SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
System analysis refers to a technique that is usually used to solve the various problems
that arise in a particular system. It usually involves a very detailed study of the system and all its
components with an aim of understanding the role played by every component so as to enhance
the effectiveness of the system (Hoffer, 2012). There are various phases of system development
processes that are analysis based; these are as discussed below.
The first phase is the system study. This involves the detailed investigation of the system
to understand fully what it lacks and how it can be improved and made more efficient (Dennis et
al, 2015). A lot of research is usually invested here, and the output should be a system that is
The second phase is the feasibility study. Here, various factors should be put into
consideration to ensure that the system is executable. The system’s workability and financial
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implications are some of the factors that should be considered. The output should result in the
system being implemented as it is or whether it should be redrafted (Kersting, 2012).
The next phase is the detailed system analysis. It is the process of collecting factual data,
understand the processes involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestions
for improving the system functioning (Dennis et al, 2015). The input here is the creativity of the
system analyst while the output is a logical system design.
The last phase involves testing and implementation of the system. Having ensured that all
the above factors are rightly executed, the system should, therefore, be tested and all other
execution issues addressed. The implementation of the entire system then takes place. The output
here is the final and very efficient system.
Systems design is the process of defining the physical processes, the components, and all
the input that is involved in ensuring that a system satisfies all its requirements and meets its
objectives. It can also be defined as the application of various system theories with an aim of
coming up with a final product (Hoffer, 2012).There are various phases of system development
processes that are design based; these are as discussed below.
The first phase involves pulling together of all physical and technical data, trying to come
up with a clear work plan that is aimed at helping execute the particular system. The greatest
input here is the strong analytical skills as all the factors considered at this stage must be geared
towards the success of the system’s implementation.
In this next phase, the actual system designing therefore takes place. Here, the software
system design is prepared with close emphasis put on the guidelines discussed in the first phase
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above (Khalili & Duecker, 2013). This stage specifies the hardware and other system
requirements. It also helps in defining the overall system architecture. The input here is the
various hardware that are used to try come up with the final system.
The third phase is the coding phase, here, on receiving the various system design work
plans and executable procedures, the work is divided into units and actual coding is started.
Since, in this phase the code is produced, it is the main focus for any system designer (Khalili &
Duecker, 2013). It is also the longest phase of the system development process.
The last phase involves system maintenance. Here, the execution of the entire system is
put under close supervision, and any issues that may arise are handled as promptly as possible.
Modeling refers to how data should be used to meet the requirements of a given system.
It involves structuring and organizing data so as to be executed in a particular database
management system. Modeling, therefore, outlines all the rules for data handling in a particular
system (Hoffer, 2012). Modeling can be used in the designing phase as it will be very handy in
trying to influence the overall system software.
There are three types of modeling, and each is meant to achieve a particular objective in
the final system structure. The first type of modeling is referred to as data-centric modeling. It is
all about turning the numbers into knowledge. Here you assess all the assets you have at your
disposal, the assets, in this case, are regarding the various hardware you will use in the entire
system (Kersting, 2012).
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In essence, a successful project is one which achieves the purpose. The purpose being did
the project accomplish what it was supposed to do? In this sense, there are a few things to
consider. For instance, if the project was in the form of the design of a system to solve a certain
problem in an organization. In this case, the phone would judge a successful project as one which
upon accomplishment it has effectively addressed the issues at the organization (Satzinger et al,
2011). Furthermore, regarding the organization, a project is supposed to cost as affordable as in
the range of the organization’s economic capability. Moreover, the project should, in fact, have
taken an appropriate amount of time to be accomplished.
The requirements for the analysis and design process are many. However, these
requirements are categorized into three categories. The functional requirements, non-functional
and requirements specification. The functional requirements refer to what the system is supposed
to do. It defines the functionality of the system in the organization (Satzinger et al, 2011).
Therefore, the functional requirement gives an idea of what the system is supposed to do. Non-
functional requirements, on the other hand, dictate how the system is supposed to look. This
takes into account requirements like usability among other non-functional requirements.
Requirements specification is a category of requirements that are involved in defining how the
system will do what it was supposed to do. It goes into the finer details of the structure of the
system in respect to the specific problem the system is supposed to solve (Satzinger et al, 2011).
The most important things during the analysis and design phase in software development
lifecycle are the design activities, feasibility studies, CASE tools, types of designs and the cost-
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The design activities are three. They include, design architecture, detailed design and
lastly the design testing. Design architecture refers to the design of the system to conform to the
functional requirements of the organization (Hoffer, 2012). Detailed design involves the specific
algorithms, data structures and the data to be implemented in the system. Design testing is the
final process of the design. It includes the process of validating the design by ensuring it
conforms to the functional and non-functional requirements of the system. These design
activities are the steps to ensure coming up with a good design. A good design takes less time to
implement, is cost-effective, meets the user’s requirements, easily maintainable and can be
reused for the design of other systems.
Feasibility studies are required and very significant in the analysis and design phase. The
study entails ensuring the viability of the system in different dimensions. There are three
categories of feasibility studies. They include technical feasibility, economic and operational
feasibility. The technical feasibility study is carried out to find out whether the system is viable
in the technological perspective (Satzinger et al, 2011). Operational feasibility studies are done
to find out whether the system is going to fit into the structure and operations of the specific
organization it is begin built for. The economic feasibility finds out whether the cost of the
system will fit into the economic hurdles of the organization. The above three types of feasibility
studies are important to an IT practitioner when he or she is designing and building and
developing systems to be used in the different organization.
CASE tools are there to make use of technology to simplify the process of developing a
system for an organization. Essentially the significance of using CASE tools cannot be ruled out
at any point. These tools can be used at different phases of the system development lifecycle
(Khalili & Duecker, 2013). The CASE tools help improve the development process, reduce the
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time for development of a computer program. They also improve the documentation of the
The development of a system is made easier by understanding the different design
methodologies that are used to design good systems. Essentially, this will help in creating a good
system design. Lastly, a cost-based analysis is an important tool in the creation of a good system
product. This will help determine if the design is effectively in the perspective of the cost it will
take to finish the whole project (Kersting, 2012).
Dennis, A., Wixom, B. H., & Tegarden, D. (2015). Systems analysis and design: An object-
oriented approach with UML. John Wiley & Sons.
Hoffer, J. A. (2012). Modern Systems Analysis and Design, 6/e. Pearson Education India.
Kersting, W. H. (2012). Distribution system modeling and analysis. CRC press.
Khalili, N. R., & Duecker, S. (2013). Application of multi-criteria decision analysis in design of
sustainable environmental management system framework. Journal of Cleaner
Production, 47, 188-198.
Satzinger, J., Jackson, R., & Burd, S. D. (2011). Systems analysis and design in a changing
world. Cengage Learning.