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Oldest telecommunications company

BT is the world�s oldest telecommunications company. �
BT currently has around 1.2 million share holders throughout the world. �
The company has 89,015 full time equivalent employees worldwide including 73,000 in the
UK and provides services in 170 countries. It contributes �3billion per year in taxation in the
UK. �

At a date to be confirmed in week 4 or 5 of the summer 2014 term, a Senior Manager from BT
will deliver a presentation followed by a questions and answers session entitled- �
� � ��Motivational techniques used to promote employee engagement at BT.� �
� � All students will be invited to attend this session which will be recorded on put on to the
GSM portal so that all students have access. ��

Assignment Task: ��

Detailed content and marking scheme �

Introduction and background information on the BT Group. 10 marks. �

Definitions �and explanation of �
Motivational Theories. � 10 �
Motivational techniques 10 �
Employee engagement. 10 �

Analysis of the motivational theories and techniques used to promote employee engagement
at BT. �30 �

Personal recommendations to BT on the techniques and theories which could be used to
improve employee engagement at BT. �30 �

Note: We are allowed to use any company instead of BT Company.
NB; This is an undergraduate Paper needed by 4th Aug but the topic chosen by the writer is
needed in 48 hours time for the client approval before proceeding with the task thanks �

 motivational theories
and technique used to

promote employee
The motivational theories so far put in place,
such as Alderfer, Herzberg and Maslow, tend
to be based on finding the needs of individuals
with an aim of changing their behavior
positively (Hunt, Osborn, & Schermerhorn,
 The other class, process theories, unlike the
content theories, look into the thought process
that determine the decision making ability.
 In order for managers to get the best out of
their employees, they have to find the best
ways to motivate them. The motivation for
every employee is never the same as the other
(Amazines, 2009).
 Marks and Spencer, M&S, having its headquarter in London in the city of Westminster, is
one of the British major multinational retailers (Marks and Spencer on Forbes 2000 list,
 It was founded by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in 1884.
 The company specializes in the sale of home products, luxury food products (Fame, 2010).
 The company has more them 895 stores in over 40 countries in the world.
 The company was the first ever in the British history to make over £1 billion as pre-tax profit
(Datamonitor360, 2011).


Expectancy theory
 This theory asserts that people’s motivation
strength increases as their perceived effort-
performance and performance-reward probabilities
 The theory is founded on the prospect of one thing,
hard work, leading to another, reward (Amazines,
Adams’ Equity Theory
 Regarded as one of the ‘justice’ theories, Equity
theory was first developed in 1962 by John Stacey
 It attempts to explain the satisfaction that derives
from the fairness and equality that a manager
brings to his/her employees (Kreitner R. (1986).
 An employee who feels he is over-compensated
may increase his effort, and the converse is also


Herzberg’s Dual-Structure Theory

 This theory outlines the variation in the satisfaction
or dissatisfaction that employees have towards the
status of their jobs or workplaces.
 The theory helps in the consideration by managers
of the various factors that motivate the different
employees dependent on the employees, as they are
considered varied (About US-Company Overview.
Needs theories of motivation
 These theories are based on the human needs that
they derive their motivation from. The theory
asserts that the deficiencies are what motivate the
human beings to work hard so as to attain the
 The two best-known need theories are Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs and Alderfer’s ERG theory
(Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn, 2008).
 As a company, M&S utilizes the following techniques
in ensuring maximum output from its employees.
Compressed workweek
 This approach allows employees to work their normal
hours in a shorter amount of time (Schermerhorn,
Hunt & Osborn, 2008).
 Here, the employees may work for 10 hours per day for 4 days
per week. In this case, the 40 hours per week work time is still
maintained, yet the employees get a one day off the week.

 This theory give an employee an extra day off during
the week, which is most likely a work week day, in
which he or she can conduct his or her personal
business or spend more time with their families.
 This is a theory that asserts for the employees to be
allowed to work from a remote location from the
work place, such as their homes.
 This option gives the employee the advantage of
working from the comfort of his or her home, which
can provide a more relaxing setting (Houran, 2011).

 Since the company mainly operates its sales online,
the technique has been very effective as the sales rates
has constantly gone up.
Job sharing
 Job sharing is a theory in which two or more people
split work time to accomplish a specific task.
 Employees who use job sharing need to be able to
work well in group and team settings (About US-
Company Overview, 2009).
 More so, the 73 thousand employees based in the
UK, there is not much fixed line of job, hence minimal
boredom. The employees move from one
department to the next, for instance, sales to
production on a monthly basis.
Flexible work hours

 Flexible work hours give employees the option of
choosing the time that he or she comes in and leaves
as long as they work the required hours. This theory
also provides more leisure time for the employee.
 This strategy has been effective for the M&S in
creating a feeling of free working condition whereby
the workers do not feel under pressure to deliver
(Judge & Robbin, 2009).


 Participative management
 Here, the employees should be engaged in the decision making with regards to the plans of
the company. This increases commitment.
 Flexible work schedules
 This entails the designing of the work hours in such a way that the employees find it quite
easy balancing work with their life, such as less than 40-hour workweeks and job sharing
(Fame, 2011).
 Rewards
 In a work place, the managers must note the two types of rewards, extrinsic and intrinsic.
The extrinsic rewards tend to be very effective in motivating the employees.
 Extrinsic rewards are external outcomes granted to someone by others, such as money,
employee benefits, promotions, recognition, status symbols, and praise (Moorhead &
Griffin, 1998).
 About US-Company Overview. (2009). Marks and Spencer
 Amazines. (2009), Motivation Theories – The Foundation to Employee Motivation [online].
Available from . [Accessed 24th Jul, 2014]
 Datamonitor360. (2011). SWOT Overview M&S.

 Cambodian Public Bank, Corporate Profile [online]. Available from . [Accessed

24th Jul, 2014].

 Fame. (2011). Retrieved from Fame

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