Technology and Strategies for Self-Directed Learning
Lesson Plan Part 3: Technology and Strategies for Self-Directed Learning
Building on Lesson Plan Parts 1 and 2, write a 4-5 page paper in which you:
- Describe the classroom�s computer/Internet technology, and other electronic equipment. Discuss the
challenges and benefits of the equipment, especially computer/Internet technology equipment, has for
- Describe and explain reasons for the selection of three to four (3-4) self-directed, cognitive learning
strategies and align each with your objectives and your students.
- Recommend three (3) ways that the instructor can use to guide students in self-directed, cognitive
learning. Support with examples from your own experience and from external sources.
- Research one (1) of the following strategies � elaboration, problem-solving, project-based, or
chunking � identify its founder(s) and proponents, discuss evidence of its success, and describe how
you would use the strategy in your unit.
- Use at least four (3) scholarly sources published within the last ten (10) years.
Technology and Strategies for Self-Directed Learning
LEARNING STRATEGIES 3
The growth of information technology has led to the widespread use of computers and Internet in
a classroom setting. Additionally, several learning strategies are applied for self-directed,
cognitive strategies applied (Valtonen, Kukkonen, Kontkanen, Sormunen, Dillon, & Sointu,
2015). The essay below discusses the application of computers in a classroom setting; thyself
directed cognitive learning strategies and the application of the problem-solving strategy in a
contemporary classroom teaching.
Classroom’s Computer and Internet Technology
Computers are used as teaching and learning aid devices in the classroom set up.
Particularly, for the self-directed learning, students rely significantly on computers. The students
to access learning materials offered by the tutor use the computers. In self -directed learning
process, students determine the information that is needed to acquire the required knowledge and
information. Students are presented with a problem from which they are supposed to learn. The
instructor provides the appropriate materials for the information needed or provides references
that are available online from the institution’s online website. Therefore, to access the necessary
reference materials, the students require computers and access to the Internet. During the
learning process, instructors require computers to project learning materials. Classroom
presentations by the instructor to the student’s cover course outlines, learning objectives and
summary overviews of the content to be learned in the form of power-point presentations using
liquid-crystal display projectors to the whole class. Additionally, the classroom computer
technology is used as a means to present version in Compact Disks to students for elaboration
and demonstration. The Internet services for the project based self-directed learning provide a
platform to access literature material from recommended websites. To effectively complete
projects, learners should access the relevant information relating to the project from scholarly
LEARNING STRATEGIES 4
journals, peer-reviewed articles, and books. Subsequently, project-based learning requires in-
depth literature reviews to study the studies done so far on the particular topics and that, which
already exist and require further studies (Peypouquet, 2015). The use of Internet and computer
technology and devices face several challenges. The students are prone to spending time in
accessing additional online materials, for example, accessing entertainment materials available
online and therefore fail to achieve the set objectives within the specified period. Additionally,
students are exposed to several learning materials and may not choose the most appropriate
material for the particular project and therefore end up gathering irrelevant information as per the
specific project (Brown & Chandrasekaran, 2014).
Self-Directed, Cognitive Learning Strategies
Cognitive self- directed strategies are applied before interacting with the learning
material, during the interaction with the material and after the interaction with the reference
material. The course objectives for the class are; Investigating and evaluating nutritional content
of different food labels; “ Applying the food guide pyramid in making correct nutritional
choices, identifying and relating different foods to the six major nutritional categories learned,
determining and calculating the association between caloric intake and energy expenditure,
distinguishing between health and skill related physical activities that are important for good
health, examining personal health plan and its varying compositions and differentiate between
individual and family health plans.” To begin with, to effectively implement the self-directed
learning strategies, the learners are exposed to the text preview at the beginning. Learners are
assessed on their pre-existing level of knowledge on nutrition. The assessment aims to bring to
the learners’ attention on the specific areas that they require to focus more on. Learners are made
aware of the areas that they need to learn about the various learning objectives outlined in
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nutrition. The students in the class had no prior knowledge of the course content regarding; the
nutritional content of various foods, the relationship between foods and nutritional categories, an
association between caloric intake and energy expenditure and the relationship between physical
activities and good health. Therefore, to enable effective self-directed learning for the students,
assessing the students’ prior knowledge on the learning themes is critical for the students to
direct themselves in learning the course. During the course, the learner use strategies for enabling
effective reading from the reference materials such as notes taking and content summarization to
enable internalization of the concepts resented since self-directed learning involves students;’
active participation in learning. Afterward, students would require strategies to review the
academic content from the context by revising the course objectives on nutrition and health and
the ideas obtained from the material read (de Castro, 2013).
Guide Students in Self-Directed, Cognitive Learning
The tutors guide students in identifying the specific relevant learning objectives for the
nutrition content. The tutors ensure that the students do not set to study irrelevant content that is
not related to the nutrition course. The learning objectives should be restricted to the nutritional
content of foods, six-guide pyramid, caloric intake, personal health, and nutrition. Since students
perform a significant part in the self-directed mode of learning, tutors should ensure that students
accurately identify and understand the scope of the topic to avoid wasting time and other
resources in finding references and carrying out the reading. Additionally, the tutors are
responsible for recommending the appropriate study materials. There are several available
materials concerning the identified specific learning objectives for the nutrition course. The
students do not have prior knowledge of the course and therefore cannot choose the appropriate
and relevant learning material for obtaining the information on nutrition. The tutor, on the other
LEARNING STRATEGIES 6
hand, is aware of the required content and the respective material that provides the correct
information. Furthermore, tutors oversee student’s group presentations of the learned
information. Part of the self-directed learning is the discussion of the students’ learned
information. The tutor is responsible for moderating the presentation by ensuring that all the
students have equal opportunities to make their presentation. Additionally, the tutor advises on
any incorrect or irrelevant information and recommends the correct and relevant information
presented. The tutor identifies the areas that were not well studied by the students and makes
organizes for overviews on such areas where students have encountered most of the difficulties
in acquiring the content (Broadbent & Poon, 2015).
The problem-solving strategy was first developed in McMaster University in Canada, and
other institutions of higher learning have since adopted it. Problem-based learning is an effective
method of teaching and learning. Previous studies have found out that when students are allowed
to direct their learning process, their performance improves. The improvement in the level of
academic performance is attributed to the students’ in-depth study in an attempt to achieve their
own determined and formulated objectives. In a study to compare the outcome of traditional
teaching strategies against the problem-solving strategy, students undertaking problem-solving
strategy were found to have an in-depth and more practical approach in addressing real-life
application circumstances. The positive impact on the students’ performance is attributed to the
specialized studying that focuses on the individual student’s deficits in the knowledge of the
subject of study course (Savery, 2015).
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The application of the problem-solving strategy in my class will follow the conventional
steps for the strategy. I would draft clinical and practical problem, for instance, concerning
nutrition. After that, the students, in groups of three to four students would read and synthesize
the problem presented. After internalizing the problem, the students with my help would identify
them in the problem and draft objective under the theme. The objectives are supposed to be
specific and concise. The learners after that proceed to study to meet the specified study
objectives. After the period allowed for the studying, the learners will present the information
acquired through the self-directed learners. Each of the learners presents the information gained
from the self-directed learning to the group, one after the other. The objectives that were not met
are identified, and an overview is planned so that the learners get more directions and details on
In summary, computers are extensively used in a classroom setting to implement project-
based learning. Computer and internet-based learning have various barriers. Self-directed,
cognitive skills are applied before the actual learning, during the reading and after studying the
selected material for reference. Problem-solving study strategies is one of the teaching and
learning strategies commonly used, and the process is a step by step approach aimed and
facilitating learners control over their learning.
LEARNING STRATEGIES 8
Broadbent, J., & Poon, W. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning strategies & academic achievement
in online higher education learning environments: A systematic review. The Internet and
Higher Education, 27, 1-13.
Brown, D. C., & Chandrasekaran, B. (2014). Design problem solving: knowledge structures and
control strategies. Morgan Kaufmann.
de Castro, M. G. A. (2013). Educational projects based on mobile learning. Education in the
Knowledge Society, 15(1), 10.
Peypouquet, J. (2015). Problem-Solving Strategies. In Convex Optimization in Normed Spaces
(pp. 81-91). Springer, Cham.
Savery, J. R. (2015). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Essential
readings in problem-based learning: Exploring and extending the legacy of Howard S.
Barrows, 9, 5-15.
Valtonen, T., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Sormunen, K., Dillon, P., & Sointu, E. (2015). The
impact of authentic learning experiences with ICT on pre-service teachers’ intentions to
use ICT for teaching and learning. Computers & Education, 81, 49-58.