Present an example of an unsound valid deductive argument and a sound valid deductive argument from
the media. Outline both arguments presenting the premises and the conclusions of both. Explain why you
believe the arguments are sound and unsound. Include a URL to the arguments drawn from a media
source. You may draw from the week�s required multimedia for examples. If you are unable to locate
examples from the media, you may identify arguments from your life. After you have presented your
deductive examples, present an example of an inductive argument from the media and determine
whether it is strong or weak. Explain your reasoning about why it is strong or weak, and then explain how
the argument might be strengthened. Include a URL to the argument drawn from a media source. If you
are unable to locate examples from the media, you may identify an argument from your life.
Deductive and Inductive Argument
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS 2
A deductive argument is a reason that is meant to be valid by the arguer. The argument is
intended to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion given that the argument’s
assumptions are true. In a deductive argument, the assumptions are designed to provide
substantial support for the conclusion. Therefore, if the assumptions are true, then there is no
way the conclusion can be false. Hence, an argument is said to be sound if a valid argument has
true premises. Also, a case is said to be unsound if a valid argument has a false conclusion.
The premises of an argument do not need to be true in order for the argument to be valid.
The argument is valid if the premises and conclusion link correctly with one other. Therefore, if
the premises were true, the conclusion would have to be true as well. The following examples are
valid but unsound arguments:
All toasters have gold.
All golden items are time-travel devices.
Therefore, all toasters ate time-travel devices.
Obviously, the assumptions in the above examples are not true. It may be difficult to
imagine these premises being true, but it is not difficult to see that if they were true then their
truth would logically make the conclusion true as well. A sound argument is one that is valid
and begins with premises that are true. The following argument is of a valid nature and also
No felons are eligible voters.
Some professional athletes are said to be felons.
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS 3
Therefore, some professional athletes are not allowed to be voters.
In the above examples, not only do the assumptions give the right sort of support for the
conclusion, but the premises contain truth in them. Therefore, that is the conclusion. Also, an
inductive argument is an argument intended to increase the probability of its conclusion. Here,
the premises are firm therefore if they were true the so as the conclusion. The following is a
strong inductive argument:
Two witnesses said John committed the murder. John’s fingerprints are all over the
murder weapon. John confessed to the crime. So, John committed the murder.
The relationship the author of the arguments takes to exist between the premises and the
conclusion is what differentiates inductive and deductive arguments. If the author of the
argument has no doubt that the truth of the assumption establishes the truth of the conclusion,
then the case is deductive and vice versa (IEP, 2003).
DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS 4
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP), 2003. A peer- reviewed academic Resource.
Deductive and inductive arguments.