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Cash in businesses

Consider the need for the statement of cash flows and how changes in liquidity can affect

an organization.


1) The answer must raise appropriate critical questions.
2) Do include all your references, as per the Harvard Referencing System,

3) Please don’t use Wikipedia web site.

4) I need examples from peer reviewed articles or researches.
5) Turnitin.com copy percentage must be 10% or less.

Cash in most businesses is generated through sale of goods or services from the companies.
These are referred to as cash inflows while the payment for labour, raw materials, transport or

other expenses are basically the cash outflows and the difference between the two is the net cash
flow. The statement of cash flow breaks down and analyzes the cash flows from different
operations by categorizing them into three major processes, operating, investing and financing.
The cash flow statement indicates the cash balances and the flow of cash in and also out of
The need for cash flow can be illustrated in different aspects. The accountants in most companies
would be interested in confirming if a company can afford to pay all its expenses like salaries,
rent and other utilities. Potential investors would be interested in confirming from the cash flow
if the company they are interested in can be able to generate enough profits to pay back the
invested amounts while creditors would be interested in a company’s ability to pay back the
advanced loan. The shareholders of a company would need the cash flow to determine the
financial and investing activities that the company has engaged in the past financial year.
These activities may include the payment of dividends, purchase of shares or the purchase or sale
of assets. The cash flow indicates the net cash flow for the business (Atrill & McLaney, 2013).
Cash flow is required to reveal the changes in financial operations of a business and whether the
changes were positive or negative. A positive cash-flow reflects a position where a company
earns more money than it actually spends while a negative cash-flow the amount of cash
received is less than the amounts spent in a company in a given financial period (Vance, 2003)
When budgeting, a company needs to confirm the company’s actual balances at the end of every
financial period. This information is obtained from the cash flow statement (Garrison, Noreen, &
Brewer, 2009)

Liquidity refers to the ability of a company to convert an asset quickly into cash and its mostly
obtained by calculating a company’s liquidity ratios that are given by the current and quick ratio.
The current ratio is obtained by dividing the current assets and the current liabilities. It measures
the ability of a company to repay its current liabilities. The standard for current ratios for an
average promising company is mostly 2: 1. The current assets should exceed the current
liabilities by at least 2 to 1 while for quick ratios its 1:1 (Bodie, Kane & Marcus, 2008).
The cash flow supplements the other two financial statements. The income statement and the
statement of financial position are prepared in accrual accounting system. Under accrual system,
transactions are recognized when they occur and not when cash has been paid or received hence
it’s possible for a company to register some profits in its books when actually it has no extra cash
(Bowen, Burgstahler & Daley, 1987).
This condition is only recognizable when a cash flow statement has been prepared. The
difference between the current assets and the current liabilities represent the working capital for a
business. For a business to operate, it must have adequate working capital.
A company suffering from liquidity problems finds it difficult to honor most of its obligation
hence the normal operations of the business is interrupted. For example, lack of operating cash
can lead to inadequate provision of transport facilities that are required to transport manufactured
products to various retail shops across the country. Hence businesses would be affected as a
result of shortage of products in the market (Bodie, Kane & Marcus, 2008)
A company that has more liabilities than current assets would find it difficult to repay its
creditors on time as the resources are not adequate. If the company does not seek external
financing then it finally sink into insolvency, a situation where a company cannot honor its
financial obligations and commitments (Vance, 2003)

Liquidity status of a company may or may not attract visitors. When a company is liquid more
customers are interested in the company and the demand for its shares increases hence the share
prices increase. The value of a company’s share depends on the company’s ability to distribute
dividends out of the company’s.
Cash flow analysis enables proper planning on stock levels, payment procedures for all
outstanding debts and also working out the cash flows to sustainable levels.
To conclude, liquidity and profitability are quite different; profitability refers to the profits as
reflected in the income and expenditure and also in the statement of financial position while
liquidity is the availability of cash. A company that is making profits may not be automatically
liquid. Cash flow is important to a company especially during hard economic times when
financing is difficult to arrange, companies face hard times, cash flow reveals the business
activities that are least profitable and which ones should be discarded.

Atrill, P. & McLaney, E., 2013, Accounting and finance for non-specialists. 8th Ed. Harlow, UK:
Pearson Publishing. (Chapters 3 & 5)
Bowen, M., Burgstahler, D. & Daley, L.A., 1987, ‘The incremental information content of
accrual versus cash flows’, The Accounting Review, 62 (4), pp. 1–26.
Bodie, Z., Kane, A., & Marcus, A. J., 2008, Investments (7th International Ed.) Boston:
McGraw-Hill. 303
Garrison, R., Noreen, W. & Brewer, P., 2009, Managerial Accounting , New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill Irwin. 65 -70
Vance, D., 2003, Financial analysis and decision making: tools and techniques to solve financial
problems and make effective business decisions. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

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