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# SPSS for Windows and Macintosh Application

SPSS for Windows and Macintosh Application Exercises

Complete the following exercises in your course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data, by Green and Salkind. Be sure to save your output and export it to your Word document, in which you also must answer the analysis questions and present your results section as indicated:
�Exercises 1�3 on page 171, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
�Exercises 5�8 on page 187, Two-way ANOVA

It is important that writer pay attention to all details here. I will send the instructions via email containing the questions and other information. It is important that the writer also clearly indicate and number each question that he responds to so that it can easily be identified.

SPSS for Windows and Macintosh Application Exercises

Exercises 1–3 on page 171: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Exercise 1: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

The null hypothesis stated as H0: meanredhead = meanblonde = meanbrunette; is not rejected because the overall F statistic was not significant [F(2, 15) = 3.51, p > .05].

1. The F ratio for the group is 3.5111
2. The sum of squares for the hair color effect is 24.111
3. The mean for redheads is 2.33
4. The p value for hair color effect is 0.056

Exercise 2: Effect size

The effect size is used to show the relationship between two variables, and in this case it was quite strong, η2 = 0.32. The equation shown below is used to calculated effect size for the relationship between hair color and extroversion.

η2 = Between-Group Sum of Squares / Total Sum of Squares

η2 = 24.111 / 75.611

η2 = 0.32

Exercise 3: Boxplot

Figure 1: Distributions of social extroversion scores for blonds, brunets, and redheads

Exercises 5–8 on page 187: Two-way ANOVA

Exercise 5: Two-way ANOVA

Univariate Analysis of Variance

Estimated Marginal Means

Post Hoc Tests: Tukey and Bonferroni

Disability status of the child

Homogeneous Subsets

Exercise 6

Considering that the main effect for disability is significant, follow-up analyses are conducted. This is attributed to the fact that, Levene’s test is non-significant leading to selection of Tukey and Bonferroni post hoc tests (if Levene’s test was significant other post hoc test would be chosen such as Games Howell, Dunnett’s C, among others that do not assume equal variance). In other words, these post hoc tests involves conducting three pair-wise comparisons among the three disabilities marginal means because (1) there is a significant disability main effect as well as a non-significant interaction and (2) the disability main effect has three levels. As a result, appropriate methods for controlling Type I error across the three groups should be considered.

Exercise 7

A 2X3 two-way ANOVA was carried out to evaluate the level of child disability and gender effects on fathers’ play time with their children. The interaction between level of child disability and gender on play time was not significant, F(2, 54) = .65, p > .05, partial η2 = .02. The main effect for gender was also non-significant, F(1, 54) = .23, p > .05, partial η2 < .01. The main effect for level of disability was significant, F(2, 54) = 27.14, p < .05, partial η2 = .50. Post hoc analyses using the Bonferroni method to control for Type I error indicate that fathers spent significantly more time with typically developing children (M = 7.05, SD = 1.99) than with physically disabled children (M = 3.2, SD = 1.70) or mentally retarded children (M = 4.63, SD = 2.47). No significant difference in fathers’ play time was found between mentally retarded and physically disabled children.

Exercise 8: Boxplot

Figure 2: Distributions of play time across gender and disability status of the child

References

Bernard, H. R. (2000). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Boslaugh, S., & Watters, P. A. (2008). Statistics in a Nutshell – Research Design. Sebastopol, California: O’Reilly Media, Inc.

Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. (2010). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research, (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Creswell, J. W. (2008). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Green, S. B., & Salkind, N. J. (2008). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data, (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishers.