Solar Panels Enhancement
� Develop a justification for the area of improvement (such as improvement in
service, new ways of working, even new products.
� Prepare the following analysis : Stakeholders Analysis, Risk Analysis, Constraints
(Internal and External).
Undertake a feasibility study for the Project.
� Develop a work breakdown structures
� Develop costing for the project based on identifying (research required � prices
should be based on realistic indicative figures) the main components that you will
need to procure in order to carry out the project:
? Material, product, software, etc
? Manpower: (installers, experts, etc)
Budget = �500,000 to �1million.
Deliver a detailed project plan showing the benefits to the organisation including:
� Time-scale and risk.
� Critical Path Analysis, Gantt chart, Communication Plan
? Word count: 2500 words (- or + 10%)
? Structure: report style
? The report is expected to reflect a sufficient level of research Word count: 500
� Critically analyse the component parts of a major
� Evaluate the time and cost constrained project
plan and complete a Critical Path Analysis on the
� Analyse the planning process and management of
a major oil project
� Discuss project management constraints of
quality, time and cost
Development of knowledge and understanding:
development of detailed knowledge of project
management and how these may be required in everyday
management in oil & gas companies
Cognitive/intellectual skills: ability to analyse data and
to evaluate significant evidence and interpretive actions
required as a consequence
Key/Transferable skills: demonstrate skills in
information management and in defining complex
problems by use of work breakdown structures
Practical skills: ability to operate in complex situations
and to present and use a wide range of techniques
Solar Project Assignment:
Solar steam injection system
The idea is for Naiga-Solar to construct the above solar energy for chevron. The project uses over 7,600 mirrors to focus the sun’s energy into a solar boiler. It is a unique project aimed at demonstrating the viability of using solar energy to produce oil. The steam produced is injected into oil reservoirs to increase oil production. The project is the only one of its kind in the world.
It is the desire of Chevron to enhance oil production from the coalinga field by injecting steam to heat the crude oil, thereby reducing its viscosity and making it easier to produce. The solar-to-steam project will supplement the gas-fired steam generators and help determine the commercial viability of using heat from the sun instead of natural gas to generate steam.
Naiga-Solar is incorporated with the sole purpose of constructing a solar steam injection system in Nigeria. This is a Chevron funded project that is to be implemented in Nigeria. The choice of the country is almost paradoxical given the amount of oil found in Nigeria. Despite the oil wealth, a majority of Nigerians do not have access to regular and reliable energy source.
The choice of Solar Panel Enhancement to achieve energy sufficiency is ideal especially given the amount of sun that is experienced in the country. Nigeria being in the Equatorial region does not have four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) and has on average of 12 hours of sunshine daily. This makes an energy project viable since the basic raw material is abundant and cheap.
With the incorporation of Naiga-Solar, the company will be fulfilling some very important objectives. It will in its operations, aggressively pursue a project that is both sustainable in sourcing for raw materials and operations, contribute both in offering practical solutions to the problem of insufficient power and when this is achieved, that the power is affordable and reliable. To achieve this objective, Naiga-Solar and Chevron believe that the Sun will offer affordable solutions to the challenge of universal affordable and reliable energy.
Nigeria must start looking at other sources of energy apart from fossil fuels (Oil). For the amount of Oil that has been extracted from Nigeria, the economy should be more robust and the population would be much wealthier. This notwithstanding, Nigeria with its unreliable energy supply system is experiencing rapid population growth. This will only make an already bad situation worse. When the above factors are considered in light of the environmental degradation that has happened in the Niger delta, the need for an alternative source of energy cannot be wished away.
The choice of solar as a viable alternative is premised on its abundance- especially in Nigeria a tropical country. Solar energy is simply the energy generated directly by the sun through a thermonuclear process, which changes nearly 650,000,000 tons of hydrogen to helium per second and then collected on the Earth (Graf, Monnerie, Roeb&Schmitz 2008, p. 57).
The choice of a solar as opposed to Oil as a source of energy is based on the need to be concerned about the environment. The solar energy is both sustainable and ubiquitous. It is also the safest and least environmentally exploitative and degrading source of energy. It can also significantly contribute in the lessening of energy-related GHG discharges which help in reducing climate change.
Feasibility study for Solar Panel Energy
A Solar power project has to be located in a place where there is a lot of sun. This is because the sun the main raw material in generating solar energy. By identifying the ideal location, construction should not take a long time. Identifying the ideal location will require significant resource investment. The work schedule is meant to run for a period of eleven weeks with an aim of raising 20 MW of solar power.
It is important to consider all stakeholders if the project is to be successful. Those to be considered will include individuals, the community, government, private sectors, foreign bodies, customers and international influence. These stakeholders play an influence on the project as they will determine the rate with which the project is to be completed.
Project Phase Lifecycle
From beginning to the end, Niaga-Solar will undertake the solar panel enhancement project in four phases. The project has been divided into the phases to facilitate easier monitoring and evaluation of specific benchmarks that will be agreed and set-out at the project onset. The project phases will be initiation, planning and development, implementation and commissioning and hand-over.
Initiation: it is at this stage that the projects scope, purpose, objective and deliverables will be defined and established. With this will be the setting up of the actual project office (Steinfeld& Palumbo 2008, p. 11). It will now be the responsibility of the project office to follow up on approval requirement allowing the project to move to the next phase.
Design planning and development: With the approval of the project, the project team will move on to defining the project activities. This definition is important as it eases the task of mapping out the project operations sequence, makes the task of estimating required resources and time for the completion of the project (Azar &Sandén, 2011, pp. 136).
Execution/Implementation and Control: The main task of this stage will be to actualize the plan already established the previous phase (Azar &Sandén, 2011, pp. 136). The project team will have to use the procedures, templates and schedules already developed to deliver the project efficiently and effectively.
Commissioning and Handover: Once the project is complete, the team that will be taking over from the project team will come in to be part of this phase. In this phase, the project will commissioned and as the equipment and installation are being monitored train the new team on the operations of the project. They will together perform functional and installation tests on the plant (Azar &Sandén, 2011, pp. 136). After all the processes have been audited, the project will be ready for handing over to the project owners at a date convenient to them.
PROJECT PLAN FLOWCHART
|WEEK / ACTIVITY||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||10||11|
|Feasibility study: Designing, Planning and Development phase.|
|Literature Review: primary and secondary sources|
|Execution phase: Site preparation, clearing of the field and Site construction.|
|Constituent installation: materials, software and product installation. Acquiring manpower.|
|Commissioning and Handover phase.|
This is a project that will bring together a diverse group of people all with a stake in the successful completion and implementation of the project. These stakeholders will each have a unique contribution to the project that will cover their interest in the project. Similarly, each will exert influence and exercise power equal to their contribution to the successful implementation and commissioning of the project.
In undertaking the stakeholder analysis, the project implementation team will be able to develop a useful and viable engagement plan that will guide the project interaction with the stakeholders. Each stakeholder will be plotted against a two variable graph taking into consideration their resources and plotting their significance against their influence (Arce, Medrano, Gil&Cabeza2011, p. 2766). The stakeholders in the first quadrant – high influence and impact on the project, will be local politician and senior project officials.
The local community – beneficiaries of the project, will be in the high significance and low influence quadrant. It will be their responsibility to protect their interests by engaging in special initiatives – (public-private partnership). In the third quadrant, among the stakeholders with high influence and low interests are the financial administrators.
The project success is influenced by their contribution during implementation. They ensure all the other stakeholders do not lose sight of the project goals (Arce, Medrano, Gil&Cabeza2011, p. 2764). Finally the stakeholders with low influence and interest in the project are the consumers of the generated power. This group of stakeholders will require very minimal if any monitoring at all.
External Constraints and possible solutions;
Quality: Naiga-Solar will have to deal with the variable demand. This is a especially significant in renewable power generation. Currently, Naiga-Solar projects a 13% forecasting backup margin which it believes will be adequate to ensure tolerable system capability. This will be used as cover for peak freight requirement and to anticipate and dissipate unanticipated system eventualities.
From its planning, Naiga-Solar has exhibited awareness of the augmented demand danger linked with renewable assets. To address this, Naiga-Solar is considering the potential of energy stowing skills, client demand reaction programs and the want for extra quick-start burning turbines as potential qualification strategies (Azar, &Sandén 2011, p. 137). This diversification strategy should assist Naiga-Solar reduce the magnitude of productivity disparities and to alleviate concurrent solar reductions from cloud cover.
Cost: For a project that covers the use of renewable energy, the two principal costs linked with the conduction and delivery of solar energy are the capital and functional costs of the organization such as lines and substations and energy lost during delivery makes this project inefficient as costs are incurred(Hermann 2006, p. 1685). Conduction and distribution costs may also differ greatly depending on geographical factors specific to certain regions this affects the demand pattern. The most effective way to reduce these costs by increasing the use of internal constrains.
Time: In project management, time is a friend only to those who manage it well. This is because it plays a very significant role in determining the success or failure of a project. Timely completion of a project is considered a measure of success while overshooting the set timeframe is a sign of failure (Bosi& Pelosi 2007, p. 47). To manage time best, a Gantt chart present very useful possibilities given its diversity as a tool.
Funding: When a project is adequately funded right from the beginning, this enhances its chances of success. Adequate funding allows the operation of the project to be executed effectively and efficiently (Bosi& Pelosi, 2007, pp. 55). On the other hand, inadequate funding may slow down the project’s operations or lead to shortage of supplies, thereby leading to the project’s failure. This problem will be addressed by preparing a budget and ensuring that all expenditures are in line with the budget.
Raw Materials: When setting up a project it is advisable to do so near the source of the raw materials. This point illustrates the importance of raw materials in determining the success or failure of a project. Inadequate supply of or total lack of raw material may cause termination of a project (Bosi& Pelosi 2007, p. 4511).
In relation to this, reliable suppliers will be signed with the role of supplying equipment and other materials that are needed for the successful implementation of the project. A signed contract/agreement will be made with these suppliers to help avoid issues such as default in supplying raw materials.
Internal Constraints and possible solutions;
Labor: Every project needs labor to actualize it. It is people who actually take charge of the different aspects of a projects operation and activities. Inadequate personnel could jeopardize the project and lead to its failure. Naiga-Solar will hire enough personnel to manage all the various activities and aspects of the project.
Activity Performance: There exists a real and alive risk that a team member could perform or execute an activity contrary to the proscribed project way. Such an action on the part of team members may impact negatively on the accomplishment of the project’s objectives (Bosi& Pelosi, 2007, pp. 56). This problem will be addressed by informing project team members on the significance of adhering to the project’s guidelines/procedures.
Conflicts among project team members: Within a group, conflicts are good. However how they are managed makes the difference between the success or failure of a group undertaking. The same is true with this project. With conflict between members of the team is not managed well, the team and by extension the project will disintegrate (Bosi& Pelosi, 2007, pp. 53). As such, the project may fail to realize its goals. This problem will be addressed by educating project team members on the significance of teamwork.
Communication: If the project lacks an effective communication strategy, it will suffer from poor information flow among team members. This could lead to further problems brought about by misinterpretation. It is important that the open communication is encouraged between the team members (Bosi& Pelosi, 2007, pp. 54). Besides, directive will issued from the project manager to the rest of the project implementation team.
Policy Constraints: Whenever there is a deviation from the project policy no matter how miniscule, the chances of a problem arising are greatly amplified. To deter this, Naiga-Solar needs to consider employing punishment to ensure compliance to the projects governance policies.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): Method of Subdivision
Work Breakdown Structure: Activity List
The activity list will refer to units of work that are separate from other tasks. The activity list will have scheduled start and end dates, short lifespan and an assigned budget (Bosi& Pelosi 2007, p. 64).
Project Scope Management:
Naiga-Solar will adopt a manage changes within it operations by developing and implementing a change management plan. This strategic decision is premised on the knowledge that the only thing that is constant is change. The current strategy of investing in the solar powered steam injection system is actually anchored on the backbone of managing scope in the long-term.
Project Scope Verification:
Verification will entail formalization of the project’s acceptance by stakeholders. As a direct consequence of this, the work products will be reviewed to ensure that their completion is successful (Bosi& Pelosi 2007, p. 62). Some of the areas that will be verified are work results and product documentation among others.
Project Change Control:
Clear definitions of all proposed changes in the project execution will be captured. After this, there will be no other alternations to the project. To achieve this, the following processes will be covered. These processes will include change proposal, summarization of impact of the proposed change, decision making, change implementation and change closure (Bosi& Pelosi 2007, p. 63). Besides, a change log will used in providing a record of all the requested changes and decisions made. A change request form will be employed in documenting change details for the solar project.
Project Impact Statement:
Naiga-Solar will by installing the solar plant be contributing significantly to the provision of a solution to the perennial energy problem in Nigeria. The sun should provide a reliable and safe energy that will be available to the majority of the citizenry.
Critical Path Analysis:
It will be important that the breakdown of the project into executable activities or events. This will then be aligned in their execution order and a network prepared. The time and cost associated with each individual activity is determined. It is only then a critical path or the longest path via the network determined (Bosi& Pelosi 2007, p. 66).
The environmental gains from adoption of the new operations will need to be communicated to the community. It has to be exhibited in light of the gain the community will gain as a result of the adoption of sustainable extraction strategies. For this task, the company will rely on news from the broadcast media – local and regional FM stations, community outreach programmes – this could generate word-of-mouth channel if there is a positive perception.
Evaluation of Information:
When evaluating an technology that is trend setting, the challenge becomes how compare. The polar steam injection system if successful would greatly enhance the environment for the communities where it operates. This would gain for Chevron social points. For a company that has for so long been the face of environmental degradation, it could do with some positive news. It is anticipated that the results should start coming through in nine months to one year. This timelines are based on analysis of the implementation of similar projects coupled with knowledge of local conditions by Chevron staff. The risk of violent attack or even kidnapping is very alive. The Niger Delta is designated high risk posting to all staff – local and international.
Project Total Cost:
Total (in £)
Research, Development and Testing 150,000.00
Transport (to the site) 75,000.00
Construction of Solar boiler steam system 500,000.00
Research and Advance Party 11,250.00
On-Site Activities 10,000.00
Manpower (Locals and experts) 150,000.00
Total Cost 1,000,000.00
Profoma Profit and Loss
Income (Contract to construct Solar Steam Injection System) 1,000,000.00
Manpower (Locals and Expatriate) 150,000.00
Construction, testing and commissioning 671,250.00
Contingencies 75,000.00 971,250.00
Profit (Loss) 28,750.00
Recommendation and Conclusion
It is anticipated that the universal demand for energy will not dissipate soon. Using the solar steam injection system, Chevron should be able to increase their production efficiency significantly. By using solar energy to produce oil, chevron is making significant investment in ensuring the environment is less polluted. It will also be able to produce more oil using the same investment as a result of the steam heating the oil and making it less viscous thus reducing the cost of production significantly.
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