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Principals of management


  1. The Marshall Metro High School officials’ efforts to motivate the students and the teachers to
    perform better are bearing fruits. The teachers’ attempts to call and wake up students who were
    habitual latecomers are finally paying off. The teachers initially began calling the students as
    early as 6.30 a.m. and still followed up on those who had not reported to school by 9.30 a.m. The
    average attendances improved to 75% from 53% and 79% of freshmen who were on their way to
    10 th grade improved and didn’t drop out from school compare to the earlier 34% who actually
    continued to 10 th grade. The other standardized tests also registered improvements in such
    subjects such as English, reading, mathematics and science.
  2. The needs that may encourage teachers to high levels of performance Maslow’s theory are the
    psychological needs that are presented by the desire to have all the basic needs for food, shelter,
    clothing and also self preservation. These basic requirements can only be achieved if someone
    has adequate compensation from a good job. The teachers are motivated by these needs to
    continue working for the school so as to be able to afford them. The other needs for security and
    social interactions are also a motivation for the teachers. The teaching job offers them safety as
    they can be able to afford a secure environment to live in as well as the fellow teachers and
    students and their parents form a good social network that most human beings desire. The other
    needs in the hierarchy are achieved through individual determination. Self actualization may
    motivate the teachers to work hard to improve the lives of the students in the neighborhood.

Principles of Management 2

These will motivate the teachers who are intent to giving back to the society what they have
managed to gain maybe through hard work and sacrifice. Some other teachers will just be
motivated to improve their self esteem through better performance of their students.
The Alderfer concept summarizes the Maslow’s needs to only three needs, Existence,
Relatedness and Growth. The teachers existence needs motivates them to continue working for
the school. The desire to satisfy their physiological as well as their needs to possess material
wealth motivates them to work for the school and sacrifice more for the students performance to
improve as their compensation and salary increments also depends on their own efforts. The
school also provides an excellent network for friends and other social interactions hence they are
also motivated by their relatedness in the school. The needs for the teachers to realize their full
potential also motivates them to work hard for the school.
The acquired needs theory of David McClelland are classified into three; Achievement,
Affiliation and power. These three are the major motives that encourage the teachers to work
hard for the school. The need to achieve better performance for the students and to be affiliated
and be part of the team that has set all its priorities to improve the lives of the students and the
power to influence the lives of the students through performance standards and motivation.
Institutional power represents the teacher’s needs to solve the student’s problems that may
inhibit their performance in school. (McClelland, 1978)

  1. Equity and Expectancy theories are consistent with the Marshall Metro Schools’ attempts to
    motivate both the teachers and the students in different circumstances. Expectancy is the general
    belief that a certain level of effort if exercised consistently will eventually lead to a certain level
    of performance. It’s referred to as the effort to performance expectancy. The officials and

Principles of Management 3

teachers of Marshall Metro School have dedicated most of their spare and official time to
improve the performance of the students in the school. The high absenteeism rate led to a high
number of students drop out rate from school. Curbing the absenteeism rate by such efforts as
constant follow up by the teachers and the students advocates have been effective in tackling the
sources or the causes of absenteeism. Habitual late comers eventually graduate to being absent
from class and finally drop out of school. Calling them and encouraging them to come to school
in the morning motivates them to continuing coming to school early. The motivation in
expectancy theory refers to the relationship that exists between the efforts of the teachers and the
schools official, the performance of the students and the desired outcome of the performance
targeted. This relationship is affected by expectancy, the instrumentality and the valence. The
teachers at Marshall Metro School believe that spending additional more hours motivating the
students will result in improvement of their performance. Also setting the targets to be achieved
by the motivations created to assist and encourage the students improve their grades and also
discourage the high rate of school dropouts as initially registered will actually have a positive
impact on the students. The teachers actually believe and think that they have the ability and the
knowledge hence additional hours on the students targeted towards improving their performance
and interest in school will certainly achieve positive results.
The students believe that they will rewarded by being treated in a special way and the positive
scores in education will lead them to get better jobs in future with adequate compensation.
Equity theories on the other hand suggests that the students who feel that they are being
underrated due their poor performance in class or in other areas will certainly respond to the
inequities which may even be self perceived in negative ways in a way that they may try to
change the inequities by trying to change the outputs or the rewards or eventually quitting the

Principles of Management 4

school. The student’s who think that they being treated fairly will support the school in all ways
and even cooperating with the schools administration in their decisions.
The major concepts of the equity theory is that no matter how fair the schools administration
may be, the perception of the students matters first. The school has to provide positive behavior
motivations to improve performance and perceptions. The students should also be encouraged to
participate in the decision making processes and also be allowed to appeal certain decisions that
affect their status and performance in school. (Wilson, 2012)

  1. Reinforcement concepts on motivation are; positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,
    extinction and punishment. Reinforcement refers to anything that may cause a particular
    behavior to be repeated or alternatively to be inhibited. The reinforcements that may be required
    to motivate the students of Marshall Metro School;
    Positive reinforcement
    These are positive consequences that may encourage and strengthen certain behaviors in
    students. For example encourage the bright students to work hard by praising them and
    rewarding them. The other students should also be praised on improved performance and on
    other extracurricular activities. They should generally be encouraged to work hard in all areas
    that they excel in. For example, prizes should be awarded to the best students and medals to
    others who excel in other fields like sports. The basic outlines may be to reward only positive
    and desirable behaviors and it should be done on time. For example, students who come early to
    class should be praised for coming to class early and it should be done in the morning. There
    should be different kinds of rewards and which must also address individual differences.

Principles of Management 5

Negative reinforcement
It’s the process that strengthens a certain behavior by actually withdrawing something negative.
For example students who repeatedly report late to class may be encouraged to come early if
they are assured that they will not get a free gift in the morning if they arrive late in class or
alternatively they can compelled to remain in class during games time to recover the time they
came late. Negative reinforcements mostly avoid student’s reprimands only negative reinforcers
are implemented. These negative reinforcements may force the students to come early to class in
order to avoid the negative consequences of their actions or inactions.
It also refers to the weakening of behaviors simply by ignoring it or by not reinforcing it or by
withholding of praises and rewards. For example, the students who excel in sports will be denied
a medal on grounds that the school no longer has the funds to purchase the medals as the
management has to replace broken windows and furniture. This will inhibit the students from
destroying school properties especially by the rowdy and over active students.
Refers to the process of withdrawing something positive or weakening a certain behavior simply
by presenting or giving out something negative. For example, students who persistently come
late to class maybe dropped from the school’s football team or may not be allowed to participate
in certain activities that are popular with students. (Wigfield, Guthrie, Tonks, & Perencevich,

Principles of Management 6

2004) Punishments should be directed to all undesirable behaviors and it should be timely. The
undesirable acts should be clearly spelt out and administered in private. However when
punishing students it would be wise also to speak on the positive aspect of the students.

Principles of Management 7

Wilson, H.J. (2012) “Employees, Measure Yourselves” The Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2012,
Dow Jones & Company, Inc.
McClelland, D. C. (1978) Managing Motivation to Expand Human Freedom, American
Psychologist Vol. 33(3) and 201–210.
Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Tonks, S., & Perencevich, K. C. (2004). Children’s motivation for
reading: Domain specificity and instructional influences. Journal of Educational
Research, 97, 299-309.

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