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The Development of Marketing

The Development of Marketing and the Marketing process

You are to provide an overview of the concept of marketing from the early stages to current marketing
initiatives, strategies, processes, and trends. You are to fully support the midterm paper with extensive
research with both text material and peer-reviewed literature.

This is an academic assignment and authoritative/scholarly sources are required You are expected to
discuss the concepts of marketing in a way that demonstrates graduate-level critical thinking skill,
extensive analysis, and evaluation of current research.
The paper is to be written in accordance with APA writing standards, which includes a cover page, an
introduction, the body of discussion, a conclusion, and a reference section.
The key terms to use in the paper are as follow:

Brand equity
Brand strategies
Brand management
Types of branding
Value of branding
Effective strategies
Various brands
Each and every business organization develops marketing strategies with the aim of
winning more and more clients and gains a competitive edge over other producers in the market.
Consumers are spoilt for choices as there are different alternatives available for them in the
market. Therefore, organizations must focus on developing winning marketing strategies that can
actively promote their products and increase their market share. Marketing also helps in building
customer loyalty by constantly reminding consumers about the availability of a product on the
In a nutshell, marketing refers to communication aimed at informing consumers about the
value of a product, service or a brand with the goal of promoting the product in the market
(Armstrong et al., 2013). On the other hand, branding refers to a company identity branding
expresses the intrinsic value of an organization, product, or a service. It is the expression of
values and attributes that give identity to an organization. Branding goes beyond marketing to

the practice of creating a name, design or symbol that can be used to identify or differentiate a
good from other available products in the market (Aaker & Biel, 2013).
However, this paper discusses the development of marketing and the marketing process.
On the same note, the paper discusses branding and brand management are giving a couple of
examples of some popular brands existing in the market.
An organization with a strong marketing strategy put in place can align the marketing
activities with the organization objectives. This ensures that the enterprise can maximize the
proceeds from their marketing efforts. A marketing process encompasses the development,
planning, implementation, documentation and review of marketing systems and procedures
(Boone & Kurtz, 2013). This is imperative to ensure that the marketing goals of delivering the
right product and quantity in the right place at the time required and in a profitable manner. The
marketing concept goes through a system of steps beginning with situation analysis,
development of a marketing strategy, marketing mix decision and finally implementation and

The Marketing Process

Situation Analysis: It is imperative that a firm perform a in-depth research of the situation
so as to discover any available opportunities to satisfy unfulfilled customer needs. On the same
note, the firm must analyze its capabilities and the business environment in which the company
operates. The organization must analyze both the external environment and internal
environment. External environment refers to micro-environmental factors that have an effect on
the firm operations.

Situation analysis should not only look at the present but also the past and the future
aspects. The organization should analyze the different trends in the market so as to accurately
forecast on the market situation (Czinkota & Ronkainen, 2012). A good situation analysis should
be able to reveal challenges and opportunities existing in the market. Some of the frameworks
used in carrying out situation analysis include the 5 C analysis, PEST analysis and SWOT
Marketing Strategy: After the identification of opportunities in the market, the firm
should develop a strategic plan aimed at taking advantage of the available opportunity. The
market research will provide insights about the market to give the business an opportunity to
choose the market segment and optimal position itself in the market. The marketing strategy
encompasses of market segmentation, target market identification, and value proposition.
Marketing Mix Decision: This involves the development of convenient constraints of the
marketing mix. Marketing Mix encompass product development, pricing decisions, distribution
contracts and the development of the promotional campaign.
Implementation and control: after developing a good marketing plan and launching the
product, the organization should closely monitor the outcome of the marketing efforts and make
necessary changes accordingly.

Brand Marketing and Brand Concept

Branding refers to the marketing activity that involves creating a name, design and
symbol that clients can identify with when buying a product in the market (Balmer, 2012).
Developing an effective brand strategy enables a firm to obtain a competitive edge over other
competitors in the market. A good brand communicates a promise to the clients. The brand tells a

consumer what to expect from the company products and services. Branding helps to
differentiate firm products from those of its competitors. An organization brand is derived from
the firm’s identity, what the firm intends to be and how consumers perceive the firm to be.
A brand strategy involves how, where, when, what and the citizens you plan
communicating and conveying the firm’s brand messages. Marketing strategy such as an
advertisement is part of a brand strategy. On the same note distribution channels is also the firm’s
brand strategy. Branding is a wider concept that precedes any marketing effort and should cover
all the creative and innovative elements that help to convey your identity to the market.
A consistent and strategic branding often result in a strong brand equity. Brand equity
symbolizes the value added to the firm’s goods and services because of a recognizable name as
compared to other identical unbranded products in the market (Keller et al., 2011). Business
enterprises can craft their brand equity by developing products that are memorable, easy to
recognize, reliable and possess superior quality as compared to its generic equivalent in the
market. Having an extensive marketing campaign can also enable an organization to create
brand equity (Chaston, 2014). A good example of an organization with strong brand equity is
Coca-Cola. Consumers are disposed to compensate a higher price for a bottle of Coca-Cola as
compared to other brands of soda in the market.
The value added because of brand equity arises from the perceived superiority or
emotional connection to a brand. Coca-Cola products are often associated with happiness and
customers will always transfer the emotional feeling of happiness by opening a bottle of a Coca-
Cola product. Creating brand equity is a long process, and it requires consistency and persistence
in the market. Brand equity is imperative when launching a new product in the market. A

company having positive brand equity can increase the chances that clients are likely to purchase
the firm’s new product by associating the new product with an existing and triumphant brand.
A good brand strategy is also created by creating a superior product, good positioning in
the market, longevity, a comprehensive marketing and good advertising strategies (McDonald &
Wilson, 2011). For the branding process to commence, it is essential that the company can create
a perceived promise of quality to the consumer. Some of the essential components of a
comprehensive branding strategy include:
Purpose: A successful brand should have a defining purpose because there are many
competitors and consumers budget constraints are high. Therefore, firms should develop a
purpose by creating a functional brand by coming up with concepts that focus on the appraisal of
success based on the market expectation. Purpose can also be created based on the concept of
intention of associating success with making profits and giving back to the society. A good brand
should exhibit the willingness of achieving more than just proceeds.
Consistency: a good brand should communicate in a consistent manner and in a way that
it enhances the organization’s brand. For a brand to stand out, it is paramount that the
organization messaging is cohesive. This is because consistency creates brand recognition and
customer loyalty. A good example of an organization that has achieved brand reputation is Coca-
cola. The company can maintain consistency by making sure that each and every marketing
element works harmoniously together to achieve organization sustainability.
Emotion: a powerful brand should be able to invoke emotions that consistently convince
a customer from buying from one company as compared to another. This can be achieved by

creating a community around the brand. Firms can give their clients an opportunity to feel like
they constitute the part of the organization by consuming their products.
Flexibility: a good brand should be flexible and able to change constantly and adapt to the
changes in the market so as to remain relevant. This objective can be achieved by engaging
clients regularly in fresh and new ways.
Employee Involvement: a good brand should involve employees to engage clients and
other stakeholders to achieve a greater good. It is imperative for employees of the firm to
communicate well with customers and represent the brand in a memorable and innovative ways.
Competitive Awareness: Organization should embrace competition as an opportunity to
improve the company strategy and create a greater value in the firm’s overall brand.

Brand Management

Brand management is part marketing that employs strategies to help enhance the
perceived value of a merchandise line or a brand over time. It encompasses analysis and planning
of how clients perceive the brand in the market and mounting a good relationship with the target
market (Torres et al., 2012). Some of the tangible rudiments of a brand management are the
product itself, price, look, and the packaging among others. The indefinable elements of brand
management, on the other hand, include the experience clients had when utilizing the brand, and
the customer loyalty to the brand. An effective brand management can help promote a product
resulting in an increase in price and building of customer loyalty. This benefit is achieved
because of positive brand association, good organization reputation and a strong market presence
of the brand. It is imperative to possess a comprehensive understanding of the brand, target

market, and the firm’s long-term objective so as to develop a winning strategic plan that can help
maintain brand equity and gain brand value.
Therefore, when implementing marketing plans, it is imperative that the core brand
values are emphasized, and it is aligned with the company objectives through internal or external
branding. It is also equally imperative to understand how the organization compares with other
competitors in the market. Some of the metrics that a brand manager can use to evaluate the
effectiveness or campaigns include profitability, testimonies, and clients turnover.
Note that an effective brand management can result in an increase in demand for not only
one good but also other goods and services associated with that specific brand. For instance, if a
client loves pizza from McDonalds and trusts the brand, then he is likely to try some of the other
products offered by the organization such as fried chicken.
Types of Branding

There exist various types of branding which collectively helps to achieve marketing
goals, organization goals and finally organization sustainability. Some of the types of branding
include corporate branding, personal branding, product branding, employer branding, and culture
branding (Wheeler, 2012).
Corporate branding: Corporate branding is developed based on the foundation of
promising to deliver quality products and service promptly to the clients. The purpose is to
attract new clients and retain past customers through creation of brand loyalty.
Product branding: Product branding is reflected in the uniqueness of similar products
produced by different firms in the market. A firm differentiates its product by branding through

packaging, tastes, quality among others. An effective branding is what motivates a client to
select one brand over the other.
Personal branding: personal branding is common among politicians, musicians,
sportsmen and other celebrities. A politician, for instance, will focus on portraying himself as an
honest and a performing person so that voters will want to put him in the office. A celebrity, on
the other hand, has to be self-branded based on his/her personality, dress code, and voice.
Organizations can use celebrity as a brand and marketing strategy for their products. For
instance, Samsung Mobile uses Didier Drogba, a popular football player to promote their brand
in the market. Chevrolet uses Manchester United to market its products across the world by
associating the game with their products. Popular musicians have often been used to promote
brands especially clothing and accessories such as tablets and mobile phones. Organizations also
use different music from different artist as their theme song in advertising their products.
Employer branding: Employer branding center of attention is on making the organization
employees to conceptualize the mission, vision, objectives, products and services of the
company. The aim is to enlighten employees so that they can uphold the corporate brand when
communicating with the organization’s client.
Culture and community branding: Community branding involves building organization
reputation by engaging in activities that shows the collective good of the company to the
community and employees. This can be achieved by developing programs aimed at helping
people in the society through corporate social responsibility (Torress et al., 2012).
Some of the effective strategies for brand building and brand positioning is understanding
the market. It is imperative for an organization to understand the market and customers needs

before embarking on branding and developing a marketing strategy. After proper understanding
of the market will enable a firm to define its brand based on customer requirement. Defining a
brand is critical because in the end it will be what the organization truly stands for. An
organization should look for the core strengths to capitalize on and weaknesses to improve on
and create a better brand.
A company should also strategize by differentiating and positioning the brand in the
market. This trend is imperative as it helps the company to win new clients and maintain a
competitive edge over other producers in the market. A company should always focus on
creating unique advantages in clients mind to create perceived value. After creating a unique
value proposition, the firm should focus on developing an effective marketing and branding
strategy to help gain market share by permitting consumers to appreciate the greater value of
your products.
A firm should also focus on building and exposing the brand. Branding takes a lot of time
to grow but has numerous benefits. Firms can use marketing strategies to expose a brand. This
can be achieved by using promotional channels, online forums, blogs and social media.
Finally, it is essential that a firm constantly review its brand, marketing plans and other
critical features that can help the organization to attain organization sustainability. A company
should develop a brand cycle where new events, changes, and environmental conditions are
evaluated to identify opportunities and challenges a brand face (Balmer, 2012). This is important
as it can be used when enhancing brand product and re-establishing it to stay relevant in the
constantly changing business environment.

A brand may be expressed through storytelling. Some of the most popular brands in the
world include
Coca-Cola: Coca-cola is one of the oldest firms that have existed in the market for a long
time. The company can stay relevant in the market through effective marketing and branding.
The company uses color coding and the design of the actual bottle that soda is packaged because
it is a source of competitive advantage. Most consumers like to be associated with the company
slogan of creating happiness through the production of refreshing products. Coca cola
competitors such as Pepsi may win consumers, but most people would like to buy Coke because
they enjoy the experience of drinking Coca-cola products. The company has built brand loyalty
through effective marketing to become one of the most valued products across the globe
Volvo can position itself as a company that produces safe vehicles to ride on the road.
Nike, on the other hand, is able to build a brand reputation by producing quality sports products
such as shoes. IBM is also another example of a company that has been able to produce quality
computers that consumers will want to buy over other computer accessories in the market.
Starbucks coffee has been able to build its image and reputation over the last twenty
years. The company has not only made an impact on the coffee industry but also on the society.
The company focused on building its brand identity based on color and shape excluding the use
of typography.
By and large, it is evident from the discussion that marketing is not just focused on
advertisement and use of promotion to increase market share. It also involves crafting a
memorable experience by building a reputable brand that consumers will want to associate with
everyday (Kapferer, 2012). Successful branding often results in enormous benefits beginning

from an increase in market share, the price of a product and customer loyalty. However, it is
important that a company image can be tarnished easily when an organization participates in
activities that can hurt customer or the community in general. In conclusion, firms should focus
on developing marketing strategy and brand strategy that can help in increasing profitability.
This can achieve through branding and branding strategies aimed at creating brand value and
obtaining a competitive edge over the competitors and hence organization sustainability.



Aaker, D. A., & Biel, A. (2013). Brand equity & advertising: advertising’s role in building
strong brands. Psychology Press.
Armstrong, G., Adam, S., Denize, S., & Kotler, P. (2014). Principles of marketing. Pearson
Balmer, J. M. (2012). Strategic corporate brand alignment: Perspectives from identity based
views of corporate brands. European Journal of Marketing,46(7/8), 1064-1092.
Boone, L., & Kurtz, D. (2013). Contemporary marketing. Cengage Learning.
Czinkota, M., & Ronkainen, I. (2012). International marketing. Cengage Learning.
Chaston, I. (2014). Small business marketing. Palgrave Macmillan.
Kapferer, J. N. (2012). The new strategic brand management: Advanced insights and strategic
thinking. Kogan page publishers.
Keller, K. L., Parameswaran, M. G., & Jacob, I. (2011). Strategic brand management: Building,
measuring, and managing brand equity. Pearson Education India.
McDonald, M., & Wilson, H. (2011). Marketing plans: How to prepare them, how to use them.
John Wiley & Sons.
Torres, A., Bijmolt, T. H., Tribó, J. A., & Verhoef, P. (2012). Generating global brand equity
through corporate social responsibility to key stakeholders.International Journal of
Research in Marketing, 29(1), 13-24.

Wheeler, A. (2012). Designing brand identity: an essential guide for the whole branding team.
John Wiley & Sons.

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