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Adults with Intellectual Disabilitie

For this assignment, refer to the following articles assigned in the study for this unit:

•Krentz, Miltenberger, and Valbuena’s “Using Token Reinforcement to Increase Walking for Adults With

Intellectual Disabilities.”

•Marsic, Berman, Barry, and McCloskey’s “The Relationship Between Intentional Self-Injurious Behavior
and the Loudness Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potential in Research Volunteers.”

Then complete the following:

•Identify which of the articles is behavior analytic and which is not, and provide an explanation for your
choice. ◦Be sure to identify which of the seven dimensions of ABA are present in the behavior analytic


◦Analyze why the other article is not behavior analytic. How do you know the seven dimensions are not




The article by Krentz, Miltenberger, and Valbuena (2016) utilizes Applied Behavior
Analysis (ABA). The targeted intervention reported in the article falls into various dimensions of
ABA. The intervention described in the article is the application of the concept of tokens to
increase the length of distance walked by adults who are intellectually disabled.
The article’s intervention described is significant. According to Krentz, Miltenberger, and
Valbuena (2016), interventions that reduce physical inactivity are critical in reducing the risk to
several conditions, such as; diabetes, hypertension, cancer and other cardiovascular conditions.
The target behavior described in the article is improvement in the distance walked. Walking is
part of the physical activities that prescribed in body weight amalgamate.
The intervention is based on data. Reliance on data is one of the several dimensions of
ABA. The article reports that token reinforcement has been used previously to improve
performance in other physical activities. For example, the author reports a study that used token
reinforcement to increase other number of rotation that study participants cycled on a stationary
bike (Krentz, Miltenberger, &Valbuena, 2016). The author further describes another study that
used taken reinforcement to increase the frequency and duration of snowshoeing.
The intervention and target behavior can be measured and observed. ABA targets
behavior that is observable and measurable. The study by Krentz, Miltenberger, and Valbuena
(2016) measured the number of laps that each participant made. The researcher counted the laps
that each participant made. The number of laps was observed and counted.

The procedure of the intervention in the study is clearly described by the researchers.
ABA targets behavior that has been described concisely so that the same behavior can be applied
in a different context. The authors describe how the study participants were prepared for the laps
(Krentz, Miltenberger, &Valbuena, 2016). The authors describe how the tokens were rewarded
after each lap that the study participant completed. The researchers described the interaction that
occurred between the researchers and the participants. The description quotes direct words that
researchers spoke to the participants.
The intervention was monitored and their impact on behavior measured. One of the
dimensions of ABA is close monitoring of interventions and their effects on the target behavior.
The author describes the token awarded after each lap on the track that was completed. The
intervention of the study follows the relevant principles in literature (Krentz, Miltenberger,
&Valbuena, 2016). Previous studies have shown the relationship between token reinforcement
and improved performance of physical activities. The article reports on the application of the
principles of token reinforcement and performance of physical activities. The findings of their
previous studies are consistent with the results of study by Krentz, Miltenberger, and Valbuena
The study by Marsic, Berman, Barry, & McCloskey, (2015) does not fall under ABA.
The behavior investigated in the study is intentional behavior that is injurious such as suicidal
behavior. The study focuses on the impacts of serotonergic activity on behavior that is injurious.
The interventions cannot be monitored to determine their impact on behavior. The intervention
occurs at a particular point in time and does not take place over some time to allow monitoring
(Marsic et al., 2015). The interventions involve measuring the electrical physiological activities

of the brain. This intervention cannot be replicated in another environment outside the
laboratory. Electroencephalogram can only be undertaken in the laboratory.


Krentz, H., Miltenberger, R., & Valbuena, D. (2016). Using token reinforcement to increase
walking for adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of applied behavior analysis,
49(4), 745-750.
Marsic, A., Berman, M. E., Barry, T. D., & McCloskey, M. S. (2015). The Relationship Between
Intentional Self‐Injurious Behavior and the Loudness Dependence of Auditory Evoked
Potential in Research Volunteers. Journal of clinical psychology, 71(3), 250-257.

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