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Data analyses

Combine both chapter 4 data analyze and chapter 5 discussion together. I am done already with chapter 4
write me a chapter 5 and combine it with chapter 4 in 1 file under
the name of:

Data analyses and discussion chapter
Data analyse chapter that I wrote is 2000 words

Data analyses and discussion chapter I want total of 5500 words

2000 words already written + extra 3500 words must the writer write= 5500 words.



This chapter describes the results of the study, obtained through the use of a
questionnaire and interview as indicated in the methodology. The questionnaire was
administered in the form of an online survey, in which individuals from different organizations
were asked to rate the training and development programs in their organizations. A total of 71
respondents participated in the survey. The interviews were conducted among 40 managers in
different organizations, in a bid to determine the impact of training and development on
performance. The research sought to answer two questions as follows:

  1. How do training and development affect an organization’s overall performance?
  2. What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees in training and

The analysis section is organized based on these research questions with a view of
establishing the view of respondents in the research.

Characteristics of respondents

  1. Age
    A majority of respondents in the survey were aged between 31 and 40 who consisted
    39% of the population, followed by individuals below 30 who made up 25% of the
    population. Individuals above 60 were the least represented in the survey. A graph
    showing the entire population is given below. Managers included in the interview were
    mostly in the 41-60 years category.



Respondents by Age

Below 30 years
31-40 years
41-50 years
51-60 years
Above 60

  1. Gender
    The survey mainly attracted male respondents compared to female respondents. While 53
    male respondents participated in the survey, female participants were 18 in number. This
    is presented graphically as follows.




  1. Current organization and number of years worked
    The distribution according to organization is presented as follows. The government sector
    had the highest number of respondents, followed by Qatar Petroleum, Qatar Airways, the
    private sector and Ooredoo in that order.

While a majority of employees had worked over 10 years, most of them had been with
their current organization for 10 years and below. The table below details the number of
years worked by the survey participants.

Number of years Total number of
years worked

Number of years
worked in current
Below 5 18.31% 39.44%
Between 5 and 10 25.35% 32.39%
Between 10-20 35.21% 22.54%
Above 20 21.23% 5.63%

Impact of training and development on performance Results

Research question 1: How does training and development affect an organization’s overall

This research question sought to understand how training and development affects
employee and organizational performance. In this regard, respondents were asked to answer
questions that reflected their personal view on training and development and how they thought it
affected them and their organizations. To accomplish this, there was need to understand the
nature of the training and development programs in the organizations.

Opportunities for training

The ability of an organization to provide adequate opportunities for training impacts the
effectiveness of its training program’s impact on performance (Latif, Jan and Shaheen, 2013). In
a survey question that sought to establish organizational training programs and relevance of
training to employees, it was established that 73% of the individuals had an opportunity for
training during the year. This can be established from the fact that 30.77% of respondents
strongly agreed that they had received training while 42.31% agreed to the same question.
Further, 77% of respondents considered future training and development highly important for
them and would therefore be open to future opportunities.

In all organizations under study, employees taking the survey did not seem to understand
how employees are selected for training. This could be an illustration that training programs are
not well developed and procedures for training and development are not well outlined. 57.69% of
the respondents indicated that they did not understand how employees were selected for training

and development in their organization. From the manager interviews, it can was established that
the management made various considerations in determining who would be selected to
participate in trainings. This was based on various factors including skill deficiency, the need to
improve knowledge of certain employees based on work assignments, appropriateness of training
opportunity for selected staff and resource availability. The fact that employees are not made
aware of trainee selection procedures however has the potential to create trust issues and
employee dissatisfaction, which is the reason why it should be communicated to all staff and be
open and fair.

The data on opportunities for training as established from the survey is presented as

Types of training

The nature of training differed across organizations, with the most popular form of
training being on the job training. 32.69% of the respondents had received internal training. This

can be explained by the low cost of on the job training and its capability to promote knowledge
acquisition that is accompanied by practical sessions since it is done at the duty station
(Ognjenović, 2015). On the job training was followed by programmed instruction and external
training in terms of popularity. The data on training is given by the graph below.

On the job
Job rotation External



Type of training received

Series 1

Impact of training and development on performance

Impact on Individual Performance

The results of the survey indicate that there is a positive correlation between training and
development and employee performance. When asked about the impact of training, 69.23%
concurred that the training they received had a positive impact on their performance. 21.15% did

not find a correlation between their performance and training received while 9.62% were unsure.
This is presented graphically as follows:


Impact of training on performance

Training impacted on
Training did not impact on
Maybe training impacted on

Data from the manager interviews also supports the positive correlation between training
and development and employee performance. More than half of the managers noted that staff
performance had improved as a result of the training and development programs. This was
evidenced through enhanced capabilities to meet set objectives, improved efficiency, enhanced
motivation, better ability to handle complex assignments, increased diversity in employee
capabilities, enhanced sales and better customer satisfaction, regular update of skills and
enhanced team work; all necessary in improving employee performance. These results compare
significantly to those of Elnaga, A and Imran (2013) who note that when organizations provide
training and development, the consequent improvement in their workforce is notable and this
leads to better performance in the organizations.

Impact on Organizational Performance

The results also indicated a positive relationship between training and performance, based
on various aspects of measuring organizational performance. These included efficiency and
productivity, team work, communication, employee competence, employee participation, staff
turnover, ease in job rotation and conflict management. Efficiency and productivity scored
highly in terms of the number of employees who thought that the training and development had
an impact on performance. 36.54% of the respondents strongly agreed while 46.15% agreed that
efficiency and productivity was improved following training and development. Teamwork,
communication efficiency and increased participation of employees on decision making were
also regarded highly in relation to training and development. A greater number tended to
disagree that staff turnover, employee participation and employee competence were influenced
by training and development. 46.15% disagreed that training and development reduced staff
turnover while 40.38 and 38.47% disagreed on the impact of employee competence and
increased participation in decision making respectively. The graph showing the scores of various
performance aspects is given below.

Impact of training and development on performance among


Strongly agreeAgreeDisagreeStrongly disagree

The role of training and development on organizational performance

To further inquire the relevance of training and development on organizational
performance, respondents in both the survey and interviews were asked to rate training and
development as a means of enhancing the achievement of organizational objectives. This was
aimed at establishing the value placed by employees on training and development. 61.54% of the
respondents from the survey noted that training programs were highly useful while 38.46 noted
that they were slightly useful. None of the respondents considered the programs not useful. This
is illustrated below.

The input from managers brought about varied responses on why training and
development was important in promoting organizational performance. Among the most popular
responses to the question included:

Importance of a skilled workforce in achieving organizational goals

Changing business environment that requires constant training

Better skills and capabilities improve performance

Training and development enhances employee morale and hence improved performance –
Training motivates employees to perform better

When training is aligned with organizational goals and strategies, it enhances achievement of
these goals

Training enhances competitive advantage of the organization

Skill and capability diversity translates to better performance

Increased involvement of employees in organizational decision making

Enhanced efficiency and profitability

Impact of training and development on motivation

Major studies including Dhar (2015) and Elnaga (2013) have shown that training and
development have a significant impact on motivation. This is because they improve employee
confidence on their employer, given that they have the opportunity to enhance their skills. With
regard to employee motivation, the survey concurred with these views. The results indicated that
53.85% of the respondents found training and development highly useful in enhancing
motivation while 36.54% considered it slightly useful. Only 9.62% thought that training and
development had no role in enhancing motivation as indicated in the graph below. Data from the
interview also revealed that training played a major role in motivation of employees. 42% of the
managers when asked about the impact of training and development responded that it had
enhanced the performance of the organization based on increase in staff morale.

Employee satisfaction with training program

In order for a training and development program to be effective, employee satisfaction
with the program is of great significance. This is because it guarantees that the organization is
providing the right skills and knowledge for employees and that it is meeting their training and
development needs (David, 2011). This research sought to establish the level of satisfaction
among employees and it is notable that the more than half of the respondents considered their
training program satisfactory. 31.37% on the other hand did not consider it satisfactory while
15.69% were not sure. This could be an indication that organizations are prioritizing training in
Qatar and that employees are recognizing these efforts. The graph showing the results is given

Employee satisfaction with training program

SatisfiedNot satisfiedMaybe

Alignment of training and development to organizational needs

An important factor to consider in assessing the performance of a training and
development program is the alignment of training and development opportunities to
organization’s needs. Grant (2016) notes that failure to identify the training needs leads to the
development of programs that do not address the organization’s skill deficiency and thus renders
training programs ineffective in enhancing performance. In this regard, the research sought to
determine whether this was an important factor for companies in Qatar. Results indicated that a
large majority of organizations had their training needs aligned to the training programs as
shown below.

Training and development
opportunities aligned to
organization’s needs

Training and development
opportunities not aligned to
organization’s needs

Not sure


Training opportunities alignment to

organizational needs

Series 1

Research Question 2:What are the challenges encountered by both the firm and employees
in training and development?

Training and development is an intensive undertaking and this to a great extent influences
the capability of organizations to perform it as intended (Nongard, 2014). Through this research
question, the study queried some of the challenges that employees and organizations might face
in their training and development efforts. The challenges experienced by employees and
organizations were vast and widely distributed across various aspects. However, the most cited
challenges are listed as follows, classified as either internal or external training challenges.
Notably, the challenges are not unique to companies in Qatar and other researchers have
identified such challenges as affecting training programs as discussed below.

Challenges in internal training

Timing and time management: Based on the survey, it is notable that time management
limits internal training due to time availability, short time available to complete courses, late
announcement of course availability, poor time keeping by trainers and trainees and the
allocation of trainings within working hours. One respondent also noted that there is not enough
time to review courses due to time limitations and this limits ability to determine effectiveness of
the course. These challenges are not unique to the Qatari organizations and as noted by OECD
(2011), time limitations remain the most significant factors in influencing training success.

Resource limitations: A considerable number of managers consider resource limitations
an influencing factor in training and development. Notably, the number of employees in need of
training often exceeds the financial resources in organizations, necessary to ensure that training
programs are adequate for everyone. Noe at al. (2016) notes that training and development
programs are highly expensive and that organizations must be in a position to invest significant
resources in order to effectively execute their programs.

Quality of training: Some respondents were concerned about the quality of training,
noting that it was not the best. Outdated training programs and inexperienced trainers were
identified as some of the related factors. The availability of qualified trainers is one of the most
influential factors in determining whether a training program will be effective (Gospel, 2015).
The results insinuate that the employees are not confident with the internal trainers and this may
influence the effectiveness of training within the organizations.

Long course durations: When courses are long, they affect the employee schedules and
thus impact their work performance (Rothwell, 2011)). This appears to be a major challenge
among the companies included, mostly due to the busy scheduled.

Employee attitudes: Employee attitudes may impact training effectiveness because it
limits absorption and eventually the efficacy of training (Ryburn, Brown and Meier, 2011). In
this research, respondents noted cases of absenteeism among employees, not taking courses
seriously and not paying adequate attention during classes as examples. In the interview with
managers which included a question on how staff attitudes impacted the effectiveness of training
and development, respondents identified various issues including staff not being committed to
training programs, dismissal of training on grounds that they already know, unrealistic ambitions
following trainings such as promotions or salary increment, unwillingness of senior staff to train
with junior staff, and the preference for external trainings compared to internal trainings.

Cultural factors: Mixed workshops (male and female) are considered a cultural issue by
some individuals due to religious and cultural beliefs.

Equipment unavailability: This includes lack of training material and equipment
necessary for effective training. The availability of required material ensures that trainees can
effectively grasp the content of the lessons and implement them as necessary (Rothwell, 2011).

Challenges in external training

Timing and time management: The issue of time is also evident in external training.
Examples cited in the study include conflict with work and personal schedules. Time consumed
due to travelling and differences in time zones were also considered important factors.

Language and cultural barriers: These include challenges in language that may affect
training efficacy as well as cultural challenges that affect individuals in the program. An example
given by a male respondent working in the government sector is the mixing of religion and
mixed gender classes which they are not primarily used to. Cultural barriers also impact hoe
information is conveyed to trainees, which could consequently influence their understanding.

Environmental challenges: Lau and McLean (2013) note that the efficacy of training may
be influenced by the physical location, particularly when it is a new environment and individuals
have to adjust. Examples cited in the research include familiarizing with the training
environment and weather differences that may affect individuals.

Lack of alignment between training and job functions: This could be as a result of broad
training objectives, such that the training may not necessarily align to the job description of the
trainees. Given the importance of ensuring that training objectives meet the needs of the
organization, these present a major challenge in external training (David, 2011).

Compressed training: Due to time limitations and the need to fit a large amount of
information during the training period, the trainings may be compressed.

Takes employee away from daily work station: This may affect employees’ work
schedules and lead to work pressure once back at their stations.

Exhaustion may limit absorption: This was linked to travelling which may affect an
individual’s ability to learn.

Inadequate opportunities: Specialized external courses are not available for all employees
and where available they may have to wait long periods of time.

Gender differences in opportunities: Respondents noted the limitations in women training

Unfair training participant selection: In this research, respondents reported cases of unfair
allocation of opportunities, where managers may practice discrimination in choosing participants
for training. This way, some employees end up trainings that do not have an impact on their
work while relevant ones miss out. Based on the interviews, it is evident that managers are
mostly responsible for determining training needs and who participates in the trainings. This is
based on skill deficit, department needs and individual needs. This explains why there could
have been a concern over unfairness in employee selection for training, given that managers
control the training opportunities available. Should the managers exercise favoritism in their
selection of trainees, the program may not be effective in ensuring that the right people acquire
the required skills.

Recommendations to address challenges in training and development

In order for organizations in Qatar to improve on their performance, the following
recommendations should be implemented. According to Knights (2013), employees should be
involved in developing solutions to a great extent because this ensures that they can tailor them
to the challenges that they have. Accordingly, the research sought to determine how best
challenges can be addressed in order to ensure that employees are satisfied with training
programs in their organizations.

Employee involvement

The challenges identified would best be addressed through amicable solutions that reflect
the views of employees themselves because they are the ones affected by these challenges (Pride,
2013). An important factor to consider is the involvement of employees in determining the kind
of courses they wish to pursue and the relevant material that they believe needs to be included.
This will not only enhance employee morale but also ensure that training is effective in
enhancing their performance (Elnaga and Imran, 2013).

Training needs identification

Ognjenović (2013) notes that in order for a training program to be effective, it must
ensure that training needs are effectively identified so as to match them with available training
opportunities. This ensures that the company’s performance can be improved based on the
training and development programs. Managers should be given the mandate to allocate training
opportunities, with the condition that they select participants objectively.

Align trainings with labor market demands

Labor market demands are changing rapidly as the level of competition increases and
new concepts in business development and performance emerge (Noe, et al., 2016). In this
relation, there is need to address the question of outdated curriculums and to address the issue of
changing market needs. This will ensure that all trainings taken by employees are effective. In
order to achieve this, research is necessary to ensure that current market trends are identified.

Training variety

Employees do not need to be trained for the sake of it and this calls for the development
of unique courses that they can pursue based on their needs. Accordingly, it is imperative that
organizations develop new varieties of trainings to fit employees.

Technology use

The issue of time comes out strongly in the results. Modern literature suggests that with
the advancement in technology, organizations can take advantage of online learning as an
alternative to time consuming courses (Chio, 2012). Individuals can learn more at their own
convenient time and thus solve the issue of time availability and time management while
enhancing knowledge acquisition. The use of online courses also saves time for the institution.


The subject of training in development remains highly relevant in the contemporary
world, given the increased importance of employee job satisfaction and motivation in enhancing
organizational performance. This research sought to establish the impact of training and
development in Qatar companies. Having collected adequate data to inform the research,
understanding the implications of this research is of great importance. This chapter consists of a
discussion of findings from the research, thoroughly scrutinizing them and relating them to
existing literature in order to effectively draw conclusions on the study topic. The discussion
chapter addresses the research questions and objectives and how they have been answered based
on the research outcomes.

Training and Development and its impact on organizational performance

Organizational performance is influenced by a variety of factors, all which determine
how well it can execute its strategy. Training and development influences performance based in
two premises. The first is that training and development enhances the skill level of employees
and thus enables them to perform better through greater capabilities (Neyestani, 2014). The
second factor is that training and development influences employee job satisfaction and
motivation, such that they are likely to be more productive (Khan, Khan & Khan, 2012). The
second aspect has gained increased importance among organizations, such that organizations are
increasingly investing in training and development programs (Costen & Salazar, 2011).

The results of this research demonstrate training and development is of great importance
because it promotes the morale of employees. Further, training and development is highly
regarded by employees and they are more interested in programs that enhance their level of
development by boosting their skills and knowledge. This calls on employers to enhance their
training and development programs in order to ensure that their employees acquire the desired
knowledge and skills. Managers in the research determine that following training and
development, they have witnessed enhanced performance based on enhanced capabilities to meet
set objectives, improved efficiency, enhanced motivation, better ability to handle complex
assignments, increased diversity in employee capabilities, enhanced sales and better customer
satisfaction, regular update of skills and enhanced team work. This insinuates that the
organizations to which they belong is reaping the benefits of training and development. As
established by Kennett (2013), organizational performance is enhanced through increased
efficiency, innovation, diversity, team work, possession of adequate skills and knowledge, and
enhanced customer service.

The results by Elnaga & Imran (2013) produce similar results indicating that training and
development plays a vital role in promoting performance of the organization. This is achieved
through enhanced skill set and increasing motivation level of employees. Murray, et al (2013)
considers training and development as a form of intrinsic motivation, ensuring that employees
feel appreciated by getting an opportunity to improve their skills and capabilities. Based on the
research, it is certain that employees in Qatar find training and development significantly
important. This can be established by the fact that 77% of respondents were open to future
training and development opportunities. Similarly, it can be established that Qatar organizations
are committed to training their employees, given that 73% of respondents had a training

opportunity during the year. This is an indication that organizations were investing their
resources in promoting training and development.

The Action Theory

The theoretical framework for this research is based on the action theory, which is
concerned with establishing the processes that cause intentional movement among human beings,
linking behavior and outcomes. In applying it to training and development, the theory explains
how learning is controlled and provides insights on how people can change behavior to meet the
requirements of the firm. Based on this theory, it can be established that when employees go
through training and development, they must make a deliberate effort to utilize the skills and
knowledge acquired to enhance the performance of the organization. This means that enhanced
organizational performance is to a great extent dependent on individual employee performance,
given that employees execute organizational strategy to achieve the organization’s objectives
(Schermerhorn, 2011). In this regard, the question on whether training and development is
effective in improving the performance of employees remains highly relevant in the modern
corporate world. This is because organizations want to be certain whether their investment in
training and development will deliver value in terms of enhanced organizational performance.
Given that employees are the executors of strategy within the organization, determining whether
organizational performance can improve as a result of training and development can only be
achieved through an understanding on whether training and development leads to enhanced
individual employee performance (. This is discussed in the next section below.

Impact of Training and Development on Individual Performance

According to Knights (2013), training is a highly expensive endeavor for organizations
and it is therefore expected that the investment should pay off through enhanced
competitiveness. Noe, et al (2016) further notes that organizations are more interested in
employee performance because it is an assurance that the investment made on training and
development is paying off.

The findings of this research constitute the views of managers, who ideally represent the
organization. Based on their responses, it was evident that managers realize the relevance of
training and development in their organizations. Interviews with the managers revealed that over
half of the managers noted that training and development was positively related to the individual
performance. They noted increased motivation, better ability to perform roles, increased
capabilities to handle complex assignments, improved efficiency, better team work, problem
solving skills, increased innovation and greater confidence among employees. This insinuates
that the organizations to which they belong is reaping the benefits of training and development.

In their research, Imran & Tanveer (2015) establish that enhanced employee performance
following training can be indicated through enhanced motivation, procedural and declarative
knowledge. These comprise of the factors influencing performance and are considered important
prerequisites, failure to which poor performance would be recorded. According to Imran &
Tanveer (2015), motivation is used to denote the level of contribution and degree of hard work
that the employee exerts towards achieving the organization’s goals. Procedural knowledge
refers to the skills and knowledge necessary in performing a job role including functional,
cognitive and technical skills while declarative knowledge includes knowledge about various

procedures, guiding principles, job responsibilities and particulars necessary to for high
performance. The factors observed by managers in Qatar companies as discussed above confirms
the proposition by Imran & Tanveer (2015), and it can therefore be established that training and
development has a major role to play in enhancing employee performance.

Khan, Khan & Khan (2011) discuss the impact of training and development on individual
performance and note that this may be evidenced in various ways including enhanced
productivity, greater commitment to work, enhanced professionalism and expertise in performing
their jobs, and enhanced problem-solving skills. Through training and development, employees
acquire skills and knowledge that they did not have before and therefore demonstrate better
expertise in executing their work (Sullivan, 2011). Based on the results of the research, it is
evident that training and development has been effective in enhancing the performance of
employees in Qatar organizations under study. This further confirms the findings by Gupta &
Attar (2012) because among the factors given by managers, enhanced productivity,
professionalism, expertise and work commitment are identified as major improvements that
employees have made as a result of training.

The relevance of training and development in enhancing performance is undoubtedly
established in this research. Accordingly, it can be established that in order for organizations to
be successful in a competitive corporate world, organizations must invest in training and

Impact of training and development on motivation

The role of training and development in enhancing an individual’s performance is to a
great extent determined by their level of motivation. Muhammad & Easha (2013) establishes that
training and development impacts on an employee’s performance, such that they are able to
execute their roles better due to enhanced morale. According to the findings of this research,
employees recognize the impact of training and development in enhancing their level of
motivation. More than half of the respondents noted that training ensured that they performed
better through increased motivation. Similarly, a considerable number of managers noted that
employees were motivated by training and development, thus ensuring that they perform better.
The question however remains how training and development can promote motivation.

Afshan (2012) in their study on how training and development influences motivation
establish that employees feel more appreciated when their employer invests in them in terms of
training and development. This means that the employer is concerned about their development,
hence their commitment towards offering training and development (Khan, Khan & Mahmood,
2012). The result of this is intrinsic motivation that ensures that individuals can exert more effort
towards their work and hence increase their productivity. In addition, training and development
provides employees with new knowledge and skills, thus ensuring that they can handle more
complex tasks and additional responsibilities (Hameed & Waheed, 2011). Increased task
complexity and additional responsibilities are considered motivational factors for employees and
this means that training and development are impactful as far as motivation is concerned. When
employees are motivated, they are also capable of performing better and this translates into better
organizational performance.

Factors influencing effectiveness of training and development

Employee involvement

Current research indicates that employee involvement in decision making within the
organization increases motivation level among employees. This is because it makes employees
feel more valuable in the organization, given that the management is providing them with an
opportunity to contribute to the organization’s decision making process (Armstrong & Taylor,
2014). Furthermore, employee involvement ensures that strategies undertaken by the
organization match employee needs. In training and development, employee involvement is
necessary in the development of training curriculum, identification of training needs and
development of training schedules because it ensures that training and development meets
employee needs and expectations (Felstead, et al., 2010; Latif, Jan & Shaheen, 2013).

Employee involvement in the training and development processes emerges as an
important consideration for organizations based on this research. The findings of the research
establish that quite a large number of employees were not aware of the procedures used for
selecting trainees in their organizations. This according to Grant (2016) delineates employees
because of lack of involvement. In addition, failure to involve employees means that the
organization may not provide training that is well tailored to the employees’ needs, thus limiting
its effectiveness in enhancing organizational performance. This spells out the need for
organizations in Qatar to increase the level of involvement among employees in order to ensure
that their training programs are effective (Felstead, et al., 2010).

Challenges affecting training and development

While training and development is deemed a major prerequisite for organizations that
seek to enhance their competitive advantage through increased performance, it is notable that its
effectiveness may be dwindled by challenges in the internal or external environment of the
organization Bradford, Rutherford & Friend, S 2017). Challenges may range from poor content
to inefficient execution. Armstrong & Taylor (2014) establish that when there are shortcomings
in an organization’s training and development program, the organization may not benefit from
the training and development because it does not fulfil its intended purpose. The results of this
research point out some of the challenges that an organization is likely to face in its quest to
enhance efficiency through training and development. These include challenges affecting
internal and external trainings, and which affect the effectiveness of training and development
among Qatar companies. The major challenges identified in the research are discussed as

Resource Limitations

This research indicates that resource limitations play an imperative role in restraining the
effectiveness of training and development among organizations. Managers involved in the
research noted that resource limitations were apparent in their organizations and this to a great
extent led to insufficient training and development opportunities for employees. Even where
available, trainings require high level resources in ensuring that the highest quality of trainings
are offered. The issue of limited resources was also quoted by employees who noted that there
were limited opportunities for training in their organizations due to inadequate resources. The

implications of this is that organizations are not capable of meeting their training and
development objectives, which limits the possibility of high performance.

Training and development is considered an expensive venture for organizations, mostly if
it involves expensive courses that require numerous resources. Resource limitations become
evident in the form of inadequate funds necessary for training, and inadequate resources such as
time, equipment and trainers (Beynon, et al., 2015). As a result, the organization may not be in a
position to provide training and development to all employees. Alternatively, an attempt to
ensure that every employee goes through training may lead to the provision of low quality
training and development programs that do not impact on the organization’s performance as
expected (Beynon, et al., 2015).

Time Management

In more than half of the responses, individuals included in the research identified time-
related factors as a great deterrent to both internal and external training efforts in their
organizations. It is notable that lack of adequate time for training, clash between training and
work schedules and poor time management by trainees and trainers are to blame for
inefficiencies in training and development programs among companies in Qatar. These not only
limit the ability of the organization to compete effectively but they could also impact on
employee interest in training. As established in the research, many of the respondents were of the
view that the management should reserve adequate time for training and where possible provide
days off for employees to undertake training, so as to ensure that they do not have to juggle
between work and training. This would be highly impactful and as noted by Kirpal (2011), when
organizations do not reserve adequate time for training, they risk compromising its effectiveness

because employees may not effectively balance between work and training. This could explain
why some employees in the companies involved were not satisfied with the training and
development programs in their organizations.

The challenge of time is not unique to Qatar organizations and as noted by Kirpal (2011),
time constraints are major derailments in training and development programs and that lack of
adequate planning could thwart the objectives of an organization’s program. This leads to
wastage of resources through rushed trainings, wasted time and absenteeism where employees
have to attend to work-related issues.

Alignment of training and development to organization’s needs

This study establishes that there is a challenge in the alignment of training and
development objectives among Qatar firms. Alignment to the organization’s needs is considered
one of the factors influencing the effectiveness of training, such that failure to ensure such
alignment lowers its impact on performance (Smith, 2011). In order for training and
development to be effective in enhancing organizational performance, it is imperative that the
needs of the organization are effectively matched to the objectives of the training and
development programs (Cancedda, et al, 2015). This ensures that once the employees go through
the program, there is a direct impact on the organization’s performance, thus a return on
investment. According to Smith (2011), failure to link the organization’s needs with training
objectives leads to resource wastage because the organization does not benefit from the training

Unfair Opportunities

In order for a training to be effective in enhancing performance, an organization must
ensure that all employees have a fair chance of getting training and development opportunities.
According to the completed research, it is evident that the issue of fairness in training and
development opportunities is prominent in Qatar organizations. This insinuates that despite the
effectiveness of the training and development programs, the impact on employee performance
may not be felt effectively across the organization. A substantial number of respondents in the
research noted that they did not understand how employees were selected for trainings or that
they did not get adequate opportunities for training and development. This was mostly notable
for external trainings, which were considered few and far between, such that finding an
opportunity for training was considered highly difficult. Some indicated that when opportunities
were available, the possibility of missing out on opportunities because supervisors picked their
own choice of employees as opposed to those who best suit the trainings available was a great
deterrent to fairness in training opportunities.

This challenge is not unique to the Qatar organizations and as noted by Eby & Allen
(2012), organizations normally experience difficulties in the selection of employees for training,
mostly when there are few opportunities and employees are many. To ensure that employees
have trust on the training and development program in the organization, the management must
ensure that employees get equal opportunities for training (Tarique, 2014). On the other hand,
organizations could work towards expanding their programs to benefit more employees or
develop innovative ways that ensure they train as many employees as possible based on the
available resources. An example of this is the use of online training programs that ensure that

many employees can be trained with minimal resources. An online training program would
ensure that each employee has access to training and development, thus enhancing the
organization’s performance potential.

Quality of Training

This study establishes that a significant number of employees are concerned about the
quality of training received in their organizations. While others cite repetitive trainings, others
note that trainers are not well qualified, the content of training is outdated or that they do not get
the opportunity to train on what they feel is relevant to their careers. Such sentiments could be
detrimental to an organization’s ability to promote organizational performance through training
and development. These findings echo those of Gamanov (2012) who noted that the quality of
training was among the factors that influenced the effectiveness of training in organizations.

According to Garavan, McCarthy & Morley (2016), training and development needs to
meet the organization’s performance objectives in order to be effective. One of the aspects that
ensure that this is achieved is the quality of training, which must be of the highest quality in
order. Organizations are expected to maintain the highest level of quality when it comes to their
training and development programs in order to influence the performance of their employees and
also ensure that the skills and knowledge attained are of relevance to the organization (Su, Lu &
Chiu, 2015). In order to compete effectively, an organization’s employees must be well equipped
with the right skills and knowledge to handle their work, enhance creativity and innovation, and
this can only be achieved through ensuring that the quality of training is enhanced. Tarique
(2014) notes that given the level of expense associated with training and development, it is

important to ensure that the organization makes the most of it by ensuring that the quality of
training is enhanced.

Employee attitudes

Managers included in the research establish that employee attitudes are among the
limiting factors in organizations’ training endeavors. Some of the major issues identified include
attitude of employees towards the type of training given, where some feel that it is not adequate
or it is irrelevant to their career development. Some employees are unwilling to attend trainings
because they feel that they are repetitive or because they are expected to train with their juniors,
such that they may feel undermined. The effectiveness of training and development is to a great
extent influenced by employee attitudes. This is because employees are the key beneficiaries of
training and development and their willingness to participate in training determines its
effectiveness. Employee attitudes may be influenced by the importance they place on training,
the nature of training and how it impacts their performance and career development and the
management’s commitment towards promoting training and development in the organization.

Positive attitudes towards training and development ensure more effectiveness in an
organization’s quest towards enhancing organizational performance. Negative attitudes on the
other hand limit the ability to enhance organizational performance through training and
development. When employees have negative attitude towards training and development, this is
mostly influenced by the nature of the organization’s program and indicates the need to review
the program. The management could address the issue through increased involvement of
employees in the development of the training program. This way, it is possible to understand the
employees’ needs, issues and concerns so as to ensure they are effectively addressed.

Summary of the Chapter

This chapter is a discussion of the findings of the research based on the research
objectives and research questions, while comparing the findings with what has been established
by other studies on the same subject. Various themes according to the research are analyzed to
determine the implications of the research on Qatar organizations, which will then be used to
make conclusions on the research and provide recommendations for the organizations to ensure
that their training and development programs lead to an increase in the organization’s
performance. The discussion encompasses an evaluation of the impact of training and
development on organizational and individual employee performance, impact of training and
development on motivation and the factors affecting the effectiveness of training and
development; including employees involvement and challenges affecting training and
development programs in organizations.


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