programs that meet their needs.

2.8 Theoretical Framework

The action theory explains how learning is controlled and provides insight on how people can
change behavior to meet the requirements of the firm. The theory links behavior to specific
outcomes. Action theory is used to address the goals of sustained change. Changes are
occurring in the market every day. Training is essential in addressing the changing needs.
The action theory stipulates that training employees identifies changes and ensures that
training programs match skills gap in an organization (Milhem et al. 2014). The action theory
attempts to show how employers can use study the behavior of employees and uses it to
influence their productivity (Baum et al. 2014). According to the action theory, a firm should
believe in the unlimited potential of employees regardless of their position and ability (Patton
and McMahon 2014). The managers should have the confidence in the value of collaboration
and communication among the departments, and also commit to and implement a regular
employee performance. Moreover, it is important for the organization to believe in the power
of personal connections and relationships among the staff.

Based on the empirical literature review and studies on the impact of training and
development on performance, the action theory was a good fit for the Qatar companies. First,
the Qatar companies mainly oil and gas companies hence experience frequent price
fluctuations in the global market. According to a World Bank research price fluctuations can
cause instability in the market and the companies (Word Bank Org. 2017). The action theory
will be used to enhance the learning process and employees will be equipped with skills and
knowledge to forecast changes in the market and respond to changes in good time. Secondly,
learning should be a continuous process in Qatar firms (Baum et al. 2014). According to

action theory, organizations must develop continuous policies of training. As a result, Qatar
companies will implement frequent training programs and will not wait for the occurrence of
skill gaps to develop training programs. The action theory focuses on the retention of
employees. Action theory approaches training and development in a different angle. The
action theory links behavior to the outcome (Patton and McMahon 2014). Knowles et al.
(2014) point out that the action theory recognizes the adult learning methods hence it can be
used to establish effective training programs. Effective training programs will ensure that
Qatari firms retain employees. Training will be associated with a sense if achievement and
knowledge since employees will develop their inherent capabilities. There will be few cases
if job dissatisfaction and turnover will be greatly reduced.

2.9 Summary of the Chapter

Qatari companies strive to be the best in the global market. The price fluctuation in the oil
industry has a huge impact on the economy of Qatar. Amidst the changes in the global
market, Qatari companies must reinvent to remain competitive in the global market. Qatar
companies can greatly benefit from employee training and development. Past studies have
shown that there is a positive relationship between performance and employee training and
development. Additionally, training and development will lead to job satisfaction and reduce
the rate of turnover. Qatar companies need to point out the training methods that are
appropriate for the firm. The application of action theory will be effective in identifying the
specific training practices that will be effective in Qatari companies.



3.1 Introduction

The objectives of this research include exploring the role of training and development on the
performance of organizations in Qatar; and identifying the strategic measures that
organizations can pursue in training and development. In achieving research objectives, the
research methodology plays a vital role in promoting research reliability and authenticity.
This insinuates that the methodology chosen for research must promise to effectively meet
the research objectives by answering the research questions adequately. This chapter provides
an elaborate description of how the research was conducted, including the research design,
sampling procedures sample size, data collection methods, data analysis methods and legal
and ethical considerations.

3.2 Research Design

This study utilizes the qualitative research design approach to explore the human resource
strategies that influence employee engagement within organizations in Qatar. Qualitative
research is considered an effective approach in business studies research, given that it seeks
to understand phenomena based on lived experiences and views of individuals who have
interacted directly with the phenomena (Chesnay, 2014). The use of qualitative research
helps the researcher in understanding underlying perceptions, opinions, reasons,
comprehension and motivations among respondents, based on their interaction or experience
with the subject of study (Leew, Hox & Dillman, 2012). In this case, the research works with
employees, who provide responses based on their experiences on training and development
programs in their organizations. Qualitative research is selected over quantitative research
approach for this research due to the nature of the research, which mostly consists of
descriptive data (Anney, 2014). Unlike quantitative research, which involves the analysis of
statistical data and structured data sets, qualitative research is used in exploratory studies
whose data may vary significantly in structure, such as the data collected from interviews
(Padilla-Díaz, 2015)

3.3 Data collection and research methods

The data for use in this research was collected using both primary and secondary data.
Primary data is highly important in research because it provides first-hand information from
research. Given that the researcher employs data collection and analysis procedures that are
carefully selected with the aim of obtaining the most appropriate results for the research,
primary data is considered more reliable (Rose, Spinks & Canhoto, 2014). Secondary data’s
importance cannot be underestimated, given that it provides valuable information to guide
research based on previous researches (Rose, Spinks & Canhoto, 2014). Secondary data
consisted of peer-reviewed journal articles, books, case studies and other sources of

information regarding training and development in organizations. Secondary data was mostly
used in literature review and discussion of findings from primary data.

To collect primary data for the completion of this research, the researcher utilizes two
qualitative inquiry methods, namely: semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. These
were effective in understanding how employee engagement is influenced by human resource
strategy. Using these methods, the research employs an exploratory approach in obtaining
information, by collecting diverse information from the interviews and open-ended

The semi-structured interview approach works by integration pre-determined questions with
open questions that elicit a conversation, such that the researcher can explore various themes
further (Cohen Manion & Morrison, 2011). Semi-structured interviews were used based on
their ability to collect diverse information from respondents regarding the research subject,
which ensured that the research questions are adequately answered. Since the researcher was
not restricted to a particular interview script like in structured interviews where the researcher
must follow the pre-determined questions, semi-structured interviews ensured that the
researcher could collect information on areas of interest depending on the recipient (Leew,
Hox & Dillman, 2012). On the contrary, semi-structured interviews may be time consuming
and failure to guide the interviewee may divert the interview from important matters or lead
to the collection of a lot of unnecessary information, which makes analysis more difficult
(Leew, Hox & Dillman, 2012). To counter this, the researcher allocated specific timings for
questions to ensure that respondents did not dwell too much on some at the expense of others.
The researcher also remained in control of the interviews, by guiding the respondents when
they seemed to be diverting from the main agenda.

Questionnaires were considered effective in the collection of data due to their ability to
collect data from a large population within a short period of time. Questionnaires also save
costs besides saving time, compared to interviews, where the researcher had to spend
considerable time and money for travelling and conducting interviews (Holt & Pamment,
2011). They were also easier to administer because the respondents can fill them at their own
convenience and without having to reveal their identity, which improves confidentiality
(Christopher, 2013). Uniformity of data would also achieved due to the pre-determined
questions, which makes analysis easier. However, data from questionnaires may be less
accurate because the researcher has no way of controlling how the respondent answers the
questions and whether canvasing is involved. Despite this shortcoming, questionnaires were
considered more effective due to the high number of respondents involved in the research.
Furthermore, combining this approach with semi-structured interviews ensured that the
researcher obtained more reliable results.

3.4 Research Population and sample size

The target population for this research was the Qatar workforce. Given that Qatar is a region
with a vibrant business environment and diverse human resource practices, the population
would provide adequate information for strategies that influence employee engagement. A
sample of 100 employees was utilized for the research. Employees were selected from 10
companies operating in Qatar, such that 10 respondents were selected from each company.
The selection process was done in collaboration with the human resource managers from the
respective organizations.

3.5 Sampling Procedures

This research targets 100 employees from Qatar to get useful data for analysis and
conclusions. To achieve this, a combination of simple random sampling and purposive
sampling were employed.

Simple random sampling refers to a method of sample selection where the every member of
the population has an opportunity to be included in the research (Nahorniak, et al., 2015)
According to Christopher (2013), this eliminates bias and ensures that the information
collected to a great extent represents the entire population. Simple random sampling was
considered more effective than other probability sampling methods such as stratified
sampling and cluster sampling. Stratified sampling requires the researcher to perform random
sampling within subgroups of the population, which ensures that smaller groups within the
population are equally represented (Nahorniak, et al., 2015) This is considered highly
effective in ensuring equal representation but this research did not require this form of
stratification. Cluster sampling is applicable where there are numerous micros clusters within
the population, such that a random sample of each cluster is considered. This method would
not be applicable in this research because the researcher‘s selection criteria were not aimed at
dividing the population into clusters.

Purposive sampling is where the researcher selects the sample based on which respondents
can provide the kind of information being sought, often informed by their knowledge and
experience in the subject under inquiry (Monette, Sullivan & DeJong, 2013). This increases
the probability of obtaining more accurate information and consequently enhancing the
accuracy and reliability of the study results. Purposive sampling is widely used among
researchers in situations where specific respondent knowledge and expertise is needed. The
downside of purposive sampling is that it may be biased, given that the researcher influences
the respondents to be included in the research (Patton, 2015). In essence, it is the opposite of

random sampling, which aims at ensuring equal representation of the population. To address
this, the researcher aimed at avoiding bias by ensuring that the respondents were only
selected based on their qualifications and experience.

Simple random sampling was used in selecting the companies to be included in the research.
Employees were selected from 10 companies identified using simple random sampling. In
selecting a sample for the research, purposive sampling was used in selecting respondents
who would offer appropriate data on how human resource strategies influence employee
engagement in Qatar. The researcher collected a list of 150 companies in Qatar and then used
a random number selection application to identify 10 companies whose employees were to be
involved in the research. Once the companies were identified, the researcher approached the
human resource manager in the companies to assist in selection of respondents through
purposive sampling. This was considered an appropriate measure because the human resource
manager was in a better position to identify individuals within the organization who meet the
selection criteria. As provided in purposive sampling, a random sample may not always be
effective in selecting a sample due to the possibility of selecting respondents who may not
offer adequate information to answer the research questions.

In order for an employee to qualify as a potential respondent, he or she must have worked in
Qatar for at least 10 years and worked in their current organization for at least three years.
This would ensure that the respondents could provide adequate information in the Qatar
context as well as the company context. One employee from each company had to be the
human resource manager while two employees from each company had to be department
managers. The other seven employees were sourced from different departments within the
organization, ensuring that as many departments as possible were represented. The researcher
interviewed 30 employees out of this sample, who basically included the human resources

and department managers. The interviews were aimed at establishing what managers’ thought
about the impact of training and development on their employees’ performance.
Questionnaires were issued to the other 70 employees to determine employees’ reaction to
training and development on their performance.

3.6 Data Analysis approach

Following the collection of relevant data, the researcher used Microsoft Excel in analyzing
the data by employing the various statistical data analysis tools available on the software.
This included a combination of excel tabulations, pie charts and tables for visual presentation
of the data collected from the research and perform inferential statistical tests. Coding was
used in analyzing data from the interviews.

Microsoft Excel is considered one of the most utilized tools for data analysis globally due to
the numerous functions including calculation and computation tools, presentation tools and
statistical analysis functions. Jackson (2012) notes that Microsoft Excel makes analysis easier
by providing formulas for analyzing data for comparison purposes. It is also effective in
presenting information from data collected, thus enhancing data analysis and dissemination.

Coding is known for its ability to analyze qualitative data, hence its selection for the analysis
of interview data collected in the research. Coding involves the classification of research
findings into different categories and assigning them codes, based on themes identified
(Klenke, 2016). This allows for narrative data to be effectively analyzed and thus promote
result accuracy. Ms Excel provided an excellent platform for data entry, coding and analysis
and will thus be effective in this process.

3.7 Validity & Reliability

In order for research results to be effectively utilized to inform strategy, policy and
development of other researches among other uses, validity and reliability are considered
essential prerequisites. This research makes deliberate attempts at enhancing validity and
reliability through well implemented research procedures and eliminating possible errors. To
enhance validity, the researcher went through training on interview performing skills to
ensure that the process was flawlessly executed and that the right procedures were used to
reduce chances of researcher bias (Powell, Hughes-Scholes & Sharman, 2012). To ensure
that the research is reliable, the researcher utilizes purposive sampling, which ensures that the
sample selected is of the highest, quality and that it provides high level data on the research.
To minimize bias, the researcher uses random sampling to select the sample companies to be
used for research (Yin, 2013). Ethical sampling and respondent communication also played
an important aspect in promoting validity and reliability. The researcher ensured that the
sampling process was as transparent as possible and that the respondents were given an
opportunity for informed consent (Quimby, 2012). The use of reliable and efficient data
analysis techniques also played a significant role in promoting the reliability of the research
(Leavy, 2014).

3.8 Ethical Issues

Researchers are expected to maintain high ethical standards in order for research validity and
authenticity to be achieved. In this regard, the research was conducted within the legal
frameworks and upholds highest standards of ethics during the collection and utilization of
information. To achieve this, the researcher sought approval from the ethics committee before
commencing the study. Secondly, the researcher ensured that all respondents selected for the
study participate out of their own consent and that no one is coerced into being part of the
study. Thirdly, the researcher observed the following ethical issues with regards to research.


Permission to conduct study

Ethical standards require that when conducting a research in an institutional setting, it is
important to seek permission from authorities in order to ensure that they are aware of the
researcher’s intentions and activities (Hammersley & Traianou, 2012). This research was
done in private organizations in Qatar and selection of respondents was done in conjunction
with the human resource manager. This means that the first step in conducting the research
was to seek permission from the organization.

Privacy and confidentiality

An important ethical factor in research is ensuring that the privacy and confidentiality of
respondents is maintained. This means that their views should only be used for research
purposes and should not be shared with third parties or used to incriminate them (Quimby,
2012). In this research, privacy and confidentiality was assured in the entire process through
various actions. Firstly, the researcher assured participants that their responses would only
use used in informing the research and not for any other purpose. Secondly, their views and
information collected from them would not be shared with third parties including their
managers or marketing companies. Thirdly, respondents given the questionnaire would not be
required to indicate their names, thus boosting their assurance on confidentiality (Chesnay,
2014). Those who participated in interviews were assured that their personal credentials and
responses would be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Informed consent

Research ethics require that participants must not be coerced into participating in any study
and that they must do so upon their own volition. To ensure that this is achieved the
researcher is expected to ensure informed consent, which involves providing adequate

information to respondents regarding the research, to help them make an informed decision
on whether to participate or not (Resnik, 2016). To address this issue, the researcher sent
information to the respondents indicating the purpose of the research, data collection methods
and expected usefulness of the research.

3.9 Summary of the Chapter

This chapter comprehensively explains the methodology that this research applied in
exploring the role of training and development in enhancing organizational strategy. The
chapter establishes that this research utilizes the qualitative method, with interviews and
questionnaires being used in the collection of data. The data analysis method to be used to
scrutinize findings as well as the how validity and reliability of research was ensured is
discussed. The chapter also defines the population, sample and sampling methods used in
determining the sample for research; and defines the ethical issues considered during the
research. The next chapter consists of the findings from the research, which comprises of the
data collected from the interviews and questionnaires. The results will form a basis for
analysis and consequently the research findings.


4.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the results of the study, obtained through the use of a questionnaire
and interview as indicated in the methodology. The questionnaire was administered in the
form of an online survey, in which individuals from different organizations were asked to rate
the training and development programs in their organizations. A total of 71 respondents

participated in the survey. The interviews were conducted among 40 managers in different
organizations, in a bid to determine the impact of training and development on performance.
The research sought to answer two questions as follows:

  1. How do training and development affect an organization’s overall performance?
  2. What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees in training and

The analysis section is organized based on these research questions with a view of
establishing the view of respondents in the research.

4.2 Characteristics of respondents

  1. Age
    A majority of respondents in the survey were aged between 31 and 40 who consisted
    39% of the population, followed by individuals below 30 who made up 25% of the
    population. Individuals above 60 were the least represented in the survey. A graph
    showing the entire population is given below. Managers included in the interview
    were mostly in the 41-60 years category.




Respondents by Age

Below 30 years
31-40 years
41-50 years
51-60 years
Above 60

  1. Gender
    The survey mainly attracted male respondents compared to female respondents. While
    53 male respondents participated in the survey, female participants were 18 in
    number. This is presented graphically as follows.





  1. Current organization and number of years worked
    The distribution according to organization is presented as follows. The government
    sector had the highest number of respondents, followed by Qatar Petroleum, Qatar
    Airways, the private sector and Ooredoo in that order.

While a majority of employees had worked over 10 years, most of them had been with
their current organization for 10 years and below. The table below details the number
of years worked by the survey participants.

Number of years Total number of
years worked

Number of years
worked in current
Below 5 18.31% 39.44%


Between 5 and 10 25.35% 32.39%
Between 10-20 35.21% 22.54%
Above 20 21.23% 5.63%

4.3 Impact of training and development on performance Results

4.3.1 Research question 1

How does training and development affect an organization’s overall performance?

This research question sought to understand how training and development affects employee
and organizational performance. In this regard, respondents were asked to answer questions
that reflected their personal view on training and development and how they thought it
affected them and their organizations. To accomplish this, there was need to understand the
nature of the training and development programs in the organizations. Opportunities for training

The ability of an organization to provide adequate opportunities for training impacts the
effectiveness of its training program’s impact on performance (Latif, Jan and Shaheen, 2013).
In a survey question that sought to establish organizational training programs and relevance
of training to employees, it was established that 73% of the individuals had an opportunity for
training during the year. This can be established from the fact that 30.77% of respondents
strongly agreed that they had received training while 42.31% agreed to the same question.
Further, 77% of respondents considered future training and development highly important for
them and would therefore be open to future opportunities.

In all organizations under study, employees taking the survey did not seem to understand how
employees are selected for training. This could be an illustration that training programs are
not well developed and procedures for training and development are not well outlined.
57.69% of the respondents indicated that they did not understand how employees were
selected for training and development in their organization. From the manager interviews, it
can was established that the management made various considerations in determining who
would be selected to participate in trainings. This was based on various factors including skill
deficiency, the need to improve knowledge of certain employees based on work assignments,
appropriateness of training opportunity for selected staff and resource availability. The fact
that employees are not made aware of trainee selection procedures however has the potential
to create trust issues and employee dissatisfaction, which is the reason why it should be
communicated to all staff and be open and fair.

The data on opportunities for training as established from the survey is presented as follows. Types of training

The nature of training differed across organizations, with the most popular form of training
being on the job training. 32.69% of the respondents had received internal training. This can
be explained by the low cost of on the job training and its capability to promote knowledge
acquisition that is accompanied by practical sessions since it is done at the duty station
(Ognjenović, 2015). On the job programmed instruction and external training in terms of
popularity followed training. The data on training is given by the graph below.

On the job
Job rotation External



Type of training received

Series 1 Impact on Training and Development Individual Performance

The results of the survey indicate that there is a positive correlation between training and
development and employee performance. When asked about the impact of training, 69.23%
concurred that the training they received had a positive impact on their performance. 21.15%
did not find a correlation between their performance and training received while 9.62% were
unsure. This is presented graphically as follows:



Impact of training on performance

Training impacted on
Training did not impact on
Maybe training impacted on

Data from the manager interviews also supports the positive correlation between training and
development and employee performance. More than half of the managers noted that staff
performance had improved as a result of the training and development programs. This was
evidenced through enhanced capabilities to meet set objectives, improved efficiency,
enhanced motivation, better ability to handle complex assignments, increased diversity in
employee capabilities, enhanced sales and better customer satisfaction, regular update of
skills and enhanced team work; all necessary in improving employee performance. These
results compare significantly to those of Elnaga, A and Imran (2013) who note that when
organizations provide training and development, the consequent improvement in their
workforce is notable and this leads to better performance in the organizations. Impact on Organizational Performance

The results also indicated a positive relationship between training and performance, based on
various aspects of measuring organizational performance. These included efficiency and
productivity, teamwork, communication, employee competence, employee participation, staff

turnover, ease in job rotation and conflict management. Efficiency and productivity scored
highly in terms of the number of employees who thought that the training and development
had an impact on performance. 36.54% of the respondents strongly agreed while 46.15%
agreed that efficiency and productivity was improved following training and development.
Teamwork, communication efficiency and increased participation of employees on decision
making were also regarded highly in relation to training and development. A greater number
tended to disagree that staff turnover, employee participation and employee competence were
influenced by training and development. 46.15% disagreed that training and development
reduced staff turnover while 40.38 and 38.47% disagreed on the impact of employee
competence and increased participation in decision making respectively. The graph showing
the scores of various performance aspects is given below.

Impact of training and development on performance among


Strongly agreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly disagree the role of training and development on organizational performance

To further inquire the relevance of training and development on organizational performance,
respondents in both the survey and interviews were asked to rate training and development as
a means of enhancing the achievement of organizational objectives. This was aimed at
establishing the value placed by employees on training and development. 61.54% of the
respondents from the survey noted that training programs were highly useful while 38.46
noted that they were slightly useful. None of the respondents considered the programs not
useful. This is illustrated below.

The input from managers brought about varied responses on why training and development
was important in promoting organizational performance. Among the most popular responses
to the question included:

Importance of a skilled workforce in achieving organizational goals

Changing business environment that requires constant training

Better skills and capabilities improve performance

Training and development enhances employee morale and hence improved performance –


Training motivates employees to perform better

When training is aligned with organizational goals and strategies, it enhances achievement of
these goals

Training enhances competitive advantage of the organization

Skill and capability diversity translates to better performance

Increased involvement of employees in organizational decision making

Enhanced efficiency and profitability Impact of training and development on motivation

Major studies including Dhar (2015) and Elnaga (2013) have shown that training and
development have a significant impact on motivation. This is because they improve employee
confidence on their employer, given that they have the opportunity to enhance their skills.
With regard to employee motivation, the survey concurred with these views. The results
indicated that 53.85% of the respondents found training and development highly useful in
enhancing motivation while 36.54% considered it slightly useful. Only 9.62% thought that
training and development had no role in enhancing motivation as indicated in the graph
below. Data from the interview also revealed that training played a major role in motivation
of employees. 42% of the managers when asked about the impact of training and
development responded that it had enhanced the performance of the organization based on
increase in staff morale.

49 Employee satisfaction with training program

In order for a training and development program to be effective, employee satisfaction
with the program is of great significance. This is because it guarantees that the organization is
providing the right skills and knowledge for employees and that it is meeting their training
and development needs (David, 2011). This research sought to establish the level of
satisfaction among employees and it is notable that the more than half of the respondents
considered their training program satisfactory. 31.37% on the other hand did not consider it
satisfactory while 15.69% were not sure. This could be an indication that organizations are
prioritizing training in Qatar and that employees are recognizing these efforts. The graph
showing the results is given below.


Employee satisfaction with training program

SatisfiedNot satisfiedMaybe Alignment of training and development to organizational needs

An important factor to consider in assessing the performance of a training and development
program is the alignment of training and development opportunities to organization’s needs.
Grant (2016) notes that failure to identify the training needs leads to the development of
programs that do not address the organization’s skill deficiency and thus renders training
programs ineffective in enhancing performance. In this regard, the research sought to
determine whether this was an important factor for companies in Qatar. Results indicated that
a large majority of organizations had their training needs aligned to the training programs as
shown below.


Training and development
opportunities aligned to
organization’s needs

Training and development
opportunities not aligned to
organization’s needs

Not sure


Training opportunities alignment to

organizational needs

Series 1

4.3.2 Research Question 2

What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees in training and

Training and development is an intensive undertaking and this to a great extent influences the
capability of organizations to perform it as intended (Nongard, 2014). Through this research
question, the study queried some of the challenges that employees and organizations might
face in their training and development efforts. The challenges experienced by employees and
organizations were vast and widely distributed across various aspects. However, the most
cited challenges are listed as follows, classified as either internal or external training
challenges. Notably, the challenges are not unique to companies in Qatar and other
researchers have identified such challenges as affecting training programs as discussed

52 Challenges in internal training

Timing and time management: Based on the survey, it is notable that time management limits
internal training due to time availability, short time available to complete courses, late
announcement of course availability, poor time keeping by trainers and trainees and the
allocation of trainings within working hours. One respondent also noted that there is not
enough time to review courses due to time limitations and this limits ability to determine
effectiveness of the course. These challenges are not unique to the Qatari organizations and
as noted by OECD (2011), time limitations remain the most significant factors in influencing
training success.

Resource limitations: A considerable number of managers consider resource limitations an
influencing factor in training and development. Notably, the number of employees in need of
training often exceeds the financial resources in organizations, necessary to ensure that
training programs are adequate for everyone. Noe at al. (2016) notes that training and
development programs are highly expensive and that organizations must be in a position to
invest significant resources in order to effectively execute their programs.

Quality of training: Some respondents were concerned about the quality of training, noting
that it was not the best. Outdated training programs and inexperienced trainers were identified
as some of the related factors. The availability of qualified trainers is one of the most
influential factors in determining whether a training program will be effective (Gospel, 2015).
The results insinuate that the employees are not confident with the internal trainers and this
may influence the effectiveness of training within the organizations.

Long course durations: When courses are long, they affect the employee schedules and thus
impact their work performance (Rothwell, 2011)). This appears to be a major challenge
among the companies included, mostly due to the busy scheduled.

Employee attitudes: Employee attitudes may impact training effectiveness because it limits
absorption and eventually the efficacy of training (Ryburn, Brown and Meier, 2011). In this
research, respondents noted cases of absenteeism among employees, not taking courses
seriously and not paying adequate attention during classes as examples. In the interview with
managers which included a question on how staff attitudes impacted the effectiveness of
training and development, respondents identified various issues including staff not being
committed to training programs, dismissal of training on grounds that they already know,
unrealistic ambitions following trainings such as promotions or salary increment,
unwillingness of senior staff to train with junior staff, and the preference for external
trainings compared to internal trainings.

Cultural factors: Mixed workshops (male and female) are considered a cultural issue by some
individuals due to religious and cultural beliefs.

Equipment unavailability: This includes lack of training material and equipment necessary
for effective training. The availability of required material ensures that trainees can
effectively grasp the content of the lessons and implement them as necessary (Rothwell,
2011). Challenges in external training

Timing and time management: The issue of time is also evident in external training.
Examples cited in the study include conflict with work and personal schedules. Time

consumed due to travelling and differences in time zones were also considered important

Language and cultural barriers: These include challenges in language that may affect training
efficacy as well as cultural challenges that affect individuals in the program. An example
given by a male respondent working in the government sector is the mixing of religion and
mixed gender classes, which they are not primarily used to. Cultural barriers also impact hoe
information is conveyed to trainees, which could consequently influence their understanding.

Environmental challenges: Lau and McLean (2013) note that the efficacy of training may be
influenced by the physical location, particularly when it is a new environment and individuals
have to adjust. Examples cited in the research include familiarizing with the training
environment and weather differences that may affect individuals.

Lack of alignment between training and job functions: This could be as a result of broad
training objectives, such that the training may not necessarily align to the job description of
the trainees. Given the importance of ensuring that training objectives meet the needs of the
organization, these present a major challenge in external training (David, 2011).

Compressed training: Due to time limitations and the need to fit a large amount of
information during the training period, the trainings may be compressed.

Takes employee away from daily workstation: This may affect employees’ work schedules
and lead to work pressure once back at their stations.

Exhaustion may limit absorption: This was linked to travelling which may affect an
individual’s ability to learn.

Inadequate opportunities: Specialized external courses are not available for all employees and
where available they may have to wait long periods of time.

Gender differences in opportunities: Respondents noted the limitations in women training

Unfair training participant selection: In this research, respondents reported cases of unfair
allocation of opportunities, where managers may practice discrimination in choosing
participants for training. This way, some employees end up trainings that do not have an
impact on their work while relevant ones miss out. Based on the interviews, it is evident that
managers are mostly responsible for determining training needs and who participates in the
trainings. This is based on skill deficit, department needs and individual needs. This explains
why there could have been a concern over unfairness in employee selection for training,
given that managers control the training opportunities available. Should the managers
exercise favoritism in their selection of trainees, the program may not be effective in ensuring
that the right people acquire the required skills. Recommendations to address challenges in training and development

In order for organizations in Qatar to improve on their performance, the following
recommendations should be implemented. According to Knights (2013), employees should
be involved in developing solutions to a great extent because this ensures that they can tailor
them to the challenges that they have. Accordingly, the research sought to determine how
best challenges can be addressed in order to ensure that employees are satisfied with training
programs in their organizations.


Employee involvement

The challenges identified would best be addressed through amicable solutions that reflect the
views of employees themselves because they are the ones affected by these challenges (Pride,
2013). An important factor to consider is the involvement of employees in determining the
kind of courses they wish to pursue and the relevant material that they believe needs to be
included. This will not only enhance employee morale but also ensure that training is
effective in enhancing their performance (Elnaga and Imran, 2013).

Training needs identification

Ognjenović (2013) notes that in order for a training program to be effective, it must ensure
that training needs are effectively identified so as to match them with available training
opportunities. This ensures that the company’s performance can be improved based on the
training and development programs. Managers should be given the mandate to allocate
training opportunities, with the condition that they select participants objectively.

Align trainings with labor market demands

Labor market demands are changing rapidly as the level of competition increases and new
concepts in business development and performance emerge (Noe, et al., 2016). In this
relation, there is need to address the question of outdated curriculums and to address the issue
of changing market needs. This will ensure that all trainings taken by employees are
effective. In order to achieve this, research is necessary to ensure that current market trends
are identified.


Training variety

Employees do not need to be trained for the sake of it and this calls for the development of
unique courses that they can pursue based on their needs. Accordingly, it is imperative that
organizations develop new varieties of trainings to fit employees.

Technology use

The issue of time comes out strongly in the results. Modern literature suggests that with the
advancement in technology, organizations can take advantage of online learning as an
alternative to time consuming courses (Chio, 2012). Individuals can learn more at their own
convenient time and thus solve the issue of time availability and time management while
enhancing knowledge acquisition. The use of online courses also saves time for the

4.4 Chapter Summary

This chapter provides the findings of the research, categorized according to the two research
questions posed by this study. It is established that organizations in Qatar found training and
development effective for both the organization and the employees. Employees in Qatar
noted some of the major effects of training and development as being increased skills and
expertise, improved role performance, increased chances of promotion, enhanced teamwork
and better conflict resolution. The chapter also includes recommendations given by
respondents on the possible solutions to training and development challenges identified.



5.1 Introduction

The subject of training in development remains highly relevant in the contemporary world,
given the increased importance of employee job satisfaction and motivation in enhancing
organizational performance. This research sought to establish the impact of training and
development in Qatar companies. Having collected adequate data to inform the research,
understanding the implications of this research is of great importance. This chapter consists
of a discussion of findings from the research; thoroughly scrutinizing them and relating them
to existing literature in order to effectively draw conclusions on the study topic. The
discussion chapter addresses the research questions and objectives and how they have been
answered based on the research outcomes. The research questions to be answered are given
as follows:

  1. How does training and development affect an organization’s overall performance?
  2. What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees in training and

5.2 How does training and development affect overall organizational performance?

The results of this research indicate that training and development has a major impact in
organizational performance. Based on the findings of the research, training and development
influences performance based in two premises. The first is that training and development
enhances the skill level of employees and thus enables them to perform better through greater
capabilities (Neyestani, 2014). The second factor is that training and development influences
employee job satisfaction and motivation, such that they are likely to be more productive
(Khan, Khan & Khan, 2012). The second aspect has gained increased importance among

organizations, such that organizations are increasingly investing in training and development
programs (Costen & Salazar, 2011).

The results of this research demonstrate training and development is of great importance
because it promotes the morale of employees. Further, training and development is highly
regarded by employees and they are more interested in programs that enhance their level of
development by boosting their skills and knowledge. This calls on employers to enhance their
training and development programs in order to ensure that their employees acquire the
desired knowledge and skills. Managers in the research determine that following training and
development, they have witnessed enhanced performance based on enhanced capabilities to
meet set objectives, improved efficiency, enhanced motivation, better ability to handle
complex assignments, increased diversity in employee capabilities, enhanced sales and better
customer satisfaction, regular update of skills and enhanced team work. This insinuates that
the organizations to which they belong is reaping the benefits of training and development.
As established by Kennett (2013), organizational performance is enhanced through increased
efficiency, innovation, diversity, teamwork, possession of adequate skills and knowledge, and
enhanced customer service.

The results by Elnaga & Imran (2013) produce similar results indicating that training and
development plays a vital role in promoting performance of the organization. This is achieved
through enhanced skill set and increasing motivation level of employees. Murray, et al (2013)
considers training and development as a form of intrinsic motivation, ensuring that
employees feel appreciated by getting an opportunity to improve their skills and capabilities.
Based on the research, it is certain that employees in Qatar find training and development
significantly important. This can be established by the fact that 77% of respondents were
open to future training and development opportunities. Similarly, it can be established that

Qatar organizations are committed to training their employees, given that 73% of respondents
had a training opportunity during the year. This is an indication that organizations were
investing their resources in promoting training and development.

A further analysis of the question on how training and development affects overall
organizational performance can be discussed based on the following themes as used in the
research to obtain data.

5.2.1 Impact of Training and Development on Individual Performance

According to Knights (2013), training is a highly expensive endeavor for organizations and it
is therefore expected that the investment should pay off through enhanced competitiveness.
Noe, et al (2016) further notes that organizations are more interested in employee
performance because it is an assurance that the investment made on training and development
is paying off.

The findings of this research constitute the views of managers, who ideally represent the
organization. Based on their responses, it was evident that managers realize the relevance of
training and development in their organizations. Interviews with the managers revealed that
over half of the managers noted that training and development was positively related to the
individual performance. They noted increased motivation, better ability to perform roles,
increased capabilities to handle complex assignments, improved efficiency, better team work,
problem solving skills, increased innovation and greater confidence among employees. This
insinuates that the organizations to which they belong is reaping the benefits of training and

In their research, Imran & Tanveer (2015) establish that enhanced employee performance
following training can be indicated through enhanced motivation, procedural and declarative

knowledge. These comprise of the factors influencing performance and are considered
important prerequisites, failure to which poor performance would be recorded. According to
Imran & Tanveer (2015), motivation is used to denote the level of contribution and degree of
hard work that the employee exerts towards achieving the organization’s goals. Procedural
knowledge refers to the skills and knowledge necessary in performing a job role including
functional, cognitive and technical skills while declarative knowledge includes knowledge
about various procedures, guiding principles, job responsibilities and particulars necessary to
for high performance. The factors observed by managers in Qatar companies as discussed
above confirms the proposition by Imran & Tanveer (2015), and it can therefore be
established that training and development has a major role to play in enhancing employee

Khan, Khan & Khan (2011) discuss the impact of training and development on individual
performance and note that this may be evidenced in various ways including enhanced
productivity, greater commitment to work, enhanced professionalism and expertise in
performing their jobs, and enhanced problem-solving skills. Through training and
development, employees acquire skills and knowledge that they did not have before and
therefore demonstrate better expertise in executing their work (Sullivan, 2011). Based on the
results of the research, it is evident that training and development has been effective in
enhancing the performance of employees in Qatar organizations under study. This further
confirms the findings by Gupta & Attar (2012) because among the factors given by
managers, enhanced productivity, professionalism, expertise and work commitment are
identified as major improvements that employees have made as a result of training.

The relevance of training and development in enhancing performance is undoubtedly
established in this research. Accordingly, it can be established that in order for organizations

to be successful in a competitive corporate world, organizations must invest in training and

5.2.2 Impact of training and development on motivation

The role of training and development in enhancing an individual’s performance is to a great
extent determined by their level of motivation. Muhammad & Easha (2013) establishes that
training and development impacts on an employee’s performance, such that they are able to
execute their roles better due to enhanced morale. According to the findings of this research,
employees recognize the impact of training and development in enhancing their level of
motivation. More than half of the respondents noted that training ensured that they performed
better through increased motivation. Similarly, a considerable number of managers noted that
employees were motivated by training and development, thus ensuring that they perform
better. The question however remains how training and development can promote motivation.

Afshan (2012) in their study on how training and development influences motivation
establish that employees feel more appreciated when their employer invests in them in terms
of training and development. This means that the employer is concerned about their
development, hence their commitment towards offering training and development (Khan,
Khan & Mahmood, 2012). The result of this is intrinsic motivation that ensures that
individuals can exert more effort towards their work and hence increase their productivity. In
addition, training and development provides employees with new knowledge and skills, thus
ensuring that they can handle more complex tasks and additional responsibilities (Hameed &
Waheed, 2011). Increased task complexity and additional responsibilities are considered
motivational factors for employees and this means that training and development are
impactful as far as motivation is concerned. When employees are motivated, they are also
capable of performing better and this translates into better organizational performance.

Current research indicates that employee involvement in decision making within the
organization increases motivation level among employees. This is because it makes
employees feel more valuable in the organization, given that the management is providing
them with an opportunity to contribute to the organization’s decision making process
(Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). Furthermore, employee involvement ensures that strategies
undertaken by the organization match employee needs. In training and development,
employee involvement is necessary in the development of training curriculum, identification
of training needs and development of training schedules because it ensures that training and
development meets employee needs and expectations (Felstead, et al., 2010; Latif, Jan &
Shaheen, 2013).

Employee involvement in the training and development processes emerges as an important
consideration for organizations based on this research. The findings of the research establish
that quite a large number of employees were not aware of the procedures used for selecting
trainees in their organizations. This according to Grant (2016) delineates employees because
of lack of involvement. In addition, failure to involve employees means that the organization
may not provide training that is well tailored to the employees’ needs, thus limiting its
effectiveness in enhancing organizational performance. This spells out the need for
organizations in Qatar to increase the level of involvement among employees in order to
ensure that their training programs are effective (Felstead, et al., 2010).

5.3 What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees in training
and development?

This question sought to establish some of the challenges affecting training and development
programs and thus offers recommendations on how they can be addressed to enhance its
effectiveness. While training and development is deemed a major prerequisite for


organizations that seek to enhance their competitive advantage through increased
performance, it is notable that its effectiveness may be dwindled by challenges in the internal
or external environment of the organization (Bradford, Rutherford & Friend, 2017).
Challenges may range from poor content to inefficient execution. Armstrong & Taylor (2014)
establish that when there are shortcomings in an organization’s training and development
program, the organization may not benefit from the training and development because it does
not fulfill its intended purpose. The results of this research point out some of the challenges
that an organization is likely to face in its quest to enhance efficiency through training and
development. These include challenges affecting internal and external trainings, and which
affect the effectiveness of training and development among Qatar companies. The major
challenges identified in the research are discussed as follows.

5.3.1 Resource Limitations

This research indicates that resource limitations play an imperative role in restraining
the effectiveness of training and development among organizations. Managers involved in the
research noted that resource limitations were apparent in their organizations and this to a
great extent led to insufficient training and development opportunities for employees. Even
where available, trainings require high level resources in ensuring that the highest quality of
trainings is offered. The issue of limited resources was also quoted by employees who noted
that there were limited opportunities for training in their organizations due to inadequate
resources. The implications of this are that organizations are not capable of meeting their
training and development objectives, which limits the possibility of high performance.

Training and development is considered an expensive venture for organizations,
mostly if it involves expensive courses that require numerous resources. Resource limitations
become evident in the form of inadequate funds necessary for training, and inadequate

resources such as time, equipment and trainers (Beynon, et al., 2015). As a result, the
organization may not be in a position to provide training and development to all employees.
Alternatively, an attempt to ensure that every employee goes through training may lead to the
provision of low quality training and development programs that do not impact on the
organization’s performance as expected (Beynon, et al., 2015).

5.3.2 Time Management

In more than half of the responses, individuals included in the research identified
time-related factors as a great deterrent to both internal and external training efforts in their
organizations. It is notable that lack of adequate time for training, clash between training and
work schedules and poor time management by trainees and trainers are to blame for
inefficiencies in training and development programs among companies in Qatar. These not
only limit the ability of the organization to compete effectively but they could also impact on
employee interest in training. As established in the research, many of the respondents were of
the view that the management should reserve adequate time for training and where possible
provide days off for employees to undertake training, so as to ensure that they do not have to
juggle between work and training. This would be highly impactful and as noted by Kirpal
(2011), when organizations do not reserve adequate time for training, they risk compromising
its effectiveness because employees may not effectively balance between work and training.
This could explain why some employees in the companies involved were not satisfied with
the training and development programs in their organizations.

The challenge of time is not unique to Qatar organizations and as noted by Kirpal
(2011), time constraints are major derailments in training and development programs and that
lack of adequate planning could thwart the objectives of an organization’s program. This

leads to wastage of resources through rushed trainings, wasted time and absenteeism where
employees have to attend to work-related issues.

5.3.3 Alignment of training and development to organization’s needs

This study establishes that there is a challenge in the alignment of training and
development objectives among Qatar firms. Alignment to the organization’s needs is
considered one of the factors influencing the effectiveness of training, such that failure to
ensure such alignment lowers its impact on performance (Smith, 2011). In order for training
and development to be effective in enhancing organizational performance, it is imperative
that the needs of the organization are effectively matched to the objectives of the training and
development programs (Cancedda, et al, 2015). This ensures that once the employees go
through the program, there is a direct impact on the organization’s performance, thus a return
on investment. According to Smith (2011), failure to link the organization’s needs with
training objectives leads to resource wastage because the organization does not benefit from
the training given.

5.3.4 Unfair Opportunities

In order for a training to be effective in enhancing performance, an organization must
ensure that all employees have a fair chance of getting training and development
opportunities. According to the completed research, it is evident that the issue of fairness in
training and development opportunities is prominent in Qatar organizations. This insinuates
that despite the effectiveness of the training and development programs, the impact on
employee performance may not be felt effectively across the organization. A substantial
number of respondents in the research noted that they did not understand how employees
were selected for trainings or that they did not get adequate opportunities for training and

development. This was mostly notable for external trainings, which were considered few and
far between, such that finding an opportunity for training was considered highly difficult.
Some indicated that when opportunities were available, the possibility of missing out on
opportunities because supervisors picked their own choice of employees as opposed to those
who best suit the trainings available was a great deterrent to fairness in training opportunities.

This challenge is not unique to the Qatar organizations and as noted by Eby & Allen (2012),
organizations normally experience difficulties in the selection of employees for training,
mostly when there are few opportunities and employees are many. To ensure that employees
have trust on the training and development program in the organization, the management
must ensure that employees get equal opportunities for training (Tarique, 2014). On the other
hand, organizations could work towards expanding their programs to benefit more employees
or develop innovative ways that ensure they train as many employees as possible based on
the available resources. An example of this is the use of online training programs that ensure
that many employees can be trained with minimal resources. An online training program
would ensure that each employee has access to training and development, thus enhancing the
organization’s performance potential.

5.3.5 Quality of Training

This study establishes that a significant number of employees are concerned about the quality
of training received in their organizations. While others cite repetitive trainings, others note
that trainers are not well qualified, the content of training is outdated or that they do not get
the opportunity to train on what they feel is relevant to their careers. Such sentiments could
be detrimental to an organization’s ability to promote organizational performance through
training and development. These findings echo those of Gamanov (2012) who noted that the

quality of training was among the factors that influenced the effectiveness of training in

According to Garavan, McCarthy & Morley (2016), training and development needs to meet
the organization’s performance objectives in order to be effective. One of the aspects that
ensure that this is achieved is the quality of training, which must be of the highest quality in
order. Organizations are expected to maintain the highest level of quality when it comes to
their training and development programs in order to influence the performance of their
employees and also ensure that the skills and knowledge attained are of relevance to the
organization (Su, Lu & Chiu, 2015). In order to compete effectively, an organization’s
employees must be well equipped with the right skills and knowledge to handle their work,
enhance creativity and innovation, and this can only be achieved through ensuring that the
quality of training is enhanced. Tarique (2014) notes that given the level of expense
associated with training and development, it is important to ensure that the organization
makes the most of it by ensuring that the quality of training is enhanced.

5.3.6 Employee attitudes

Managers included in the research establish that employee attitudes are among the limiting
factors in organizations’ training endeavors. Some of the major issues identified include
attitude of employees towards the type of training given, where some feel that it is not
adequate or it is irrelevant to their career development. Some employees are unwilling to
attend trainings because they feel that they are repetitive or because they are expected to train
with their juniors, such that they may feel undermined. The effectiveness of training and
development is to a great extent influenced by employee attitudes as established by Knowles,
Holton & Swanson (2014) and this could have a significant impact on the success of a
training and development program. This is because employees are the key beneficiaries of

training and development and their willingness to participate in training determines its
effectiveness. Employee attitudes may be influenced by the importance they place on
training, the nature of training and how it impacts their performance and career development
and the management’s commitment towards promoting training and development in the
organization (Storey, 2014)). Positive attitudes towards training and development ensure
more effectiveness in an organization’s quest towards enhancing organizational performance.
Negative attitudes on the other hand limit the ability to enhance organizational performance
through training and development. When employees have negative attitude towards training
and development, this is mostly influenced by the nature of the organization’s program and
indicates the need to review the program (Phillips & Phillips, 2016). The management could
address the issue through increased involvement of employees in the development of the
training program. This way, it is possible to understand the employees’ needs, issues and
concerns so as to ensure they are effectively addressed.

5.7 Summary of the Chapter

This chapter is a discussion of the findings of the research based on the research objectives
and research questions, while comparing the findings with what has been established by other
studies on the same subject. Various themes according to the research are analyzed to
determine the implications of the research on Qatar organizations, which will then be used to
make conclusions on the research and provide recommendations for the organizations to
ensure that their training and development programs lead to an increase in the organization’s
performance. The discussion encompasses an evaluation of the impact of training and
development on organizational and individual employee performance, impact of training and
development on motivation and the factors affecting the effectiveness of training and

development; including employees involvement and challenges affecting training and
development programs in organizations.


6.1 Introduction

Employee training and development plays a pivotal role in enhancing the performance of
organizations as established in this research. Based on the findings of the study which
involved 71 employees and 40 managers from different companies in Qatar, employee
training and development is not only beneficial for employees but it is also directly related to
an organization’s performance. This is associated with the enhanced skill set that an
organization possesses, thus ensuring that staff can effectively execute firm objectives and
increased employee motivation which plays an imperative role in enhancing employee
performance. The conclusion chapter presents a summary of the research, to further
demonstrate the relevance of training and development in organizations in Qatar.

6.2 Restatement of Research Objectives, Questions and Theoretical Framework

In a world where competition among firms has increased considerably, there is need for
organizations to adopt strategies that ensure that they can compete effectively in the sectors
they operate. Previous researches have sought to understand the role of training and
development as a strategy for improving firm performance, with a positive correlation being
established in a majority of studies. This research aimed at establishing the role of training
and development on organizational performance among firms in Qatar. The main objectives
were to establish how training and development affected the overall performance of

organizations and the challenges that firms and employees encountered in relation to training
and development. To accomplish this, the research used questionnaires and interviews for
data collection, where 71 employees in 10 selected companies from Qatar participated in an
online survey; while 40 interviews were conducted among managers from the same

In concluding its findings, the research seeks to answer two questions as follows:

  1. How do training and development affect an organization’s overall performance?
  2. What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees in training and

The first question is aimed at establishing whether training and development can impact an
organization’s performance and whether training needs influence individual performance.
The second question aims at determining factors that limit training and development as
encountered by both organizations and the employees. The aim is to establish possible
solutions for enhancing training and development effectiveness.

The research’s theoretical framework is based on the Action Theory, which seeks to establish
the processes that lead to human beings’ intentional movements, such that this can be used to
link behavior and performance. Based on this premise, employees are bound to change
behavior following training and development, such as in the desire to utilize skills and
capabilities acquired. Linking such behavior to performance, this theory can be used to
explain why employee performance directly influences the organization’s performance. In
essence, improved organizational performance can only be realized when employees’
performance is enhanced.

6.3 Summary of Results

The overall results from the research determine that training and development enhances the
performance of organizations to a significant extent. Based on this research, it was
established that employee performance increases as a result of training and development,
which consequently leads to enhanced performance for the organization. The results of this
research also indicate that training and development endeavors are often confronted by
various challenges that influence the ability of organizations to ensure that employees receive
the desired training and development. Findings of the research can be summarized as follows.

The correlation between training and development and organizational performance is
positive. This implies that when employees are provided with training and development
opportunities, they are more likely to perform better. Evidence from the research establish
that training and development enhances employees’ skills and capabilities, such that they can
effectively meet set objectives, complete complex assignments with ease and generally
perform better in their roles. Companies included in the study demonstrated enhanced
organizational performance through enhanced customer satisfaction, increased sales,
increased innovation, better teamwork, enhanced conflict resolution and improved
profitability. The findings of the research confirm what has been established by Elnaga &
Imran (2013), Dhar (2015) and Kennett (2013) in their studies, all which suggest that
enhanced organizational performance can be observed based on the above indicators; which
can be heightened through training and development.

Besides enhancing employee skills and capabilities, this research determines another tenet on
the impact of training and development, which is the influence of training and development
on job satisfaction and motivation (Bercu, 2017). It was established that employees’ job
satisfaction was enhanced when they received training and development. As a result, their
level of motivation was enhanced, thus ensuring that they performed better at their work.

Relating this to the works of Neyestani (2014), Costen & Salazar (2011) and Khan, Khan &
Khan (2012), it is apparent that the results of the research reflect what is happening in today’s
contemporary world; where organizations are increasingly investing in training and
development programs in a bid to enhance job satisfaction and increase motivation. The
result is enhanced performance by employees, which is reflected in the overall performance
of the organization, thus ensuring that it performs better (Wu, 2013).

The implications of this research are reflected in the form of the importance of training and
development programs for organizations that seek to promote performance, and how
organizations can work on challenges affecting training and development to enhance their
performance (Ognjenović, 2015). A major recommendation for organizations is that they
should offer equal training opportunities for employees in order to ensure that every
individual has a chance to contribute to the organization’s performance. Secondly,
organizations have an obligation to ensure that the content of training is aligned to the
organization’s objectives in order to ensure that it is effective in enhancing performance.

While training and development is considered highly effective in enhancing organizational
performance, this research determines various challenges that affect its execution. Some of
the challenges identified are summarized as follows:

Timing and time management: Given the busy schedules in most organizations, finding
adequate time for training is often challenging. In addition, it is difficult to find common time
when all employees are available for training. Other challenges related to time include poor
time management, which limits ability to conduct effective training and development,
conflict between work and personal schedules, and time lost in travelling and differences in
time zones in the case of external training.

Resource limitations: In a majority of cases, respondents indicated that they did not get
enough opportunities for training, as they would have liked. In addition, managers also
indicated that it was challenging to provide training opportunities for everyone in their
organizations each year. This demonstrates a higher demand for training and development
compared to the financial capacity of the organizations, given that training and development
programs are significantly expensive.

Training quality: In order for training and development programs to be effective, they must
be of high quality. Some organizations are however challenged by training quality as
evidenced in the research, where some respondents indicated that they encountered outdated
trainings, lack of necessary resources for training and inexperienced trainers. These may
affect the effectiveness of training and development and thus lead to wastage of resources
(Su, Lu & Chiu, 2015).

Misalignment of training goals and job functions: This happens where training programs are
not well planned, such that individuals end up taking part in trainings that do not align with
their professional roles (Tarique, 2014). As a result, training opportunities are wasted and the
organization does not gain from the training offered. Smith (2011) notes that the first
consideration in planning for training and development is to determine the objectives of the
program, which seems to have been overlooked in some organizations.

Employee attitudes: The attitude of employees towards training and development can have
significant impact on the performance of established programs (Ryburn, Brown & Meier,
2011). In this research, it was established that in some of the organizations, employees were
either uninterested in some trainings or considered them irrelevant to them. In addition,
attitudes related to availability of opportunities and the requirement to undertake courses with
junior employees were also noted as factors in employee attitudes.

Lack of effective mechanisms for selecting trainees: This was recognized as a major
challenge, with a considerable number of employees indicating that they either did not
understand the procedure involved in selecting employees for training or did not get an
opportunity for training in the last one year. This could be an indication that trainee selection
is not a transparent process in some of the organizations.

This paper gives special emphasis to employee involvement as way of improving training and
development effectiveness. This is based on modern literature, which places great importance
in employee involvement, with employees being regarded as the most important asset in the
organization. As a result, catering for the employee needs is considered highly effective in
enhancing job satisfaction and motivation. By involving employees in determining training
needs and developing training curriculums, organizations ensure that training and
development efforts are successful in enhancing its impact on organizational performance.

6.4 Conclusion

In conclusion, this research is highly impactful for organizations that seek to enjoy the
benefits of training and development. This research illustrates that by investing in training
and development, an organization opens opportunities for development among employees,
thus enhancing their performance. This is evidenced through the acquisition of better skills
and enhanced motivation and job satisfaction; which enable them to perform their work more
effectively, thus increasing their level of productivity (David, 2011). Another major finding
of this research is that enhanced organizational performance is to a great extent affected by
employee willingness to enhance their performance following training and development.
Based on the Action theory, the link between behavior and outcomes is established in the
process of training and development, such that by improving their performance, employees
ensure organizational performance is enhanced and this depicts the outcome of their

behavior. It is clear from the research that there is a direct relationship between training and
development and organizational performance. According to the research, organizations noted
a significant improvement in their performance as a result of training and development in the
form of increased expertise, enhanced productivity, greater commitment to work, enhanced
professionalism and enhanced problem-solving skills (Afshan, 2012; Elnaga & Imran, 2013;
Garavan, et al, 2016). Therefore, the results of this research lead to the recommendation that
organizations that seek to enhance their competitive advantage through enhanced
performance should invest in training and development. Further, in ensuring that training and
development objectives are met, organizations must ensure that the objectives of the trainings
are consistent with the goals of the organization in order to ensure efficiency.

Limitations of the study included difficulty in finding survey respondents, which delayed the
research process, as well as some incomplete questionnaires, which limited the data
collection process.

6.5 Recommendations from the research

Based on the above challenges, this paper offers recommendations for organizations to deal
with challenges associated with training and development in order to enhance its impact.
These are based on literature as well as some of the solutions identified by the respondents in
the research. The first recommendation is to involve employees in the training and
development program development, such that it is possible to identify the needs of employees
(Armstrong & Taylor, 2012). Secondly, organizations in Qatar need to provide equal training
opportunities for all employees in order to ensure that each employee has an opportunity to
contribute to the development of the organization. The third recommendation is the need to
identify training needs within the organization before providing training opportunities. This
will ensure that training objectives are aligned to job tasks and thus enhance the effectiveness

of training. It will also ensure that trainings are in line with the labor markets and thus
enhance competitiveness. Organizations must also consider increased use of technology in
enhancing training and development. Online training programs are suggested because they
offer great convenience and they not only enhance time flexibility but they are also cost
efficient. This means that individuals can create their own time for training based on their
schedule, and learn from the comfort of their desk or home. Online programs are gaining
popularity in the modern world, given the advancements in technology and this solution is
therefore highly applicable in promoting training and development.

6.6 Recommendations for further research

Further research is needed to establish the role of employee attitudes in influencing the
impact of training and development on organizational performance. This unique issue is
consistently identified by managers as a limiting factor to the outcomes of training and
development and warrants further research in order to determine how to deal effectively with
the effects of employee attitudes on the outcomes of training and development.

6.7 Summary of the Chapter

This chapter forms the conclusion chapter and is a recap of the entire study, beginning from
the setting of objectives to the actual research and analysis of findings. It concludes the
results of the research and also offers recommendations for further study. In this chapter, the
researcher begins by restating the objectives, research questions and theoretical framework to
bring the reader at par with the study direction. The main findings are then summarized with
their implications on organizations before offering recommendations for organizations based
on the results. Recommendations for further research are then given based on gaps identified
from the research.



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