Information Systems in Business
Each response must be at least 100 words per response. You must write about every question listed.
Your submission should have twelve separate responses about all twelve questions. It is recommended
that you use one citation per question. If you do use citations please use correct format.
1: Compare information systems in business.
2: Identify strategic decision making models and systems.
3: Describe E-business.
4: Explain ethics and information security.
5: Explain the three components of enterprise architecture and define architectures and systems.
6: Define all aspects of databases and the use of them within the system.
7: Describe different types of Networks, telecommunications, and mobile technology.
8: Explain what management is and what the correlation of management and information technology is.
9: Describe customer relationship management and the four management philosophies.
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10: Describe the concepts of enterprise resource planning and collaboration systems.
11: Evaluate what systems development and project management are and their place in IT.
12: Explain the place of IT in the global realm and in the 21st century.
Information systems are essential sources of insight that allow managers to grow
their business by saving costs and achieving a competitive advantage. Information systems
support operations and management of a company. Information systems of business that support
business operations include management support systems (MRS), Executive information systems
(EIS), transaction processing systems (TPS), decision support systems (DSS). The TPSs are the
primary data source applied in systems at higher levels to provide essential information. Besides,
office information systems (OIS) and professional support systems (PSS) help in supporting the
group and personal knowledge (Stair & Reynolds, 2017).
Transaction processing systems provide essential data for supporting operations
of management. TPS obtains data through the semi-automated or automated activity tracking in
low levels and essential transactions. TPS examples include order processing systems, payroll
systems, stock control systems and reservation systems. The functions of TPS are to provide
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efficiency-oriented, cross boundaries, information for other systems and applied by supervisory
and operational levels. MIS systems are used to ensure proper operation of the company in short
and medium term. MIS assists managers in the evaluation of organizational performance by
comparing previous and current results. MIS examples include HRM systems, management
reporting systems, budgeting systems, sales management systems and inventory control systems.
The functions of MIS are to maintain relatively planned decisions, inside information flows,
inflexible and have little analytical decisions. Besides, MIS allows efficiency and deals with
present and previous rather than the future. A decision support system facilitates the creation of
knowledge and allows organizational integration. A DSS helps in analysis of existing structured
information and projecting potential effects of managerial decisions (Stair & Reynolds, 2017).
DSS systems are interactive, practical and solve all structured problems by offering to provide
analytical tools, databases, and simulating the exchange of information. DSS systems include a
computer supported cooperative work, financial planning systems, team decision support
systems and logistics systems. Executive Information Systems are strategic systems used by
leading managers and top executives to evaluate the organizational environment. This helps to
recognize future trends and plan appropriately (Stair & Reynolds, 2017).
Strategic Decision Making Models and Systems
Strategic decisions influence the long-term state of organizations through
commitments of financial and non-financial obligations. They are the processes of creating and
putting into actions that amount to significant changes in an organization in order to bridge the
current and future states of an organization. Strategic decision-making models and systems vary
according to organizations and personalities of managers and depend on two approaches
(Wollmann & Steiner, 2017). Models are based on steps, application and the context. Strategic
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decisions making models depending on some steps include “seven-step decision-making process,
five-step decision-making process, and three step decision-making process.” Strategic decision-
making models based on the context and application includes the rational model, the bargaining
model, the participative model, bounded-rationality or behavioral model and garbage can model
(Wollmann & Steiner, 2017).
The 7-step decision-making process has stages of the whole model with three
significant steps of the situation, identification, and development. The 5-step model of making a
decision uses five steps of identifying decisions, assessing options, obtaining information, taking
a decision and executing decisions. The 3-step process of making a decision involves three steps
of identification of opportunity or need, developing decision components and execution of
decisions. The rational decision-making model is focused on maximizing the efficiency of
specific criteria. It defines goals, recognizes opportunities, examines the consequences, and
makes a decision depending on particular criteria. Thus it ensures monitoring, execution, and
improving the initial decision depending on the established feedback. The behavioral model
introduces the concepts of bounded rationality. Bargaining model introduces the concept of
negotiation to establish mutual benefits during the process of making strategic decisions.
Participative decision-making model involves all stakeholders in the process in order to enhance
democracy. Strategic decision-making systems include knowledge management, decision
support, computer-based information, information and executive information systems,
(Wollmann & Steiner, 2017).
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E-business is the carrying of activities of business on the Internet through e-
platforms. Some E-business processes are processing payments, supplies, and services, selling
and buying products, servicing customers, collaborating with customers, sharing information,
recruiting and running automated staff services and managing production control (Benitez, Chen,
Teo, & Ajamieh, 2018). This including carrying out business process and transaction through
online services which range from the development of intranets to e-services. E-business uses
different models of business-to-consumer and consumer-to-business models. Business to
consumer model allows selling of products directly to retail consumers online. A business-to-
business model allows companies to use the Internet to carry out business transactions with one
another by involving multiple online transactions at each supply chain stage. The consumer-to-
business model allows consumers to create their demand and value for products through
activities such as reverse online auctions. Besides, a consumer-to-consumer e-business model
facilitates online marketplaces via a third party for both consumer and sellers (Benitez et al.,
E-business allows companies to faster transactions and reaches a broader
customer base. E-business has a broader range of business processes as compared to e-commerce
as it includes aspects such as electronic order process, customer relationship management, and
supplies chain management. These aspects are designed to allow a company to operate more
efficiently and effectively. Besides, e-business can deal with in-house services through a firm’s
network or probably outsourced to providers who have specialized in e-business. Therefore, e-
business is used to define all kind of business or commercial transactions that are conducted
across the Internet such as sharing information (Benitez et al., 2018).
Ethics and Information Security
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Ethical evaluation of issues of information privacy and security in computing in
order to help users and professionals to identify and resolve moral problems as well as yield
ethical guidelines and policies for using information technology. The design and use of
computers require moral reflection and ethics. This enhances moral values and involves moral
choices. Therefore, ethics ensures information security by promoting privacy, confidentiality,
and protection of data to third parties unless under legal obligations. Information systems should
be designed to give security of personal data or information to third parties or any other
unauthorized party to avoid privacy issues and cyber crimes. Information systems should be
designed to provide security to and values in principled fashion through value-sensitive design or
approach. Ethical values should be developed at the initial stages of information systems in order
to be incorporated in the overall design or framework (Ortmeier, 2017).
Besides, users of information systems should be made aware of what ethical
issues are on system security, and they should not be complicated. Information security should
ensure that data is adequately protected and privacy issues are effectively followed in order to
enhance moral responsibilities to all information users. Confidential information should well be
protected, and only legitimate people should have access to the information. In case of wrong
information, employees for information security should ensure they liaise with the management
of the organization before keeping the data. Therefore, ethical issues in information technology
ensure the protection of confidential client information and employee personal data. Thus,
organizations should not disclose information to third parties. Organizations should apply due
care and diligently when providing personal information in order to enhance confidentiality and
privacy issues. Organizations should also train employees dealing with information security on
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scenario-based training as well as affiliating them with a professional association (Ortmeier,
Components of Enterprise Architecture and Architectures and Systems
Enterprise architect defines and establishes practices and principles for
developing and using the architecture description of a system. This allows managers to make full
design decisions on all elements of a system. Besides, it allows managers to make future
decisions around new structure sustainability, specifications, and support. The architecture
components include descriptions, design methods, an organization of architects, description
advice, process advice, and organizational advice (Foss & Saebi, 2017). Description of
architecture ensures that an enterprise is documented as a system from several viewpoints.
Therefore, descriptions of architecture capture interests of all parties, especially the stakeholders
through the form of tables or list. The methods for designing architecture provide the models and
processes to follow through phases composed of finer-grained tasks. Architects of organization
provide the guidance on the group design and its governance as well as establish the team’s
skills, knowledge, experience, and training required (Foss & Saebi, 2017).
Description advice ensures that authentic view of architecture and process advice
ensures development method by providing supporting guidance. Organizational advice provides
the required governance model. These five components of architecture ensure an ideal system
with features such as business value measurements metrics, initiative, and maturity and
enterprise communication models. Thus, components of architecture ensure that organizations
are competitive and allow designing of various architecture components, which include business
architecture, technological architecture, application architecture, organizational architecture and
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information architecture. Besides, enterprise architecture components should include business
information systems, databases domains, database object classes, management level, missions,
organizational performance missions, organizational accomplishing functions, positions,
resources and resource lifecycle analysis node. An enterprise structure is the design and
engineering of mission, functions, organizations, and database domains of an enterprise in order
to extend and integrate with other practical architectures such as hardware, business information
systems and business events (Foss & Saebi, 2017).
Aspects of Databases and the Use
A database is a structured data, stored and accessed through electronic devices. A
database designer ideally organizes the information to replica reality aspects in a manner that
supports procedures demanding information. A database management system provides functional
roles, which include data definition, update, retrieval, and administration. There are different
aspects of databases that should be used by organizations to enhance data security, protection,
and confidentiality as well as improve organizational performance. There are various aspects of
database security which include compliance through auditing and monitoring, access control,
separation of tasks, SQLI and patching, query protection, data encryption and data masking
Database aspects can be used for various purposes in a system to enhance
organizational efficiency and effectiveness. A database is used as a storage system for both
internal and external information of an organization. Besides, it contains all the information
needed in the system and provides permanent storage and data structures. Storage of database
function increases performance. Database enhances materialized views for external purposes in
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order to save expensive computing. A database allows replication in order to increase data
availability by improving the performance of simultaneous multiple end-user accesses as well as
providing data resiliency. Databases enhance information security by protecting from
unauthorized entities or persons.
Moreover, a database promotes migration of information, transactions, and
concurrency (Ceri, 2017). A database ensures building, tuning and maintaining systems with
strategic objectives to enhance performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of operations. A
database provides proper backup and restoring of valuable information due to software errors or
technical issues as well as enhances static analysis. Database logs provide maintenance of the
history of executed functions and optimizers allow an efficient query plan. A database provides
the mechanism of integrating a single system that incorporates the main functionalities of an
organization. The elements of the database include fields, records, and tables to ensure secure
and accurate feeding and storage of information (Ceri, 2017).
Types of Networks, Telecommunications, and Mobile Technology
Computer networks are classified according to size, a distance, and the structure
and include “Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) and Metropolitan Area
Network (MAN) (Chen & Zhao2014).” Networks permit system and devices to exchange
information. Networks are medium of connections between nodes or set of computers or devices.
A network consists of a group of devices or computer systems and servers networking and linked
together to share resources and information. A LAN is a computer network owned privately and
covers a small geographical area. LAN allows network devices to communicate and share
information. A Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) is more significant than LAN because it
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covers a single city. MAN is developed using a single network like Cable TV Network. A WAN
(Wide Area Network) is a network of telecommunication, which is ideally a network of networks
or a LAN of LANs. Several WAN connect LANs across the broad geographical and include
Global WAN and enterprise WAN (Chen & Zhao2014).
Telecommunication uses signals to transmit information over a distance for
communication. This uses electromagnetic waves by receivers and transmitters. Types of
telecommunication include fax, email, radio, instant messaging, satellite, telephony, telegraphy,
VoIP, and television broadcasting. Telecommunication networks include radio networks,
computer networks, television networks, public switched telephone networks and packet-
switched networks. Besides, telecommunication systems optical telecommunications, radio
telecommunication systems as well as full-duplex and half-duplex systems. Mobile technology is
used to connect various devices using Internet and waves such as smartphones, laptops,
barcodes, tablets and wearable computers, personal digital assistant, Apple iOS Google Android,
and mobile OS. Mobile technologies are multi-functional devices able to host a broad range of
applications for both consumer and business use (Chen & Zhao2014).
Management and Information Technology
Management is planning, organizing, and coordination of activities to achieve
business goals or objectives. Management includes activities of setting organizational strategy
and organizing and coordinating the efforts of human resource to achieve the goals by using the
available resources such as technological, natural, financial and human capital (Robson, 2015).
Management is a set of tasks directed at the efficient and effective use of resources to achieve
one or more goals as well as allows working of financial, physical and human resources to
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realize the objectives of the organization. These include performing planning, leading,
controlling and organizing functions. Thus, management is the ability to achieve strategic goals
through proper planning, organizing, and leading, solving problems, coordinating available
resources through effective and efficient coordination of activities (Robson, 2015).
In the modern world, information technology enhances the efficiency and
effectiveness of management. Information technology increases the ability of management and
facilitates the administrative process and increase management efficiency. Therefore, there is a
significant and positive correlation between management and information technology
management. Organizations should provide management with suitable information technology in
order to enhance their efficiency and effectiveness in the decision-making process and
management activities. This is because information technology provides managers with
appropriate systems and tools to carry their duties and activities appropriately, efficiently and
effectively. Thus, organizations should design and operate central activities in developing
management information systems by changing attitudes and beliefs about information
technology. Besides, organizations should ensure that managers are adequately trained and
provided with positive impacts such as expertise, skills, and knowledge of managers.
Management and information technology are positively correlated and supports the performance
of managers. Organizations should, therefore, ensure proper information technology systems that
are integrated in order to provide support of management activities. Also, information
technology gives support to system implementation and improving the quality and increasing
operational efficiency and effectiveness (Robson, 2015).
Customer Relationship Management and Management Philosophies
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Customer relationship management is the strategy used by organizations to
manage relationships and interactions with customers and employees. A CRM framework helps
organizations to stay connected strategically to customers as well as streamlining the process and
improving competitive advantage and profitability (Ptak & Schragenheim, 2016). Therefore,
CRM helps customers to carry out information on different communication platforms as well as
saving and retrieving information efficiently. Also, customer relationship management helps to
organize customer information in order to give companies a complete and comprehensive record
of personal and organization over time. CRM helps organizations to create a 360-degree view of
customers and capturing their relationships or interactions through an efficient network to
surface the information required to develop better conversations. Thus, CRM enables logistic
companies to strengthen their relationships with customers, partners, and workers as well as
service suppliers and users in order to create and maintain efficient and effective business
operations. Besides, customer relationship allows organizations to view everything in place
through a simple and customizable dashboard for comparing previous and current information in
order to improve relationships with customers. Thus, CRM creates strong customer relationships
that lead to improved customer satisfaction and organizational profits. A CRM framework
ensures that companies have strategies that focus on the future through forwarding-thinking
business and establishes useful and profitable customer relationships (Ptak & Schragenheim,
Management philosophies set the rules and beliefs used managers to assist them
to make strategic decisions. Management philosophy provides the meaning and reasons on how
to choose decisions and rules that are essential to ensuring a powerful sense of motivation and
purpose. A good management philosophy gives cohesion and direction to the organization.
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Management philosophies include use theories such as scientific theory, which uses equal
division of work and use of monetary incentives, and administrative theory that take managers as
the most important part of organizations for continued prosperity. The bureaucratic theory takes
management as a strict order with precise rules for making an organization successful, and the
human relations theory ensures all people work together by establishing positive relations
between them. The system theory of ensures organizations are taken as a system with different
parts that must act in harmony and the X and Y theory enhances employees’ motivation through
constant supervision and motivational strategies (Ptak & Schragenheim, 2016).
Concepts of Enterprise Resource Planning and Collaboration Systems
Enterprise resource planning allows a full set of discrete applications in order to
maintain and store discrete within one physical database. Enterprise resource planning allows
organizations to plan and use a wide range of resources. Therefore, enterprise resource planning
is a comprehensive information system structure that coordinates all the information, resources
and tasks required to accomplish a business process (Romero & Vernadat, 2016). An enterprise
resource planning system maintains a single database that is required for diverse business
activities such as customer relationship management, manufacturing, supply chain management,
financial and human resources. An ERP is based on a universal database for storing and
retrieving information in real-time. The concepts ensure proper planning and coordination of the
organizational functions in order to improve performance and efficiency. Therefore, ERP
improves company performance by enhancing efficiency and effectiveness of operating all
functions of the company. Thus, ERP systems bring all functions of an organization into one
single database for easy coordination and operation of company functions or activities (Romero
& Vernadat, 2016).
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Enterprise collaboration systems are information systems that facilitate efficient
and effective information, knowledge, and documents sharing between teams and individuals in
an organization. Enterprise collaboration systems and tools include various forms of hardware
and software, groupware, Internet as well as external and internal networks. Thus, enterprise
solutions comprise a variety of tools for enterprise communication such as email, collaborative
software, and software for project management. Besides, ECS facilitates the development of
modern e-professional by helping teams to achieve the goals of a project by allowing team
members to work from different geographical locations (Romero & Vernadat, 2016).
Systems Development and Project Management and their Place in IT
The systems development is the procedure of planning, examining, creating and
deploying systems of information in the life cycle of organizations. It is used in information
systems, engineering system, and software engineering (Sayles, 2017). It is the concept of a life
cycle that applies to a variety of configurations for software and hardware. Therefore, a system
development life cycle is composed of distinct work stages. Systems development helps to
deliver systems of high quality that exceed or meet customer expectations based on their
demands. Project management encompasses all activities of a project from planning to project
execution and reporting. The systems development life cycle focuses on achieving project
specifications. Project management is the initiation, controlling, planning, implementing and
closing the teams’ work to realize particular objectives and meet the schedule, and particular
success criteria. Systems development and project management play an important role in
establishing information technology systems. This is because information technology systems
use software, hardware, data, processes, and people to support organizations to achieve
objectives. IT systems help in analysis and designing interacts within enterprise architecture.
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Therefore, systems development and project management help organizations to establish meta-
development design to serve as a guiding IT framework to achieve company goals (Sayles,
Place of IT in Global Realm and 21st Century
Information technology is reshaping relations and constitutes new domains on a
global level. This happens from Internet-based communications globally and practically
borderless electronic markets through open source systems of transnational corporate production,
software development communities and the global networks (Carley & Spapens, 2017).
Information technologies contribute positively to the global realm by enhancing technical
capacities of digital communication. Thus, IT allows the digital realm to strategize globally using
technology partners specialized in digital solutions. Therefore, it connects various industries,
networks and offers innovative technology solutions to global companies. Information
technology structures constitute in electronic space by involving diverse actors. Besides, IT
provides various space of knowledge for social and global organizations, electronic markets and
activist networks, and new knowledge mobility through global flagship networks and digital
information systems (Carley & Spapens, 2017).
In the modern digital age, IT plays a significant role. IT has changed the mode of
business by smoothing departmental operations. Besides, businesses can view changes in global
marketplaces faster. The purchase of software packages and hardware has enhanced business
operations leading to improved organizational performance. IT has allowed companies to keep
up with the market requirements as consumers grow in online shopping (Carley & Spapens,
2017). Also, IT has changed the education systems in the world by reaching students in e-
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platforms and preparing them for the future. Moreover, information technology has enhanced
financial services, global security and the provision of quality healthcare in the 21st century.
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Benitez, J., Chen, Y., Teo, T. S., & Ajamieh, A. (2018). Evolution of the impact of e-business
technology on operational competence and firm profitability: A panel data
investigation. Information & Management, 55(1), 120-130.
Carley, M., & Spapens, P. (2017). Sharing the world: sustainable living and global equity in the
21st century. Routledge.
Ceri, S. (2017). Distributed databases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Chen, S., & Zhao, J. (2014). The requirements, challenges, and technologies for 5G of terrestrial
mobile telecommunication. IEEE communications magazine, 52(5), 36-43.
Foss, N. J., & Saebi, T. (2017). Fifteen years of research on business model innovation: How far
have we come, and where should we go. Journal of Management, 43(1), 200-227.
Ortmeier, P. J. (2017). Introduction to security. Pearson.
Ptak, C. A., & Schragenheim, E. (2016). ERP: tools, techniques, and applications for integrating
the supply chain. Crc Press.
Robson, W. (2015). Strategic management and information systems. Pearson Higher Ed.
Romero, D., & Vernadat, F. (2016). Enterprise information systems state of the art: Past, present,
and future trends. Computers in Industry, 79, 3-13.
Sayles, L. R. (2017). Managing large systems: Organizations for the future. Routledge.
Stair, R., & Reynolds, G. (2017). Fundamentals of information systems. Cengage Learning.
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Wollmann, D., & Steiner, M. T. A. (2017). The strategic decision-making as a complex adaptive
system: a conceptual scientific model. Complexity, 2017.