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Philosophy of Multicultural Education

Philosophy of
Comparison of
Diversity Theories
 Diversity theories include, but are not specifically limited, to the following:
 Class
 Disability
 Ethnicity/Race
 Gender
 Life Inside the Classroom
Comparison of Diversity Theories
 Diversity theories are applied in several multicultural approaches: Human Relation,
Multicultural Education, and Multicultural Social Justice Education
 Human Relation Approach
 The removal of prejudice and bias within multicultural settings is at the core of this
 This approach identifies different grounds for oppression (class, disability,
ethnicity/race, and gender) and seeks to resolve them positively
 Resolutions revolve around cultivating a feeling of pride, confidence, and a sense of
identity among social groups
 Multicultural Education Approach
 The attainment of social justice indiscriminate of social groups serves as the key
priority of this approach
 This approach aims to reduce and ultimately remove discrimination, particularly
against social groups that have heavily been oppressed

 Equal opportunity, and equitable power and rights distribution stands as a desired
result of this approach

 Multicultural Social Justice Education Approach
 This approach is very much like the earlier two approaches, but it takes on a more
direct form
 Teachers and students alike engage in activities that enable the resolution of
discriminatory practices against social groups
 Activities revolve around problems concerning discrimination, and students are
tasked to resolve them

I. Personal Experiences
per Diversity Theory
 Class – Some members of the class who are in greater financial need tend to ask assistance
for access to materials, which are duly granted to them.
 Disability – Activities inside the classroom are ensured to encourage the full and dynamic
participation of disabled students
 Ethnicity/Race – Discussions free from ethnic or racial prejudice and stereotyping have
prevailed in several classroom sessions
I. Personal Experiences per Diversity Theory
 Gender – Prejudice and stereotyping on the grounds of gender are avoided topics; roles are
not defined on the grounds of gender
 Life Inside the Classroom – A collective sense of harmony has long been encouraged inside
the classroom
II. Unit Design vis-à-vis
Approach to
Multicultural Education
 Grade Level – 9th Grade
 Subject – World History

 Multicultural Topic – The involvement of Japanese-Americans during the Second World War
 Unit Design Rationale
 Japan was an adversary of the US during the Second World War, triggered by the
Pearl Harbor Bombing
 Japanese-Americans were forcibly relocated and incarcerated in various camps in
the US, with others deported as well
 Discrimination against Japanese-Americans was rife
 Accounts on the perspectives of past (anecdotal) and present Japanese-Americans
will form part of the study
 Current social sentiments on the issue also figure in the study
II. Resources for
Unit Design

 Primary sources (i.e. biographies,
letters, audio-video recordings, etc.) serve
as essential resources for this unit
 Perspectives on differences among
social groups involved in this unit must be
rooted on information from both ISTE and
 Said resources must aim to develop
the communication skills of students,
particularly towards greater collaboration
and interaction in solving problems
presented in the unit

II. Strategies for

 Strategy 1: Create
 This strategy empowers teachers to
create an educationally-conducive
environment for students to appreciate
how diversity works in everyday life
 Methods such as role-playing, film-
viewing, and experience-sharing all form
part of this strategy
 Students are encouraged to expose
themselves to different cultural practices,
in order to increase their appreciation and

 Strategy 2: Contribute
 This strategy provides teachers
with the opportunity to explore
cultural icons who have contributed
positively in their respective fields
 Examples of icons – presented as
role models, enables students to
understand the significance of the
social groups they represent
 Presentation of multicultural
content is essential in this strategy

 Strategy 3: Encourage
 This strategy encourages students
to gain a deeper understanding of
social groups through the use of
credible materials
 Speakers with experiences in
working with social groups are
effective resource persons
 A curated variety of educational
materials stand to enlighten students
on the value of understanding social

 Students must spend sessions for
critical thinking

III. Personal Philosophy
of Multicultural
 A Greater Understanding of Cultural
Education Inside the Classroom
 Everything should start from the
classroom first; diversity is present in
every classroom these days
 Understanding that heterogeneity is
increasingly becoming the reality around
the world, it’s imperative to have a
greater understanding of the students’
cultural differences
 Such, of course, must deeply
influence the mode of instruction
required for the class

 A Well-Built Foundation for
 Students must be understood to be
overwhelmed by default when presented
with materials on cultural differences
 Their curiosity should be cultivated
for the instruction to be fashioned around
eliminating prejudices and stereotypes
 The instruction must encourage
students to engage with one another as
they discover new knowledge on cultural
differences together
 Working together, of course, helps
ease cultural differences, especially in
highly-diverse settings
 A Highly-Entertaining Learning Environment
 Students are well-accustomed to doing things the fun way – they must be exposed
to new knowledge on cultural differences without the feeling of intimidation
 The mode of instruction should allow greater breathing room for students to have
fun as they learn more about how diverse the world is
 Sharing of different culturally-rooted perspectives should be done in a way that
doesn’t arbitrarily impose against other cultures, and encourages open-mindedness

 Summary
 Weaknesses in embracing multicultural education must be addressed critically, with
due respect to the belief-systems of students
 A greater appreciation towards different cultures and the reality of diversity per se
must serve as the ultimate outcome of multicultural education

 The understanding that not one social group is higher than another is imperative in
conducting multicultural education

 References

 Adams, M., & Bell, L. (Eds.). (2016).
Teaching for diversity and social justice (3 rd
ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
 Dolby, N. (2012). Rethinking
multicultural education for the next
generation: The new empathy and social
justice. New York City, NY: Routledge.
 Ghosh, R., & Galczynski, M. (2014).
Redefining multicultural education:
Inclusion and the right to be different (3 rd
ed.). Toronto, Canada: Canadian Scholars’
Press Inc.

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