:Describe the participants in the study.
As you are conducting quantitative research, describe the instrument participants completed in the
Explain the procedures that you conducted.
Perform the data analysis.
Summarize your findings.
Interpret the results of the data analysis.
Summarize the findings and limitations of your research.
Address the feedback from your instructor for Assignments 2 and 3.
3.0 Research Methodology
Research methodology follows a thorough investigation of a given topic with the view of
augmenting knowledge. In the academic discipline, for instance, dynamism is always evident. As
such, the academic system, syllabus, pedagogies of teaching, approaches for teacher training and
the government’s commitment to fund educational management for equality are at stake.
However, the study delved on unraveling that mystery that limits the access and Equity in Public
Education and the need for the federal authority to ensure higher education is made accessible to
everyone regardless of race, sex, creed and national origin. The outcome of the study is critical in
helping policymakers determine areas of the American society that do not have access to higher
education funding (Bogenschneider and Corbett, 2010). By targeting educators and educational
planners in the State of Alabama, the study was better placed to evaluate the impact of
fundamental changes that would then guide policy recommendations in terms of access to strong
teachers, technological and instructional materials, safe school facilities, and extracurricular
programs. This section presents the techniques used in the study, which include research design,
research methods, sampling design, limitations, and ethical consideration among others.
3.1 Research philosophy
The study philosophy is centered on the process employed in performing a given study
while appraising on how information develops. As an issue of great concern, researchers have
every reason to recognize conjecture and its association to ethics. Various theories in education
planning and policy formulation were employed in the study to help comprehend the state of
access and equity in public institutions (Bogenschneider and Corbett, 2010). The study embraced
a positivist method because it allowed the scholar to appraise data from Spring Hill College,
Stillman College, and Talladega College, all in the state of Alabama in the United States of
America. Again, the study was embedded in a particular review of previous findings in
responding to the issue of education inequality in public schools.
3.2 Research design
Based on unique research questions requiring a substantive response, the study adopted
a questionnaire. With this in mind, data gathering was informed by the longitudinal
methodology. Here, data is collected on a sample size of 60 participants from three different
institutions of learning namely; Spring Hill College, Stillman College, and Talladega College,
all in the state of Alabama in the United States of America. The study employed a detailed
analysis of both qualitative and quantitative information. Questionnaires were used to collect
quantitative data. The research revolved around the need to expand public education in terms
of strong teachers, technological and instructional materials, safe school facilities, and
extracurricular programs. For a substantive wrap-up, literature analysis was employed to
highlight the aims of the study. The study evaluated how the public education be expanded to
meet all the segments of the society. Moreover, the study deliberated on substantial elements
that need to be incorporated to ensure that this expansion captures all the under-represented
segments of the society.
3.2.1 Quantitative approach
The subject of accuracy in the quantitative method is mainly dependent on issues being
researched. To understand the issues on the ground substantively, the study adopted quantitative
methods. Quantitative methods have been utilized in research since time to analyze natural
conditions in arithmetic, investigations and econometrics (Diggle and Chetwynd, 2011). Self-
administered questionnaires were employed for collecting data from educators in three
institutions and education planners from the state of Alabama. Questionnaires were preferred for
convenience reasons (Bryman 2012) .
126.96.36.199 Questionnaire design
The questionnaire was created based on a prose search to determine relevant information
surrounding funding inequality in the state of Alabama. A self-completion questionnaire was
used in order to be able to collect data from a large sample of students in a short time with the
restricted resources available for this study. Questionnaires have long been used in research to
measure variables including knowledge, attitudes, intention, beliefs and behaviour. Thus, the use
of this approach was considered suitable to facilitate the achievement of the study’s aims and
objectives. According to ( Bryman 2012) survey methods are critical when it comes to evaluating
comparisons and variations between groups, involving a large populace. To suit the Alabama
context, certain amendments were made to the original questionnaire regarding social status,
religion, national origin, color, gender, and race. However, no alterations were made for scoring
information and attitudes. Tools were altered to create a self-administered questionnaire
consistent with the state of Alabama regarding highlighting research aims and objectives.
The arrangement of wording, form and question hierarchy was expertly presented to
mitigate the risk of bias. Also a self-completing questionnaire was considered to be very
convenient for participants in terms of completing the questionnaire when they want. At the
same time, questionnaires have some disadvantages which should be noted such as; the greater
risk of missing data or uncompleted questionnaires and the chance of low response rates
(Bryman 2012) . The instruments were modified to produce a self-administered questionnaire
that would be consistent with higher education funding in the state of Alabama addressing the
research aims and objectives. The content was laid out such that the wording, form and order of
the questions minimised the risk of bias.
The study targeted educators from three different institutions in Alabama namely in
Spring Hill College, Stillman College, and Talladega College, in the United States of
America. The state of Alabama was picked because it represents some of the inequalities
evident despite large enrollments across the larger America. Educators in three institutions of
higher learning were used unravel and address how access and equity within the education
systems in America can be initiated.
3.4.1 Primary data
Primary data was used to gather information using questionnaires. Data was collected at
three different institutions of learning; Spring Hill College, Stillman College, and Talladega
College, in the state of Alabama in the United States of America. Moreover, 60 educators were
interviewed. The respondents were requested to provide their views about access and equity in
public education. The questionnaire was designed such that it was easy to respond to. It had
closed-ended questions that allowed participants to provide opinions on the choices. In most
cases, this is done that the views are related to what is the actual scenario on the ground. Studies
that embrace primary information is valid as they provide a thorough comprehension of issues
being explored (Berg and Lune, 2012). For that reason, assessment of primary data offers vital
recommendations. By and large, primary data suggested significant facts that were useful
demonstrating, presenting and assessing association within the information.
3.4.2 Secondary data
Secondary information is essential because it offers valuable information that addresses the
research questions (Diggle and Chetwynd, 2011). A meticulous assessment of secondary sources
on access and equity in public education was performed. In particular, this was performed to
understand the views of participants about access and equity in public education. Different past
studies on access and equity in public education in Alabama was obtained from journals, articles
with the consideration that they applied to the topic being explored. Furthermore, sources used in
this study were validated to maximize reliability. Books are crucial as they provide adequate
comprehension of past studies associated with the subject being explored.
In performing any research, sampling is crucial since it permits a researcher to minimize
the information needed. Sampling also assists the researcher to save time. In the present, study
non-probability sampling approach was adopted because the sample size was small. This
sampling approach allows the researcher to select indiscriminately participants until the needed
sample is achieved (Berg and Lune, 2012). This sampling approach is appropriate for this
research because it enables the scholar to gather information on the accessibility of participants.
In this case, non-probability sampling technique permitted the researcher to gather educators’
and educational planners’ views about the expansion of public education to meet all the segments
of the society. They were also requested to give the opinions about substantial elements that need
to be incorporated to ensure that academic funding expansion captures all the under-represented
segments of the society. Again, 60 participants were indiscriminately selected while ensuring
that they were of eligible age, which is 18 years. A sample of 60 participants is suitable for this
research because it fits within the deadline.
3.6 Research Ethics
Research ethics play a significant role in performing any given research. In that view, it is
essential to put into account that collected facts are kept correctly and only disclosed with
owners’ consent (Bogenschneider and Corbett, 2010). The research also made sure that all the
participants were of above 18 years. Because a research can cause negative effects on the
participants, the researcher ensured that all cases of danger were minimized. Hence, the study
obtained the consent before conducting the quantitative research.
3.7 Reliability and validity
In research, reliability is the extent at which the information offers reliable findings. In that
view, the researcher validated all the secondary sources so as to increase the reliability of data.
Furthermore, secondary information was related to access and equity in public education. On the
other hand, validity is a connection between the findings and real situation. Therefore,
guaranteed the validity of the study in the design of the questionnaire while assessing some
secondary sources. Subsequently, the study adopted a quantitative method to ascertain that
collected facts were reliable. The research questions were comprehensively tackled to indicate
the issues of accessibility and equity in public education in the US. Nevertheless, this scholar
was keen to reduce issues related to sampling errors (Diggle and Chetwynd, 2011). In research,
sampling errors are due to the use of incorrect sampling approach. Hence, this study adopted
non-probability sampling with a sample size of 60 educators and educational planners in the state
The processing of carrying out any given study is intricate, thus coupled with many
limitations. Some of these limitations are;
A sample size of 60 participants is small hence they inadequate viewpoint about access
and equity in public education
the study focused on one state, there it was hard to provide the clear scenario of access
and equity in public education across the United States
4.0 Data analysis
Data was collected and analyzed using the latest SPSS software. Descriptive and inferential
statistics were employed. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, means and
percentages were necessary for the analysis of social status, religion, national origin, color,
gender, and race. In addition chi-square tests and t-tests was used to analyze data One-way
ANOVA was employed to examine the significance influence of independent as well as
dependent variables (Diggle and Chetwynd, 2011). A p-value of less than 5% was regarded as
4.1 Research hypotheses
- H 0 = Public education cannot meet all the segments of the society
- H 1 = Public education can meet all the sectors of the society
- H 0 = Substantial elements cannot help capture under-represented sectors of the society
- H 1 = Substantial elements can help capture under-represented sectors of the society.
5.0 Summary of findings.
The majority of participants reported that education is a fundamental human right that
provides youths the power to break cycles of poverty. This is important, particularly when it
comes to increasing the economic and social development of a nation. Based on the findings,
participants particularly educational planners reported that education should be developed to
meet their learning needs. Moreover, these calls for the implementation of appropriate to not
only empower the society but also confer with the responsibility of respecting and building on
the collective culture, spiritual and linguistic heritage.
About 35 of participants demonstrated that public education has expanded remarkably,
for instance, enrollments of lower grade have increased. However, the rate of admission was
higher for girls than boys. These disparities in enrollments ratios have seen girls benefit from
education than boys. Moreover, 7 educators alleged that education can be expanded in the
society only when it is used as an equalizer, and thus applied equally to get rid of growing rates
of inequalities. The study also discovered that to expand education in all segments of the society,
should be offered to all learners regardless of their race, gender, national origin, color, social
status or religion. Access and equity in education in public schools are an important strategy that
allows the state to understand that effective techniques have been adopted to enhance it (Gilbert
& Heller, 2013).
Findings indicate that public institutions in Alabama have witnessed a drop in the share
of revenue that emanates from state funding over the last two and half decade. The findings
indicate that students at Alabama pay exorbitant rates when it comes to tuition fees in
comparison to other states. About 75% of respondents claim that the emergence of income
generating colleges, changes in student aid and the dwindling of state funds for public intuitions
of higher learning have contributed to this anomaly. A large percentage of respondents assert that
the skyrocketing tuition fee is partly a failure on the part of policymakers and partly tax payers
who value higher education for various reasons but do not want states wasting their money
obtained from taxes to fund education (Archibald and Feldman, 2011). This thinking may be
largely attributed to the fact that education in the United States is seen as a social problem as
opposed to an answer to social problems.
A large percentage of respondent hold the view that the federal government should
enhance the optimum Pell Grant award to help reduce the inflation in the future. While higher
education is a crucial outlay for the current and future wellbeing of the state of Alabama the both
the state and federal government should ensure all students have access to education irrespective
of background. This gesture will enhance not just student lives but also the economic welfare of
the state, the country and the world.
5.1 Best Approach
Based on the findings, it becomes clear that educational resources including skilled
educators, technological and instructional materials, safe school facilities, and extracurricular
programs. Some participants state that to achieve equality of education in public learning
institutions, it’s vital for the federal government to equally allocate resources to colleges and
universities irrespective of race, sex, creed and national origin. Moreover, the majority of the
educators indicated that public schools have the responsibility of making sure that education is
expanded in such a way that promotes common goals to end the issues of gender, social status,
religion, and race while involving families and community. However, some of the educational
planners involved in this study reported that much as federal government equally allocates
resources for public institutions; it does not reflect the way in which these institutions are
sponsored. Education is the platform used to prepare the youths to increase the skills (Gilbert &
Therefore, the study discovered that the main technique to ensure access and equality of
public education were by incorporating several structures such as the society in addressing the
issue. Besides, the participants argued that to effective expansion of education in all segments
can be attained if the state reviews its resource allocation approaches. Participants also reported
that education can be designed in a way that provides sustainable learning as well as skills to
prepare learners after completing their courses. Education inequality has been pegged on several
factors such as sex, race, creed and nation of origin. As such, based on the findings, there is need
for sustainable strategies to help expand it equally in all segments since education is fundamental
in improvement of the society
6.0 Research gap
The federal authority has an obligation to ensure educational funding for public
institutions distributed to all equitably. This demonstrates that equity is influenced by the way
learning institution are financially sponsored. Previous studies on access and equity of education
in public schools entail preparing learners to increase their skills. Nevertheless, it is vital to put
into account that these studies differ when it comes to achieving access and equity in public
learning institutions. Some studies demonstrate that the main strategy of realizing access and
equity of education is by incorporating of different elements and the society in addressing this
issue. Other studies show that access and education equity can be attained when the state amends
the ways it funds public learning institutions. Therefore, the research gap is finding an efficient
strategy for making sure that access and equity is attained in public learning institutions
particularly between low-income districts and affluent districts.
7.0 Interpretation of Results
When it comes to whether funding was equitable in public schools or not, the results
demonstrate that the age and household incomes are important variables used in the assessment.
In other words, household income is the main determinant the state use to fund learners and
extensive effort to offer equal education funding. Based on the findings, the state of Alabama
needs to ensure equitable distribution of educators in main subject areas. In addition, there is a
need to continuously foster equal distribution qualified instructors while maximizing their
availability, particularly in public schools. Moreover, funding of public education should come
hand in hand with critical resources such as technological and instructional materials, safe school
facilities, and extracurricular programs.
However, it is of great importance to put into consideration, that equity and access to
education measures are wholly controlled and managed by policy makers in the state. The
federal government should therefore ensure that funding is equitably done in public schools as
informed by policy. Therefore, when assessing the state’s degree of funding equal public
education, it is necessary to understand that funding is based on efforts and financial ability.
Moreover, the rate at which students’ attend public schools is not based on the access and equity
of public education (Gilbert & Heller, 2013).
When it comes to poverty levels of students, 5.5% of educators were not skilled
compared to 2.7% in schools with lower levels of students from poor households. In addition, in
schools with a high number of students from poor backgrounds, 4.9% of educators were in their
first year of teaching than schools with lower levels of learners from low-income families. In
public schools with many minority learners 5% of teachers were in their first years of teaching in
comparison to 3.1% of teachers in institutions with lower minority learners. These results
demonstrate a need for equal distribution of resources in public learning institutions.
From the graphical representations based on three years consecutively of non-highly
qualified educators in low-income schools. The latest data demonstrates that 2.54% of teachers
that are not highly skilled are found in colleges schools with high poverty index in comparison to
1.37 in low poverty schools (Gilbert & Heller, 2013). In the same breadth, a greater equity gap
is evident at the secondary level. Statistics indicates 7.72% of educators that are not highly
skilled at the tertiary schools with high poverty index public institutions in comparison to 2.57%
found in colleges in low-income places. With these inequalities, the need for an action plan
8.0 Summary and Limitations
Research findings determined that the development of education in the US remains a
defining aspect of modern times. Knowledge acquirement is a key strategy that advances the
propensity of the US particularly in the wake of globalization (Williams & Bossu, 2012). This
brings us to the point where the access and equity of education in public schools remains an
important issue. This is of particular significance to a democratic nation that highlights on the
usefulness of civic obligation as well as human rights that require an equal education structure.
Other issues that came out strongly in terms of access to academic resources that include strong
teachers, technological and instructional materials, safe school facilities, and extracurricular
programs. In short, for education equality for all, various interventions should be put in place.
The US government has put in writing the need for equal access to quality education.
Nevertheless, the US is confronted with the challenge of offering equal educational opportunities
for all the citizens regardless of their gender, race, religion, social station, and national origin.
This is pegged on the fact that policy framers and implementers have been the system’s undoing
(Gilbert & Heller, 2013). As such, this calls for the development of effective strategies that can
easily identify areas that lack equal education. Education should be considered as an equalizer
and be used a platform for mitigating the increasing rates of inequality to achieve equitable
access to public education (Leach, 2013). There is also the need to equalize resources such as
qualified educators and fund, which calls for the federal government to ensure that financial aid
and qualified educators are distributed equally in public schools. In the end, it is challenging to
use the results to determine accurately learning institutions’ in terms of equitable distributions of
resources without equivocation. In addition, until the state resources distribution structure is
realized, measuring education equity may prove intricate.
Ansell, B. W. (2010): From the Ballot to the Blackboard: The Redistributive Political Economy
of Education. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Archibald, R. B., and D. H. Feldman (2011): Why Does College Cost so Much? New York:
Oxford University Press.
Ball, S., M. Maguire, and I. Goodson (2012): Education, Capitalism and the Global Crisis.
Barceló, M. (2012): Higher Education in the World 4: Higher Education’s Commitment to
Sustainability: From Understanding to Action. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Berg, B. L., and H. Lune (2012): Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Boston:
Bogenschneider, K., and T. Corbett (2010): Evidence-based Policymaking: Insights from Policy
-minded Researchers and Research-minded Policymakers. New York: Routledge.
Bragg, D. D., & Durham, B. (2012). Perspectives on Access and Equity in the Era of
(Community) College Completion. Community College Review, 40(2), 106-125.
Bryman, A. (2012): Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Diggle, P. J., and A. G. Chetwynd (2011): Statistics and Scientific Method: An Introduction for
Students and Researchers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gilbert, C. K., & Heller, D. E. (2013). Access, Equity, and Community Colleges: The Truman
Commission and Federal Higher Education Policy from 1947 to 2011. Journal of Higher
Education, 84(3), 417-443.
Gilbert, C. K., & Heller, D. E. (2013). Access, Equity, and Community Colleges: The Truman
Commission and Federal Higher Education Policy from 1947 to 2011. Journal Of Higher
Education, 84(3), 417-443
Leach, L. (2013). Participation and equity in higher education: are we going back to the
future? Oxford Review of Education, 39(2), 267-286.
Williams, J., & Bossu, C. (2012). Equity considerations for open educational resources in the
globalization of education. Distance Education, 33(2), 185-199.