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Monitoring Air Quality

Participatory Approach to Monitoring Air Quality



1.1 Introduction 4
2.1 Meaning and measurement of air pollution 5
2.2 Measuring Air Pollution 6
2.3 Indicators of Air Pollution 7
2.4 Sources of Air pollution 9
2.2.1 Vehicle exhaust 10
2.2.2 The use of gasoline generators 10
2.2.3 The use of fuel wood/charcoal 10
2.2.4 Industrial Emissions 10
2.3 Health & Environmental impacts of Air Pollution 11
2.3.1 Health Effects 11
2.3.2 Environmental Effects: 11

2.3.3 Acid rain 11
2.3.4 Eutrophication 11
2.3.5 Effects on wildlife 12
2.3.6 Ozone depletion 12
2.3.7 Crop and forest damage 12
2.3.8 Global climate change 12
2.4 Current Challenges and Efforts to Reduce Air Pollution 13
2.5 Aims of the Study 14
2.5.1 Objectives 14
2.5.2 Questions 15
3.1 What are communities? 16
3.2 Engaging with communities 16
3.2.1 Reasons for using a community-led framework to monitor and address pollution 18
3.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of community-led approaches 19
3.3 Approaches for community engagement 21
3.3.1 Culture and Community Engagement 21
3.3.2 Community Organization 22
3.3.3 Community Participation 22
3.3.4 Constituency Development 23

3.3.5 Capacity Building 23
3.3.6 Community Empowerment 23
3.3.7 Coalition Building 23
3.4 Citizen science for assessing pollution 24
3.4.1 Definition of citizen science 24
3.4.2 Benefits of citizen science 25
3.4.3 Challenges for citizen science 25
3.5 Community activism: How communities have tried to influence Government 25
3.5.1 Citizen action against pollution in China 26
3.6 Chapter Summary 27
4.1 Study Area and Scope 27
4.1.1 Nigeria 27
4.1.2 Lagos 29
4.2 Outline of data collection 33
4.2.1 Interviews and focus group discussions 34
4.3 Phase 1 35
4.4 Phase 2 37
4.4.1 Data collection 37
4.4.2 Data analysis 37



Participatory Approach to Monitoring Air Quality

Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria


1.1 Introduction
As it is evident today, the increased exposure to harmful environmental pollution resulted from
irresponsible human activity. Environmental pollution can be categorized into diverse forms.
This includes water, air and soil pollution. Other forms of industrial pollution encompass heavy
metal and chemical pollution as well as occupational pollutants. There is no doubt that air
pollution is the primary accelerating factor behind global climate change in both developed and
developing nations. The air pollution menace is apparently emerging as a complex phenomenon
driven by persistent failure of the global environmental management initiatives that have been
created to stem the runaway trend currently witnesses in major cities worldwide. The Lagos state
metropolis is currently facing myriad air pollution related problems most notably due to rapid
urbanization and road traffic emission.
The devastating effects of this observable fact are more prominent in the metropolitan cities of
the developing than developed nations. Lagos, a rapidly growing megacity in Nigeria hasn’t been
spared the brunt of air pollution. As an emerging metropolis, and its phenomenal rise as an
epitome of industrialization and commercialization on the African continent, many predictions
indicate a looming danger due to the adverse effects of climate change that is emanating from
persistent industrialization related pollution. Although significant effort has been directed
towards stemming the runway global pollution levels, challenges have continued to constraint

this effort largely due to insufficient program funding. Subsequently, there is sufficientevidence
that warrants a thorough review of the literature on the adverse environmental impactsof air
pollution, its principle role as an agent of climate change and its adverse effects on the health and
wellbeing of the crowded inhabitants of Lagos.
This research will specifically focus on air pollution. Current literature suggeststhat pollution is
the world’s largest environmental cause of poor health responsible for an estimated 9 million
premature deaths in 2015-2016 and large burden of non-communicable disease, including
respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological impairment. Air pollution, combining both ambient
and household air pollution (HAP) is responsible for 6.5 million deaths per year with another 7
million from tobacco smoke and this number will increase is urgent measures are not taken.
Monitoring and management of air pollution remains ineffective and poorly enforced due to a
number of factors.Monitoring equipment can be expensive and requires regular checking and
maintenance, while enforcement in a growing megacity of 16 million people and unknown
numbers of businesses is a major challenge. An alternative approach to the ‘top down’ processes
of monitoring and enforcement would be to encourage a more community-led approach and local
action. However, there are many questions as to how such a ‘grassroots’ approach would work in
practice, and there are many knowledge gaps as to their applicability for measuring air pollution
in the megacities of the developing world. The research seeks to address some of these gaps in
knowledge by first exploring how local communities can assess the level of air pollution and its
environmental impacts. Subsequently, there is need to identify indicators of air quality that are
used by communities, even if theymay tend to be more qualitative than quantitative. An example
could be the frequency at which clothes and indeed furniture, windows etc., in household
buildings become dirty. Indicators of the effects could be related to health and may include

breathlessness. Communities will be asked to identify indicators of relevance to them, and these
will be ranked. It is possible that the choice and ranking of these indicatorswill be influenced by
social factors such as gender and age. A further aspect to the research would be to explore the
possibility of encouraging communities to monitor air pollution using some simple experimental
devices such as placing deposits of particulate matter on white paper discs. This type of citizen
science’ approach to monitoring air pollution is novel in most cities of the developing world. The
goal of the research will be to develop a community-led framework of indicators which can be
used to frame the meaning of air quality while serving as a point of reference in discussions with
government officials.

2.1 Meaning and measurement of air pollution

First and foremost, it is imperative that air pollution be defined even though the meaning can be
widely varying.It can be defined as the existence of harmful toxic material comprising of
industrial chemicals which pose significant risk to human health. It also refers to the existence of
toxic chemical compounds in the atmosphere which do not naturally occur, thus degrading the
quality of air and causing a decline in the quality of lifethereby exacerbating global warming and
the ozone layer depletion.
Air pollution is a public health catastrophe in Lagos. According to the recently published public
health data, it is estimated that 95% of the residents of Lagos dwell in places that surpass the
recommended air quality standards stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) by over
50%. This polluted air contributes to thousands of early deaths each year in Lagos, and adversely

impacts the lives of Lagos dwellers.It also leads to decreased lung function in children and
increases the risk of dementia and stroke in the elderly population. Quite a number of schools in
Lagos are situates in areas exceeding the recommended legal air quality levels. Currently, the
exposure to harmful environmental pollution is created through human activities. It is the world’s
largest environmental cause of poor health, and is responsible for an estimated 9 million
premature deaths in 2015-2016. The cause of the large burden of non-communicable diseases
including respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological complications is air pollution. Air
pollution, combining both ambient and household air pollution (HAP) is responsible for 6.5
million deaths per year with another 7 million resulting from tobacco smoke. This
numberislikely to increase if urgent measures are not taken. The most affected people will be
children and older people, especially in low and middle-income countries; particularly in cities as
98% of urban areas in developing countries do not currently meet acceptable air quality
standards. An effects-based approach is needed to escalate air pollution awareness, direct
attention to pollution-related diseases, and mobilize resources and the political will needed to
effectively confront Air quality issues in Lagos.
Clean airis a prerequisite for man’s survival. An average human being requires an estimated
daily supply of 12kg of clean air, corresponding to approximately 12 to 15 times in excess of the
daily food consumption. Availability of clean air is essential and critical to human health and his
prolonged survival (Ladan, 2013a). Pollution is defined as unwanted and dangerous, materials
that are introduced into the earth’s environment as a result of human activity, and which
threatens human health and ecosystems (European Union).
Pollution threatens the stability of the earth’s support system and the continuing survival of
human societies. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution refers to

situations in which the ambient atmosphere is invaded bymaterialsubstances that are considered
toxic to the environment. Air pollution is a phenomenon that largely affects people who dwell in
a specific location, and who are bearing the brunt of the adverse effects of their own economic
activities. Energy consumption is diminished in areas where population concentration is low,
thereby decreasing theadverse effects on the environment. Conversely, densely populated
settlements, rapid urbanization and industrialization increases demand for energy consumption
thereby resulting into the emission of large amounts of pollutants into the environment.
2.2 Measuring Air Pollution
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made substantive progress in air pollution
measurement technology which hasproved essential in aiding communities, tribes, and
environmental agencies in tracking and monitoring air quality. Theseadvanced air quality
measurement technologieshave proved critical in the measurement of air quality through a
combination of both mobile and stationary technological means. The preceding section reviews
some of the air quality measurement technologies currently available.

  1. Mobile Air measurement System: This advanced equipment employs geospatial
    technology thus it is referred to as Geospatial Measurement of Air and Pollution
    (GMAP). This type of technology utilizes vehicles fitted with high time-bound resolution
    instruments for measuring and quantifying atmospheric emissions based on the source,
    and further tracks the pollution trend over time in a specified location. The specificity of
    this device enables it to capture air toxicity levels over a predefined period of time.
  2. Billboard application: Sensor network intelligent emission location (SENTINEL). This
    technology model combines air quality measurement in order to understand the emission
    source. Sentinel air monitor was specifically developed to couple with the digital

billboards. This instrument is custom designed to use infrastructure, electricity and
broadband internet to send data packets to a cloud. This enables the device to capture
critical data that is then used in air quality tracking.

  1. Fenceline sampler: This equipment utilizes the spodfenceline technology to relay real-
    time data from the fenceline, and particularly data related to the emission levels of toxic
    compounds. Thefence line sampler is solar powered which gives it the unique capability
    to stay powered and monitoring in the absence of an external power source.
  2. Black Carbon monitor: This instrument is designed and optimized for continuous air
    quality measurement in diverse environments. The Black Carbon (BC) gadget is a
    component of particulate matter (PM), which enables it to monitor combustion
    emissionsand their subsequent climatic impact.
  3. Wildfires: This is a unique instrument that is employed in the measurement, sampling and
    quantification of wild fire emissions in either open areas or agricultural fields.
    This research sets out to review the current air pollution literature with theobjective of designing
    an air quality measurement programme. The envisaged quality measurement programme will be
    guided by CBPRand shall incorporate citizen scientific principles. The programme will be based
    on a community-led collaborative initiative in which the community shall be involved in every
    stage from inception to completion. The community will be involved in the vetting and the
    review of the study outcomes.
    The community-led project will entail the purchase of diffusion tubes to measure nitrogen
    dioxide (N02), and for laboratory analysis. The diffusion tubes will be distributed across
    different places in the community’s lamppost, street sign, a fence or other appropriate location to
    collect data. This will need to be left in one location for one month, and then collected for

analysis. The result from the analysis will help create a clear picture of air pollution.
Thisinitiative shall be used to raise the citizen awareness levels while still encouraging a citizen
driven change process geared towards widening community engagement and participation.
2.3 Indicators of Air Pollution

  1. Climate change still remains the most critical driving force behind global warming
    campaigns geared towardsstemming the atmospheric emission of air pollutants.
    Indicators of air pollution include greenhouse gas emissions and other carbon emissions.
    Other indicators of air pollution include CH4 emissions and N2Oemissions which largely
    result from rapid modernization and urbanization. Still, other common pollutants that
    cause air pollution include PFC, HFC and SF6 emissions that are also a by-product of
    rapidindustrialization. The impact of these pollutants altersthe atmospheric concentration
    of greenhouse gases and global temperatures. The indicators on the global atmospheric
    concentrations of GHG, energy efficiency, prices and taxes have raised concern over
    continued use of fossil fuels rather than renewable energy.
  2. Ozone layer depletion is primarily caused by ozone depleting substances (ODS)
    combined with the emission of CFCs and halons. The indicator of pollution is a change in
    the atmospheric concentration of Ozone depleting substances (ODS) and significant
    increase in ultraviolet B radiation levels that adversely impact human health, crop
    productivity and the natural environment. Still, the stratospheric ozone levels above the
    arctic and Antarctic oceans can depict ozone layer depletion. Stemming Ozone layer
    depletion requires rapid response geared toward recovery. This was accomplished
    through a successful speedy recovery process.


  1. Acidification refers to the reactive process of acidifying substances. The indicator for
    pollution is the emission of N0x and S0x into the atmosphere. The resulting effect is
    excess concentration levels of acid precipitation. The measures taken encompassed the
    equipping of catalytic converters into car engines at an estimated capacity of S0x and
    N0x as a reduction measure for stationary sources.
  2. Urban Environmental Quality: This is adversely affected by urban air emissions that
    mostly result from increased motor vehicle ownership and a surge in urban traffic. The
    indicator is the emission of airpollutants that include particulate matter (PM) and sulfur
    dioxide (S02). Other similar pollutants include nitrogen dioxide (N02) and carbon oxide
    (CO). Still, theeffect of these pollutants has a direct impact on human health, the
    immediateenvironment and the national economy. The measures that were taken by the
    state and other government agencies include the improvement of air quality standards,
    review of environmental regulations and fiscal policy formulation and implementation.
  3. Waste generation: Urban waste is largely generated through municipal waste, industrial
    waste, hazardous waste and more recently, nuclear waste. It also encompasses the
    movement of hazardous waste to a designated dumpsite. The indicator is linked to its
    subsequent impact on water and air quality. Further indicators can be deduced from its
    impact on land use, soil quality and toxicity emanating from waste pollution. The
    measures taken encompassed the enhancement of waste minimization strategies such as
    improved waste recycling processes and institutionalization of waste management
    through fiscal and economic policy on environmental management.
    Air pollution assessment and measurement can be achieved through the use of analytical
    frameworks such as the DPSIR model. The framework is essential in conducting extensive

evaluations of the relevant issues by thoroughly examining the identifieddrivers of air pollution,
the adverse effects of air pollution and the particular responses taken. The framework also plays
a pivotal role in the evaluation of the association between diverse air pollution elements. In
addition, the DPSIR framework is instrumental in deducing the relationship between pollution
sources and their specific impact on air pollution. Nevertheless, understanding air pollution
requires a thorough comprehension of the existing association between diverse DPSIR elements.
The only existing modality of measuring air pollution is the use of Driving Forces Pressure-
State-Impact Response (DPSIR). This research sets out to determine the air pollution menace in
Lagos metropolitan city. Ananalysis of air pollution indicators has established that rapid
population growth, urbanization, industrialization and an unprecedented surge in motorization
are the primary driving forces linked to Lagos’s pollution problem. These driving forces includes
the inadvertent emission of particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), carbon
oxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The pollutants mentioned above adversely affect human
health, environment and the national economy. This study shall further investigate the preventive
measures undertaken by the federal and local government in response to this air pollution
phenomenon. The study shall review measures taken to curb and protect Lagos city dwellers
against the adverse effects of air pollution.
The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are interconnected goals that cover an extensive
variety of social and economic development issues that are inseparable, mostly related to
poverty, gender equality and energy. Dealing with climate change will only be thinkable if the
SDGs are met. The immediate strategy of combatting climate change and its impact is by
regulating emissions and promoting the development of renewable energy. The UN inspires the
public to take initiative in the effort to minimize the negative impact on the environment.

Mitigation of climate change was made possible through the meeting that happened in 2015-
2016 at UN COP 21 summit (Paris) and the subsequent G20 conference. (OECD, 2008)
2.4 Sources of Air pollution
There are diverse sources of air pollution. The first type of air pollution is anthropogenic air
pollution that emanates from diverse sources. Some of these sources include households, motor
vehicles, gigantic non-mobile sources, industries and building construction. Similarly, fugitive
erosion is linked to mechanical disintegration, degradation of roads, forest fires, more vehicle
combustion emissions that are estimated to contribute between 80-90% of atmospheric air
pollution in mega cities resulting from the use of leaded gasoline. Traffic congestion has been
identified as the primary cause of increased fine particulate matter within Lagos city (Kojima
&Lovei, 2001).
Pollutants that are directly emitted into the atmosphere are known as primary pollutants. On the
other hand, secondary pollutants are created within the atmosphere due to naturally occurring
chemical reactions between atmospheric gases and other pollutants. Since Lagos metropolis is
located within Nigeria, an emerging economy, its air pollution is caused by five main sources
namely motor vehicle emissions, leaded gasoline generators, wood as a source of fuel, industrial
chemical emissions as well as other domestic and industrial sources of wastes.
The air pollution menace is sophisticated and hence requiring the involvement and participation
of different actors and government agencies. Both government and non-government actors are
involved in environmental management. Due to its complexity, decision making must be lucid,
highly flexible and incorporate multifaceted approaches while embracing different values,
knowledge and perspectives (Stringer et al 2007).


2.2.1 Vehicle exhaust
This is one of the key sources of pollution in most cities and metropolis in Nigeria. This is
because of the high number of vehicles that emit toxic gases into the atmosphere. A large
percentage of Lagos dwellers own motor vehicles and hence their continued use is the primary
cause of pollution. The rampant air pollution is further caused by rapid urbanization in other
Nigerian cities, hence there is need for evaluation of air pollution and control measures to
contain the subsequent runway pollution levels. Nigeria’s unprecedented growth in motor vehicle
usage is the leading contributor to the pollution menace, largely from motor vehicle exhausts
(Ladan, 2013a).
2.2.2 The use of gasoline generators
The increase in the use of gasoline generators has also been reciprocal to that of motor vehicle
usage. Occasioned by the need to provide power to all households, many Lagos residents have
turned to gasoline generators as a source of power. Still, small and medium sized industries are
utilizing generators that range from small to large fossil fuel powered generators which emit
large quantities of carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. The findings from one study conducted
in Nigeria in 2010 established that households operate gasoline powered generators for up to six
(6) hours every day, yet the generators were only placed 5.6 meters from the house. As a result,
the quality of indoor ventilation has been adversely affected (Ladan, 2013b).
2.2.3 The use of fuel wood/charcoal
A significant percentage of Lagos residents utilize wood fuel and charcoal for heating and
cooking. Besides, small businesses use wood fuel to power their production processes. Wood
combustion has thus emerged as a major source of pollution in enclosures, poorly ventilated
households and public places. The use of wood fuel and charcoal as a source of energy has been

on steady increase largely compounded by the absence of inexpensive sources of power for
heating and cooking, especially among the low income population (Ladan, 2013a).
2.2.4 Industrial Emissions
Industrial emissions are emerging as a major source of air pollution with increased
industrialization. Thus industrial emissions especially from Nigeria’s decentralized industrial
hubs have been on a steady increase. Given that the industries are not well spaced out, but rather
concentrated in industrial parks, causing substantial pollution. Nigeria’s industrial centers
include Lagos, Port Harcourt, Ibada, Kano and Kaduna. Some of these industries include oil and
gas drilling, chemical and cement manufacturing, textile industries, iron and still factories and
plastic manufacturing among others. Despite their location in designated urban locations,
uncontrolled urban development has caused their expansion into residential areas. These
industries significantly contribute to air pollution within Lagos and its suburbs through emission
of large quantities of gaseous wastes into the atmosphere (Ladan, 2013b).
2.3 Health & Environmental impacts of Air Pollution
2.3.1 Health Effects
The high accumulation of pollutants in toxic concentration levels is harmful to human health. A
huge percentage of Nigerian urban population dwell in residential places that are prawn to high
pollution levels thereby raising serious health concerns. These health issues include smog,
particle pollution as well as toxic substances. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants is linked to
diverse health risks such as eye, nose and throat irritation and related respiratory complications,
Wheezing, coughs and chest complications as well as unspecified breathing problems. It is also
linked to the exacerbation of other pre-existing health problems such as asthma, heart and lung

problems. Still, studies have shown that continued exposure to air pollution can lead to cancer,
degeneration of body immunity, neurological and reproductive complications and many other
respiratory problems. It can also cause death in extreme cases (Pemberton & Goldberg, 1954)
2.3.2 Environmental Effects:
Apart from adversely affecting human health, air pollution is also associated with different
environmental problems. This section reviews some of the environmental effects of air pollution.
2.3.3 Acid rain
One of the adverse effects of air pollution is acid rain. It contains large amounts of toxic nitric
and sulfuric acids that result from the reaction of nitrogen oxides and sulfuric oxides that are
emitted into the atmosphere during combustion of fossil fuels. These toxic acids fall onto the
ground either as acid precipitation in form of rain, snow or fog, and sometimes as dry precipitate.
Dry precipitation occurs in form of gas and particulates which can be swept away by strong
winds even into distant places. Some of the environmental effects of acid rain include plant and
tree damage, acidification of the soil and natural water thus making water unsuitable for aquatic
life. Moreover, it causes rapid destruction to buildings, sculptures and statures that are a pricy
national heritage resource. In addition, acidic rain can cause damage to lakes, ponds and other
water bodies thereby damaging wildlife and forests.
2.3.4 Eutrophication
Eutrophication refers to the natural process through which high concentrations of nutrients that
include nitrogen triggers the growth of algae, which is harmful to fish and water plants. Even
though eutrophication is a naturally occurring process, it adversely affects plant and animal
diversity. Although it is the natural aging process for lakes and other water bodies, human

activities can speed up the process by increasing the rate at which these nutrients are discharged
into the aquatic ecosystem. The large quantities of nitrogen involved in eutrophication result
from the emission of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere from motor vehicles and other
industrial sources.
2.3.5 Effects on wildlife
The existence of toxic pollutants in the air, soil or water can adversely affect wildlife and plants
in different ways. Just like humans, animals can be harmed by prolonged exposure to toxic
concentrations of air or water. Numerous studies have linked the recent surge in animal birth
defects and reproductive complications to toxic pollutants occurring within the ecosystem.
Particularly, obstinate and harmful air pollutants are harmful to the aquatic wildlife. Once these
pollutants accumulate within the ecosystem, the sedimentation process causes bio-magnification
of these toxic substances within animal tissues and particularly those at the top of the food chain
to embody excessively higher concentrations than those in the air or aquatic ecosystem.
2.3.6 Ozone depletion
Ozone layer depletion result from the depletion of the ozone gas (O3) that is found both on the
earth surface and in the upper atmosphere. The ozone that naturally occurs on the earth surface
can be harmful to human health. Nonetheless, the ozone that is found in the upper atmosphere
performsa protective role by shielding the earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiations from the
Sun. However, this stratospheric ozone is gradually getting depleted through ozone depleting
substances that are continuously emitted into the atmosphere as a result of manmade activities.
These toxic ozone destroyers include the chlorofluorocarbons, hydro-chlorofluorocarbons and
halons. These substances are commonly used in the manufacture of coolants, foaming agents,
fire extinguishers, pesticides and aerosol propellants. The destruction of the protective

stratospheric ozone causes an unprecedented increase in UV radiations. The high concentration
of UV can cause skin cancer, cataracts and other immune related disorders. In addition, high UV
concentrations can damage certain highly sensitive crops such as soybeans thereby causing a
reduction in crop yields.
2.3.7 Crop and forest damage
Air pollution is linked to crop and forest damage in diverse ways. The ozone occurring on the
earth surface can cause a significant reduction in agricultural produce as well as commercial
forest harvest. It can also cause a decline in the growth, lifespan and rate of survivability of trees
and a high susceptibility to diseases and many other environmental stresses. Still, acid rain can
result from UV radiation which can cause crop and forest damage when the atmospheric ozone is
2.3.8 Global climate change
The earth’s atmosphere comprises of different naturally occurring gases in different proportions
that trap solar radiation from the ground level in a process referred to as ‘greenhouse effect’.
This process is important in regulating the earth temperatures and keeping them within the
recommended stable range. However, continued human activities have caused imbalance in these
gases through massive production of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.
Subsequently, the earth’s atmosphere has high accumulation of heat radiations from Sun. This
phenomenon is responsible for the erratic rise in temperatures known as global warming.
Numerous studies have shown that global warming is harmful to human life, wildlife, water
bodies, natural forests and natural coastlands.
2.4 Current Challenges and Efforts to Reduce Air Pollution

Many countries and international agencies have been greatly involved in the efforts of curbing
air pollution through the improvement of environments and natural ecosystems and the
protection and preservation of the biosphere. Besides, air pollutants have been found to adversely
affect human health notwithstanding its devastating effects on climatic change. Due to climate
change, crops and food yields have continued to decline and so is the water cycle. Although
progress has been made in the industrialized nations throughthe enactment of ‘The Air Pollution
Control Acts,’ the problem still persists notwithstandingthe existing regulatory framework. The
first air pollution act was passed in 1955, and since then, significant effort has been directed
toward curbing air pollution. However, this effort has not been without challenges. Nevertheless,
the first air pollution regulations focused on reviewing pollution sources and as such, it fell short
of controlling air pollution. Over the years, the air pollution acts have been amended, first in
1960 and the in 1962 and mainly focused on the effect of air pollution on human health. Later,
the clean air act was passed in 1993 and stipulated standard for regulating the atmospheric
emission of pollutants especially from large factories while ignoring pollution caused by gasoline
engine emissions. This emission have gradually complicated and made the air quality control
even more challenging. Subsequently, the President George W. Bush’s proposal, the Clean Air
Act of 1990 came into existence mainly focusing on curbing the levels of acid rain and other air
pollutants. The act was focused on three areas namely reduction in air pollutants, elimination of
processes that create and emit greenhouse gases, and the reduction of toxic emissions that are
harmful to human and animal health. Similar efforts have been replicated in Nigeria where the
Federal government, through the health ministry established a number of parastatals whose
mandate is to regulate, monitor and maintain pollution free and clean air environment. The
federal agencies that have been in the frontline includes the /national environmental standards

and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) which operate at the national level. At the
state level, there is The Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA).These
government agencies are involved in the enactment and enforcement of standards and regulations
that are geared towards protection of the environment, curbing climate change, preservation of
biodiversity, management of sanitation and hazardous wastes. This has been accomplished
through an air pollution and control framework that devises strategies meant to reduce
atmospheric pollution. The modalities used vary even though the most predominant strategy used
is air filtration based on active carbon. To curb industrial emissions, industries that emit colossal
amounts of pollutants are required to mount their exhaust towers high enough and fitted with
carbon filters. These carbon filters help reduce carbon emissions as they act as adsorbents. They
have the capability of trapping toxic emissions that have a particular molecular weight. As a
result, the air that is emitted into the atmosphere is clean and safe for both humans and wildlife.
Motor vehicle emissions comprise the single largest source of air pollution in Lagos and hence
the need for their reduction. Hydrocarbons are emitted into the atmosphere during the
combustion of diesel, Gasoline and other fossil fuels, thereby damaging the ozone layer. This
type of pollution can be contained through regulation on the exhaust systems that industries
should use as an air pollution reduction strategy. This is accomplished by fitting catalytic
oxidizers in the emission pipes thereby filtering and trapping the toxic pollutants. The
government can also reduce the levels of motor vehicle emissions by encouraging the use of
electric cars and other alternative clean energy sources. Research has helped identify other
alternative sources of power that are clean and safe for human use other than fossil fuels. These
sources encompass solar power, wind and geothermal power that are classified as clean energy

Scientific research has shown that bio-filtration can be an effective alternative method of curbing
air pollution using bacteria and micro-organisms. These micro-organisms organically destroy
harmful substances and also absorb the bad dour through a molecular breakdown process that
produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Although bio-filtration is an innovative method of
curbing air pollution, it is however constraint by lack of funds since extensive research is
required to make it practical. As a result, this technique is largely used by developed nations like
the United States and Britain. However, due to high investment capital requirement, this method
is seldom used by developing countries. Air pollution control mechanisms are few and face
insurmountable challenges that must be overcome so that we can have a sustainable ecosystem
and a cleaner and safer biosphere.
2.5 Aims of the Study

The primary aim of this research is to explore the possibility of establishing a grassroots
community-led initiative of air pollution measurement that can be utilized in defining air quality
through the incorporation and active participation of the community. It is envisaged that the
community members shall act as citizen scientists in the evaluation and programme monitoring
process. Besides, community members will be empowered to get involved in data collection,
participate in decision making and provide a viable platform for engagement between different
government agencies and the community.
2.5.1 Objectives

The objectives of this research are:


  1. To bridge the existing literature gap in the air pollution literature by investigating how
    local communities effectively evaluate the levels of air pollution and its subsequent effect on
    their livelihood.
  2. To identify different air quality indicators that communities can utilize, regardless of
    whether they are qualitative or quantitative.
  3. To assess the feasibility of encouraging increased community participation in tracking air
    pollution using simple and innovative gadgets.
    2.5.2 Questions
  4. How do you bridge the existing literature and knowledge gap on the modalities that can
    be used by communities in the measurement of air pollution and its subsequent effect on their
  5. How do you identity different air quality indicators that communities can utilize,
    regardless of whether they are qualitative or quantitative?
  6. How do you assess the feasibility of encouraging increased community participation in
    tracking air pollution using simple, innovative gadgets?
    The research will evaluate and address the above questions in partnership with the local
    community organisations. Data collection techniques that will be used shall encompass
    interviews, focus groups and local forums that will focus on informing the population on air
    pollution and the importance of taking action. A pilot study will be conducted to establish the
    community’s perception on the health risks that are associated with air pollution. This will be

accomplished through a religious group forum constituted at the Cherubim and Seraphim church.
The pilot study will be conducted within the Alimosho/Oshodi community. Correspondingly,
another religious forum will be constituted at the Celestial church, situated in the Mushin local
Likewise, the two religious groups will be incorporated in the Alimosho and Mushin, especially
in the measurement of the level of particulate matter (PM). The findings will then be presented at
a joint community forum involving both the monitoring and the focus groups for further
deliberations. Lagos was selected particularly because it is a mega city that suffers from high
traffic congestion. Additionally, a large percentage of the population dwells near open dumpsites
where waste is regularly burned.



The primary objective of the newly introduced sustainable development initiative is to
significantly reduce air, water and soil pollution levels by the year 2030. Accordingly, the World
Bank disbursed USD $45 million to be used in dealing with high-priority issues of pollution, and
specifically in Asia and Africa. In Africa, Nigeria is among the three countries that will benefit
from this fund. Pollution remains a potent menace for the developed world especially due to its
link with rapid industrialization. Devising an effective solution will thus require a practical top-
down approach to the aforementioned challenges.
A key challenge has been the inability of the citizens to gain pollution related knowledge due to
scarcity of information. The local communities lack basic knowledge about the air and water on
which their livelihood depends. Thus public participation in major decisions has been hindered

due to lack of information. The only nation in the world that publicly avails pollution
information to its citizens is the U.S. It accomplishes this through the Toxic and Release
Inventory (TRI) which is a separate arm of the environmental protection agency. The
dissemination of pollution information to citizens is important as it enlightens them on the
various pollutants and their environmental impacts. The best solution of dealing with air
pollution is to empower the local communities based on a bottom-up model. Local communities
encounter numerous hurdles in the attempt to voice their environmental concerns to government
agencies. Yet, evaluation of the effects of pollution and the monitoring mechanisms are
ineffective. Therefore, unrelenting effort is needed especially in encouraging the effective
member participation in local forums, productive dialogue, increased community engagement
with government and corporate representatives.
3.1 What are communities?
The community can be viewed in two perspectives. First and foremost, it is viewed in terms of a
dwelling and birth place. You identify with a community because you reside in that locality.
Secondly, your community is the place where you were born and brought up. It is your
hometown because that’s where your home is, and that is where your family members dwell. In
fact, nobody choses their community as it is the immediate community that constitutes your
neighborhood. A workplace can also be perceived as a community since that is the place you
work. Although you will have workplace colleagues, but these may not be the right people you
may wish to socially interact with.
The most predominant definition is that a community is a collection of individuals with
dissimilar attributes who are linked through social ties and who share similar mutual ideologies
and are engaged in a collective action within a specific predefined geographical location.

Nevertheless, the participants may have varying connections based on the strength of their
mutual bond. Similarly, a community can be defined as a collection of people from diverse
settings who may have a common interest. These definitions coincides with other social science
findings that have underscored the viability of a cross cutting definition.
3.2 Engaging with communities
The rationale for using a community-led approach and especially the participatory type is varied
(Israel et al. 1998; O’Fallon et al. 2000b). This approach is ideal as it is used in framing the
research topic to ensure that it does actually address a specific, but critical concern of the local
community (Israel et al. 1998). Besides, it improves the efficacy and relevance of the research
data sand the subsequent application of the research findings by all stakeholders. The approach
also leads to the convergence of multi-skilled partners, people with diverse perspectives,
knowledge required in solving highly sophisticated environmental challenges. Most importantly,
a community-led participatory approach improves the quality and rationality of the study by
utilizing the knowledge of the locals. Thus it ensures extreme sensitivity and practicality because
of the involvement of the community. Subsequently, it helps the researcher to win the trust and
confidence of the community that may have been subjects in a previous similar study. Finally,
the approach helps in the enhancement of public health for the members of the local
communities (Israel et al., 2005).
The participatory approach provides a universal framework that researchers can use to derive
their own research assumptions while conducting a community centered research. Still, it serves
as a point of inference for researchers who plan to have equitable community participation based
on the participatory principles proposed by Israel et al. (2003).


  1. Community-led participatory study treats a community as a single unit.
    The community is at the heart of a participatory study approach as it provides a shared identity to
    all members of the group, binding them to have a common purpose and commitment to pursue
    common interests while sharing a common value system (Israel et al., 2003, p. 55).
  2. The Approach relies on cyclical and iterative development processes
    According to Israel et al (2003), partnerships are processes and engagements that are essential in
    building the capacity that is needed for research sustenance. However, fruitful partnerships
    emerge from paying special interest to the creation and sustenance of partnerships given that that
    the community’s social and economic characteristics may be in stark contrast to that of the
    researcher thereby creating unnecessary mistrust (Israel et al., 1998; Wallerstein et al., 2005).
  3. The approach provides an ideal platform for collaboration and phased, equitable
    According to Israel et al. (2003), equitability in power sharing is the single most important
    participatory aspect that is aimed at achieving fairness as opposed to oneness. Thus equity is
    relative and contextual and is uniquely defined by each individual partnership.
  4. It maintains a delicate balance between research and action that is aimed at profiting the
    The approach produces knowledge that is utilised in effecting social change (Israel et al., 1998).
    Besides, it maps out the anticipated mutual benefit and spells out the scope of the research study
    (Wallerstein et al., 2005). However, framing the mutual benefits can be a daunting task

especially when the individual partners have divergent careers, conflicting organizational
cultures and cultural backgrounds.

  1. It promotes collaborative learning and individual capacity building
    As suggested by Israel et al. (1998), collaboration between partners, academics and the
    community demands skills and enormous resources so as to conduct a thorough and meticulous
    research. Therefore, the success of the approach lies in the appreciation and sharing of these
    limited resources. Through collective learning, all stakeholders are able to exchange pertinent
    skills, ideas and knowledge for the benefit of the community. On the contrary, capacity building
    entails improving access to resources for purposes of enhancing the study outcomes while
    ensuring that it optimally impacts the community (Minkler, BreckwichVásquez, Tajik, &
    Petersen, 2008).
  2. It draws on the resources and strengths that are in the community
    This approach builds on the resources that are found within the community. Thus Israel et al
    (1998) assert that growing partnerships aimed at enhancing community capacity is a critical
    participatory element. Similarly, Mays & Hogg (2012) have underscored the relevance of local
    community public health issues and other ecological perspectives that address the numerous
    determinants of health and disease. This approach disseminates the knowledge ascertained to all
    stakeholders through an inclusive process. According to Israel et al (1998), the participatory
    approach creates actionable knowledge. They further posit that role and power questions are
    critical and should be involved in knowledge dissemination. This includes the how and who
    questions on how the results will be authored and disseminated. Our panel concurs that research

collaboration must address these issues especially as they directly impact the value and reward
system of various stakeholders.

  1. The approach involves a prolonged process and long term commitment
    The poor relationships previously witnessed could have been as a result of the drive-by research
    approach that has been used by academics where the researcher swiftly terminates the
    relationship once they have accomplished their research objectives (Horowitz, Robinson,
    &Seifer, 2009). (Winterbauer, Bekemeier, VanRaemdonck, & Hoover, 2016).
    3.2.1 Reasons for using a community-led framework to monitor and address pollution

A community based air pollution discourse indicates that it is an issue of concern, especially
considering the high costs of measuring equipment coupled with the acute shortage of expertise.
However, disparities in the existing knowledge and the recent surge in CBPRs have significantly
improved the capacity of dealing with resulting issues. Still, there need for continuous learning
since it’s envisaged that CBPRs are set to increase in the near future. As a result, understanding
the literature will be invaluable in comprehending the diverse approaches and motivations that
have been behind air monitoring studies especially those that use CBPR and citizen science.
Nonetheless, the main objectives of using CBPR in monitoring of air quality was to address the
air pollution concerns and high health risks that affect people living in close proximity to
pollution sources. The study was also motivated by the problem of urban settlement, residents
that fall outside the monitored region and an insatiable drive to see increased air quality
awareness. Similar studies were largely conducted based on a community-led model of
partnership. Monitoring was largely conducted from a fixed site location while other mobile

techniques of sampling were less utilized. Neighborhoods can be framed and adequately scoped
using inexpensive sensors while offering a multi-phased approach, understanding of the limits
and benefits of CBPR and ensuring that specific areas of contention are discussed. These
inexpensive sensors can help strike an agreement between the expected and the actual study
outcomes. Future guidelines will most certainly encompass the evaluation of unmetered
pollutants and the establishment of strategic community monitoring sites, conducting overload
tests, assessment of participation and the creation of a community study database (Commodore,
Wilson, Muhammad, Svendsen, & Pearce, 2017).
3.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of community-led approaches
The use of CBPR has gained widespread adoption. However, there is a high dissatisfaction level
among different stakeholders and practitioners who disagree with these claims. These claims can
be classified either as pragmatic or normative especially as it relates to community involvement
in environmental matters. While the normative claims are concerned with the overall benefits
that accrue to the democratic society such citizenship and equity, pragmatic claims address issues
of durability and quality in decision making that has environmental impact.
According to the normative argument, community engagement reduces the possibility of
disregarding the population that is at edge of decision-making. Thus communities can be
incorporated into decision making on matters that affect them, thereby promoting active
citizenship for the benefit of the entire society (Martin and Sherington, 1997). Besides,
community engagement increases the level of public trust particularly when processes are
considered to be transparent (Richards et al., 2004). Still, it has the potential to empower the
community through collective generation of knowledge and increases the knowledge use
capacity (Greenwood et al., 1993; Okali et al., 1994; MacNaughten and Jacobs, 1997;

Wallerstein, 1999). Moreover, it ensures that environmental decisions are regarded as holistic
and fair, and that it incorporates diversity and complex environmental interactions (Richards et
al., 2004). Furthermore, it is a source of social education as the community members learn
through knowledge sharing and relationship building (Blackstock et al., 2007). This approach
promotes trust and legitimacy of divergent views (Forester, 1999; PahlWostl and Hare, 2004;
Leeuwis and Pyburn, 2002; Stringer et al., 2006).Social learning can produce a diverse pragmatic
advantages that range from participation to creation of creative solutions. Pragmatic claims
directly focuses on durability and environmental quality matters, and hence participation
enhances local interventions and technologies used in the engagement, thereby enhancing
adoption and diffusion, while addressing local needs (Martin and Sherington, 1997; Reed, 2007;
Reed and Dougill, In publication). Still, participation increases the robustness of the research by
incorporating the interests and concerns of the local communities (Hansen, 1994; Reedetal.,
2006, 2008). Subsequently; it informs the study with divergent views and ideas thus increasing
the probability of satisfying the needs of the locals (Dougill et al., 2006). The Participatory
process has also been linked to high quality decision making as it infers from complete
information (Fischer, 2000; Beierle, 2002; Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Newig, 2007; Fritsch and
Newig). Moreover, through participatory processes, trust is built which helps in the appreciation
of viewpoints, hence elimination of adversarial association (Stringer et al., 2006). It could also
create a feeling of holistic ownership of both processes and outcomes, and could also enhance
long term decision making and support thereby drastically reducing implementation costs
(Richards et al., 2004).Nevertheless, there exists claims that the participatory approach may not
be as effective as claimed. These counter claims includes the fact that it does not happen in a
power vacuum and thus there is a possibility of adversely affecting interactions within the pre-

existing power structures in marginalized communities(Kothari, 2001). Still, it could potentially
ruin the existing group dynamics that would further discourage the appreciation of minority
perspectives thereby leading to dysfunctional consensus (Cooke, 2001, p. 19). In addition,
consultation fatigue could result from the increased demand for the participation of all members
due to a perceived low reward or incapacity to influence gainful decision making. Burton et al.,
2004; Cosgrove et al., 2000; Duane, 1999; Handley et al., 1998; Wondolleck and Yaffee, 2000).
Thus participatory process have a possibility of turning into talking shops that can be a source of
ambiguities that can delay group decision making (Bojorquez-Tapia et al., 2004; Vedwan et al.,
2008). This could be exacerbated by non-negotiable perspectives or stakeholders who may
exercise veto powers hence limiting how the process can eventually empower participants. For
instance according to Broad et al. (2007), water distribution groups created in Brazil through a
participatory process could have its decisions vetoed by the water Council. As a result, the level
of engagement declines and so is credibility of the process. Furthermore, it is possible that the
locals may lack the requisite expertise for meaningful and productive participation (Fischer and
Young, 2007). Most of the claims that support participatory engagement have not been
sufficiently investigated to ascertain their validity (Webler, 1999; Beierle, 2002; Brody, 2003;
Blackstock et al., 2007). Moreover, there is lack of interest in exploring the outcomes as the
focus has always underscored the processes (e.g. Beierle, 2002; Renn et al., 1995; Rowe and
Frewer, 2000). This could be due to the challenge of choosing a suitable assessment criteria and
data collection technique. According to Blackstock et al (2007), the evaluation of the
participatory approach should in itself be participatory and engage the communities in the
application of the assessment criteria. Nonetheless, this appears to be complex. As suggested by
Webler and Tuller (2006), there exist sharp disparities between different viewpoints expressed

by participants from a pool of 10 case studies focusing on the question of what constitutes an
effective participatory process. In spite of these disparities, it is still feasible to jointly create
evaluation criteria with the communities. For instance, Chase et al. (2004) proposed a criterion
which was derived with the communities based on a case study approach. Although there was
contention, it however emerged that the most popular criteria was the utilization of the best
available scientific knowledge, capacity to influence decisions, enhancement of learning and
communication and upholding (Chase et al., 2004, p. 635). Normally, participation is assessed
separately without engagement, and especially based on the criterion that is derived from theory
and multiple case analyses (Chase et al., 2004). For instance, according to Chess and Purcell
(1999, p. 2685), the degree to which different goals were realized remained the same regardless
of the method used. This was established while assessing the degree to which process and
outcome matched the stated goals using diverse methods. It was established that success largely
depended on the efficacy of managing group dynamics, effective communication, goal clarity
and the quality of planning that went into the programme. Brody (2003) assessed the outcome of
community participation particularly in the long-term management of environmental systems
based on theoretical criteria and established that the presence of certain communities drastically
increased their quality. Through a multiple case analysis, Koontz (2005) established that there
was a significant effect in the counties where both the members and elected government officials
expressed genuine concern for the issues raised through a multiple case study analysis. Still,
there were strong social networks among the participants. Likewise, Fritsch and Newige assessed
the participatory processes and the environmental outcomes and established that the most critical
determining factor for environmental management was the goals and interests of all stakeholders
and their views on sustainable environmental management. Sultana and Abeyasekera (2007)

conducted an analysis on 36 cases in Bangladesh focusing on community fisheries. The study
focused on the impact of not using community participation in planning. There was statistical
evidence suggesting that the use of participatory processes significantly improves community
uptake of conservation strategies and yields fewer conflicts. Similarly, Beierle (2002) analysed
239 case studies on the community participation in environmental decisions and ascertained that
there was quality improvement in most of the cases reviewed. There were fresh ideas, additional
information and thorough analysis. The study concluded that rigorous community processes
increases the possibility of getting better quality decisions. The findings from most if the cases
appeared to support the claims made about the efficacy of the participatory process. Although the
studies showed an improvement of quality, this was not without a caveat that the quality of the
outcome was solely predicated on the quality of the decisions involved. Thus it is apparent that
best practice in the use of community participation could be realized when using qualitative,
quantitative and case study approaches (Reed, 2008).
3.3 Approaches for community engagement

Community engagement can be defined as the relationship between and among diverse
communities, scholars and research agencies.
3.3.1 Culture and Community Engagement
According to an anthropologist Christie Kiefer (2007), culture can be defined as a sophisticated,
and highly integrated system that underlie human thinking and behavior that is exemplified in a
group situation and which is essential in inferring meaning from observable facts. It spells out
personalities as well the acceptable rules that govern a society or group. Culture defines

partnership and how people ought to engage in negotiations and trustworthiness. Hence it shapes
the process of community engagement (Blumenthal et al, 2004; Dévieux et al, 2005; Silka et al,
2008). In order to achieve effective collaboration within the community setting, all stakeholders
must strive to understand the different points of view of both insiders and external members such
as neighbors, religious groups, health professionals among others. Thus it is imperative that each
individual understands their own culture and how it impacts on their perspectives on health and
pollution issues (Airhihenbuwa, 2007; Hahn, 1999; Harrell et al, 2006; Kleinman, 1980;
Minkler, 2004).
3.3.2 Community Organization
Community organizational plays a pivotal role in championing mobilization and community
involvement in health matters. It encompasses social action and encouraging collective action by
all members of the neighborhood (Braithwaite et al, 1994). This raises the question of who is or
should be the legitimate community representative (Geiger, 1984). Similarly, the leadership
involved in the study is interested in working with participants who can deliver the desired
results regardless of whether they represent the community or not. However, the facilitation of
community organization should compromise the community interests rather than focusing on
that of external partners. Therefore, community organizing appreciates the fact that the need for
change is inevitable and that this can be best realized in a group setting where we learn collective
decision making (Minkler, 1990). Moreover, a critical component of community organizing is
the ability to aid communities to evaluate the source of the problems while still deliberating on
weighty matters that bind the group together. This should be simple and winnable and focused at
building the community toward achieving a sustainable solution (Minkler, 1990).
3.3.3 Community Participation

Community engagement is an inclusive process that must involve all members in projects that
affect their lives. It is goes beyond physical involvement and includes creation of ideas,
participation in decision making and taking collective responsibility. People may participate for
different reasons even though the greatest motivation is usually the need to improve their own
lives. Other reasons may include the fulfillment of social and religious responsibilities, thesense
of belonging to a community while some may still be motivated by financial or in-kind rewards.
Notwithstanding the needs of individual members, the realization of meaningful participation is
largely hinged on the ability of the leaders to successfully mobilize, respect, listen and his
willingness to continually learn from the locals. While this is necessary for success, the lack of
mutual respect and readiness to engage in co-learning can lead to mistrust, loss of time and
resources and deterioration of group effectiveness (Henry, 2011; Miller et al, 2005; Minkler et al,
3.3.4 Constituency Development
This is a critical process that has a direct impact on the outcome. It entails relationship building
and bonding with the community members and other stakeholders in public health and it
involves four critical practice elements:
1) Knowledge of the community, members and their unique potential
2) Establishment of positions and strategic guidelines that should define interactions with
the community
3) Creating and maintaining both official and unofficial networks for purposes of sustaining
relationships, communication management and resource mobilization.
4) Mobilization of communities and community participants in all decision making and
social processes(Hatcher et al, 2008)


3.3.5 Capacity Building
Capacity building is complex and encompasses nurturing sustainable skills, resources and other
structures that directly affect the community. However, equitable and sustainable engagement
requires the involvement of all stakeholders particularly in leadership. Thus it involves
knowledge sharing, promotion of leadership development and the desire to represent other
constituents. Given its social, economic and political aspects, capacity building requires a
thorough understanding of the specific environment and study location. (Eng et al, 1994).
Nonetheless, when contextually done, it can boost the engagement efforts that are required for
addressing power imbalances as well as effectively dealing with emerging issues.
3.3.6 Community Empowerment
According to Kenneth Maton (2008), empowerment can be defined as a group-based
engagement and development initiative by which marginalize populations or communities attain
significant control of their lives and environment, gain basic resources and rights and accomplish
essential life goals while reducing social marginalization. In a nutshell, empowerment can be
viewed as a process and a product of community engagement. It happens at three levels namely
personal, group or community level; hence each level can influence the others. It’s
multidimensional as it comprises of social, psychological, economic and political perspectives
(Fawcett et al. , 1995; Hur, 2006; Maton, 2008; Rich et al , 1995). Therefore, a community based
approach is best suited for challenging professional relationships, partnerships and collaboration
as opposed to the top-down model. (Wallerstein, 2002, p 74).
3.3.7 Coalition Building
Community engagement largely entails development of coalitions. It is defined as the
convergence of likeminded people and organisations that collectively aim at influencing the

results of a particular community concern (Cohen et al., 2002, p.144). Its primary goals may
encompass information and resource sharing for purposes of promoting advocacy (Cohen et al,
2002). As such, many funding agencies are creating coalitions that are focused on enhancing
community health (Butterfoss et al, 1993; Green et al, 2001a; Hill et al, 2007). Coalitions are
formed as they have the potential to accomplish what individual partners cannot. Hence it is
premised on the understanding that each party has some kind of shortfall. It is premised on the
following key points.
1) Goals and standpoints of all group members may not be shared. Nevertheless, the
coalition demands a common point of understanding to enable members strike a common
understanding on policies and strategies.
2) Coalitions can be complex and hence requires continuous negotiation and involvement of
all parties.
3) Although the issue of power and benefit distribution is critical to the success of a
coalition, all parties need an assurance that over time, coalition benefits commensurate to
their contributions will accrue to them (Sofaer, 1993).
3.4 Citizen science for assessing pollution

Citizen science methods make available prospects to support pollution assessment, challenges
and opportunities of exploiting citizen science for pollution studies. The assessments were
frequently implemented by using proxy indicator that only discretely provides information on
pollution. Direct assessments on pollution are still occasional. Participation formats mostly
encompasses connectedness to citizen science project that focus on volunteered data collection.

However, there is potential for increased citizen involvement in comprehensive pollution
assessment, by including the development of research questions, data analysis and dissemination
of the study results. The level of participation could be improved to strengthen strategic
knowledge on the environment, scientific knowledge and the empowerments of citizens in
helping to inform and monitor policies and management efforts related to pollution.
3.4.1 Definition of citizen science
The primary focus of the citizen approach starkly contrasts with the traditional model in which
citizens are used as data collectors. In this model, citizens are viewed as scientists
(Lakshminarayanan2007). In the context of this study, CBM will interchangeably denote
community based monitoring and community based management. Citizen science refers to the
process of incorporating citizens in research as scientists rather than data collectors(Kruger and
Shannon 2000). Carr (2004(also defines it as a community science). Citizen science can
encompass CBM which refers to the process where a group of concerned stakeholders monitor
and respond to common problems that affect the community (Whitelaw et al. 2003). It can also
refer to community based development that engages both the citizens and stakeholders in the
effective management of natural resources and watersheds (Keough and Blahna 2006). This
process is referred to as “biological monitoring” in the UK, especially because it focuses on the
collection of data that relate to species and habitats. This is different from CBM that is used in
North America as it holistically focuses on tracking ecosystems and environmental quality
(Conrad & Hilchey, 2011).
3.4.2 Benefits of citizen science
Citizen science accrues benefits to both the government and the ecosystems under investigation.
Still, democratization of the environment is new and aims at making environmental science and

expertise highly accessible to the citizens while at the same time empowering scientists to gain
local knowledge and expertise (Carolan 2006). Through facilitation of information sharing,
CBM can help in the democratization of science. Furthermore, CBM plays an important
educational role since citizen participation in scientific projects can help in boosting their
scientific literacy levels. Hence, this can be achieved through the improvement of scientific
knowledge and processes. Similarly, it can also boost their environmental awareness (Evans et
al. 2005). It has been established that public support and involvement in conservation can be
augmented by the establishment of social capital (Schwartz 2006). Social capital can be
determined by studying the levels of trustworthiness, harmony and collaboration in the affected
communities (Sultana and Abeyasekera 2008). Citizens in CBM communities are more likely to
get involved in local issues, community development and likely to influence public policy
making (Whitelaw et al. 2003; Pollock and Whitelaw 2005; Lynam et al. 2007). Therefore, CBM
is of great value to the government agencies since it provides an inexpensive environmental
monitoring alternative (Conrad & Hilchey, 2011).
3.4.3 Challenges for citizen science
Citizen science issues usually revolve around three key issues: related organizational issues, data
collection and usage challenges. At the organizational level, these issues encompass a lack of
genuine volunteer interest (Conrad and Daoust 2008). Additionally, networking can pose a
challenge to citizen science (Milne et al. 2006) and insufficient project funding (Whitelaw et al.
2003) and information inaccessibility (Milne et al. 2006). Data collection also poses a challenge
and especially the issue of data fragmentation, inaccuracy and participant’s lack of focus and
objectivity (Whitelaw et al. 2003). This increases mistrust in the credibility of CBM data.
Besides, a formidable challenge is the disregard of the findings of community groups by the

scientific community and decision makers since its credibility is considered as questionable
(Gouveia et al. 2004; Bradshaw 2003). Lastly, CBM faces the challenge of data usage, especially
the data collected through the monitoring program. Some groups allege that this data is not
utilized in decision making largely due to data collection and accuracy concerns or inability to
access the right policy makers (Conrad & Hilchey, 2011).
3.5 Community activism: How communities have tried to influence Government
The sudden realization of the damage caused through toxic contamination to the ecological
systems happened in the 1960s and 1970s. Despite concerted multi-stakeholder efforts,
environmental concerns have continued to worsen thus triggering the creation of numerous
environmental movements and organisations. Statistics have shown that by 2000, there were at
least 6000 environmental movements in the U.S alone, and registered local organisations in
excess of 20,000 all focused on environmental conservation. Due to the growing concern over
global warming and climate change, numerous environmental organisations focused on advocacy
have emerged. Moreover, disciplines such as sociology and political science have incorporated
environmentally focused components in response to the rising public concerns over
environmental pollution. Comparatively, psychologists have only recently accorded little
attention to diverse behavioral issues associated with the environment such as environmental
anxiety. As such, they have only focused on the individual impact, thereby ignoring the most
important ecological perspectives, and the combination of psychological and behavioral activism
that relates to the environment. Thus there is need to have psychology of environment take a
broader perspective by addressing sociological, political and environmental literature as well as
socially championing this cause. Additionally, environmental science should promote the
understanding of different issues while harnessing its potential in informing the public about

common responses to these complex environmental threats (Nikolay L. Mihaylov and Douglas
D. Perkins).
3.5.1 Citizen action against pollution in China
In China, Victims of pollution have turned to political and legal means in an attempt to seek
justice and safeguard their interests. This study reviews this activism by evaluating how citizens
realize their obligation and as such initiate action focused on combatting pollution. The study
will further explore some of the challenges that they encounter in this quest. The research thus
further highlights the importance of state institutions in aiding citizens in understanding the
gravity of pollution, subsequent impacts and obstacles. It is a known fact that state institutions
charged to manage industrialization oppose rather than support citizen action. As a result, citizen
activism is hindered thereby leading to confrontational relationships rather than productive
dialogue between the state actors and the citizens, where the former may degenerate into violent
suppression of citizen activism. In conclusion, the paper states that isolated activism brings new
perspective and further reinforces rightful resistance aimed at exposing citizen activism in China.
Subsequently, China has progressively developed a legal framework and regulations aimed at
curbing environmental pollution. Notwithstanding the laws, challenges abound such as weak
legislations and in some cases, contradictory laws. Nonetheless, the greatest challenge that China
faces is not in policy implementation, but rather the vague legislations. As a result, cases of
environmental law violations are rampant. Besides, violators lack legal approvals and still
operate oblivious of the environmental concerns. In some cases, these firms operate without the
legal abatement requirements. In spite of rampant violations of environmental regulations,
Chinese citizens can still play a pivotal role in compelling these firms into compliance.
According to some scholars, citizen activism can lead to increased compliance and better

enforcement whereas inactive citizen action promotes violations while undermining enforcement
efforts. In spite of political suppression, Chinese citizens residing in close proximity to polluting
enterprises have joined citizen activism with the support of the budding Chinese environmental
NGO movements. As a result, certain firms have been sued for destruction of fishponds. Still,
they have petitioned the environmental agency to take action against these firms both at the local
and national level through mass action (Van Rooji, Benjamin).
3.6 Chapter Summary
It has been established that the application of CBA in monitoring air pollution in Lagos can lead
to significant reduction in the levels of pollution and related problems. Moreover, air pollution
monitoring is speedily advancing driven by the latest innovation in portables which have helped
lower the cost of pollution monitoring sensors that are used in real-time capturing and
transmission of data at broadband speeds. The advancement in computing and visualization
technology as well as wireless communication has contributed to this development. While it is
possible that this technological advancement can augment the traditional air quality monitoring
methods through ambient air monitoring and compliance, there are still challenges that must be
addressed. Nevertheless, the sensors are now offering individual and communities the right tools
needed in understating environmental issues. Based on this data, individuals and communities
can devise appropriate strategies for reducing air pollution. Nevertheless, challenges such as data
quality and implementation issues related to pollution sensors must be addressed.

4.1 Study Area and Scope

This study will be conducted in the state of Lagos, Nigeria. Despite the presence air pollution in
Lagos metropolis, little effort has been directed towards stemming this problem. The researcher
will sample the following areas; Agege, Mushin, Oshodi, and Ikeja because they are some of the
busiest hubs in the city with a huge presence of cars which is a major source of air pollution in
the city. Other sources include industries, dumpsites, open incinerators, power generators. Road
conditions, number and state of vehicles make transportation a major urban pollutant in Lagos.
This is largely due to greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere. The study has been
motivated by the high frequency of environmental issues linked to air pollution. The paper will
particularly focus on the sources of air pollution, its impact on human health, and the effect on
ecosystems, biodiversity and diverse animal and plant species.
4.1.1 Nigeria
Nigeria, The most populous country in Africa with an estimated population of 192,000.000
covers a land area of (923,768 sq. KMS). (UN Est. 2017). Nigeria is located on the Gulf of
Guinea, on the western part of Africa, and borders Benin, Niger, Cameron and Chad. The
country is divided into 36 states and the national capital is Abuja. There are six geopolitical
zones created during the regime of President Ibrahim Babangida. The main rivers are Niger and
Benue which are adjoined in the center thereby forming a “Y” shape. Subsequently, the
adjoining of these two rivers has split Nigeria into three major ethnic groups, with the Hausa in
the north, the Yoruba in the southwest and the Igbo in the southeast part of the country.
Bordering the western coastline, Nigeria has a diverse geography with climate ranging from arid
to humid equatorial. There are two seasons in Nigeria which characterizes the country’s climatic
conditions. A wet season that lasts from April to October, with lower temperatures and a dry
season that lasts from November to March, with average mid-day temperatures of 380c. The

country is served with three main environmental regions: Savannah, which is the dry open
grassland that makes cereal and herding a way of life for Hausas and the Fulani’s. The wet
tropical forest is good for farming fruits and vegetables for the Yoruba’s, Igbo and other areas.
The small ethnic groups living along the coast makes fishing and salt trade way of life for the
Ijaws and the Kalahari’s. The largest cities in Nigeria are Lagos, Kano, Port Harcourt and
Prior to 1914, Nigeria was a British colony divided into two protectorates namely Northern
Nigeria and Southern Nigeria. However, these two protectorates were merged by Sir Fredrick
Lugard who became the first Governor General. In October 1960, Nigeria gained independence
from the British colonialists. Back then, the young Nigerian nation exemplified all the makings
of a democratic government. However, civil war ensued on 15th January 1966, engineered by a
small group of military officers who were largely Igbos. The post-independence unified
government structures disadvantaged the Northerners who couldn’t compete for government
positions with their well-educated Southern counterparts.
Succeeding the civil war, the Nigerian government embarked on instituting reforms focusing on
economic development. As a result of structural and fiscal policy reforms, foreign revenue
increased dramatically, propelled by an upsurge in global oil-prices for the period ranging from
1973 to 1974. Subsequent to the flourishing economy, power was transferred to ShehuShagari,
who formed a civilian government on 1 October 1974. However, Nigeria entered into a period of
democratization effective from May 1979 after President Olusegun Obasanjo took over the
leadership of the country. President Obasanjo immediately instituted national policies that
focused on alleviating the many problems that were bedeviling the nation. Top on his agenda
was tackling economic stagnation, and rooting out deep-rooted government bureaucracy and

patronage in the appointment of state officials, and the rebuilding of the country’s decrepit
Air pollution is one of the major environmental challenges that Nigeria faces today. This
phenomenon is threatening the socio-economic development gains that have been made since
independence. The number of power plants has grown to unprecedented levels whereas mortality
rates resulting from low quality air have continued to rise. Reports indicate that environmental
pollution can be linked to the recent upsurge in cardiovascular diseases as well as other
respiratory complications. Nevertheless, the primary causes of environmental pollution are
activities linked to industrialization such as extraction, transportation and the export of oil at the
Gulf of Guinea. Similarly, traffic, rapid industrialization and gas flaring are the most common
causes of air pollution in Nigeria. Thus pollution is adversely affecting different sectors such as
health and environment, and has been linked to the destruction of ecosystems and climate change
among other socio-economic ills. Anthropogenic air pollutants have become a major issue of
environmental concern such as smoke from numerous factories and industries located in Lagos
(Apapa) and other parts of Nigeria: Kano (Bompai) Port Harcourt gas flaring and refineries
continues to pose a significant health risk to local residents (Otti, 2011). Air quality measurement
has been largely hampered by several challenges that include lack of adequate equipment,
unskilled personnel as well as ineffective policy frameworks. To achieve a long term solution,
the study recommends that a holistic and integrated approach be taken through a multi-
stakeholder, all inclusive process.


Map of Nigeria showing the location of Lagos (national geographic).
4.1.2 Lagos
The history of Lagos dates back to the 15th century when the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba
tribe came and settled in naming it as “Eko”. However, the Awori migrated towards an island
that is currently referred to as Iddo before settling into the larger Lagos Island under Chief
Olofin. The Awori settlement was later conquered and occupied by the Benin Empire who
transformed the island into a war-camp that was popularly known as “Eko” under the leadership
of King Orhogba. Till today, Eko is still the native name for Lagos. The history of the name
Lagos, which means “Lakes” dates back to the period when Lagos was under the Portuguese.

Today, Lagos still has a high population of Awori, who moved in from Isheri, off the shores of
Ogun River. Historically, Lagos has been predominantly occupied by warring ethnic factions
who had settled in from the neighboring region. As the early inhabitants of Lagos, the Awori
were later deposed by the formidable Bini warlords who were later conquered by the Portuguese
in the mid-15th century. However, the Portuguese were later conquered by the British during the
fight against transatlantic slave trade. The British sustained the anti-slave trade campaign by
pursuing the Portuguese, American, French and Cuban bound slave ships. This was followed by
the singing of anti-slave trade treaties with the coastal chiefs of West Africa. As a result, the
British established a strong base along the West African coast boarding Sierra Leone and the
Niger Delta (Currently, Nigeria). In the later years, Britain conquered Lagos in what is
commonly referred to as the Bombardment of Lagos that led to the installation of King Akitoye.
The new King signed a treaty with Great Britain in Lagos on 1st January 1852. The treaty
established a consular relationship between Lagos and Great Britain who offer military
protection. Nigeria was later seized in 1887 leading to the establishment of the Protectorate of
Nigeria in 1914. Subsequently, Lagos was installed as Nigeria’s capital city. Since the
declaration of independence from British in 1960, Lagos has remained the capital city of Nigeria.
(“Lagos,” n.d.).
Lagos is Nigeria’s port city that is situated towards the south-western part of the country. The
city was directly governed by the Federal Government under the Lagos City Council. This lasted
till the creation of Lagos state in 1967. The state has rapidly expanded towards the mainland,
west of the lagoon. The expansion has created the metropolitan area that now encompasses Ikeja
(that serves as the capital of Lagos state) and Agege (currently extends more than 40Km towards
the north-west of Lagos Island).The Cities suburban region comprises of Ikorodu, Epe and

Badagry other additional local councils that have been recently established. Currently, Lagos
consists of 57 local governments that also include community development areas. Lagos, which
served as the capital city of Nigeria since 1914, proceeded to become the capital of Lagos state.
Nonetheless, Ikeja was later inaugurated as the state capital in 1976, while Abuja became
Nigeria’s federal capital in 1991. The Lagos metropolis constitutes 37% of the Lagos states total
land area and an estimated 85% of the state’s population resides in the metropolis. Based on the
2015 censors statistics, the City’s population stood at 20 million (Krueger and Casey 2009).
There has been rapid urban development in the City beginning from the mid-1970s. This has led
to the mushrooming of residential areas and informal settlements close to busy and highly
congested roads. This problem is compounded by the fact that 75% of Nigerian industries are
located within the city. Due to high rural urban migration, Lagos has witnessed unprecedented
levels of urbanization that has been disproportionate to infrastructural development (Phillips and
Horwood, 2007; Komolafe, 2005).
Lagos has remained the fastest growing city on the Africa continent, and one of the largest
megacities globally. The city has an urban sprawl that comprises of two major regions namely
the Island and the Mainland. The Island remains the commercial district and is surrounded by
densely populated informal settlements. The main land comprises of expansive and rapidly
growing settlements that adjoins the state to other neighboring states. The Climate is mixed
tropical, hot and wet with average annual temperatures of about 38 °C. Lagos has an expansive
area that is estimated to be 356,861 hectares (Oshodi, 2013). Out of this, there is an estimated
75,755 hectares of wetlands, sandy barrier islands, tidal flats and estuaries. Lagos state records
suggest that an estimated 85% of the population resides on 375 of the land area. As a result, the
state’s average population density stands at 20,000 persons per kilometer squared. The City’s

demographic trend indicates that it has an estimated population growth rate of 8%. Due to the
city’s population demand for mobility, the city currently grapples with challenges related to land-
use, public transportation and infrastructural incapacity to meet the rapid pace of urbanization.
Subsequently, improper land-use, rampant poverty and insufficient healthcare systems have
created huge social economic disparities. Similarly, this has created high environmental risk
disparities between low and high income residents. National statistics show that Lagos’s annual
motor vehicle registration accounts up to 40% of the total vehicle registrations in the country. It
is also rated as the most industrialized city with the highest concentration of greenhouse gases in
Nigeria. This greenhouse e missions result from different sources that includes dump sites, open
incinerators and power generators (Olowoporoku, Longhurst, & Barnes, 2012).
Motor vehicle pollution largely comes from private, industrial and commercial buses, hazardous
chemicals, other wastes and fossil fuel burning produced by different types of industries (Otti et
al. 2011). There is need for an enforced air pollution regulatory legal framework that should be
enforced by the government. Among other things, the legal framework should address direct
pollutants such as vehicles; diesel powered machineries as well as ships. The state is in urgent
need of improvement and effective enforcement of road, diesel and ship emission laws.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC), the continued release and
accumulation of greenhouse emissions in the stratosphere will progressively lead to a decline in
sea levels. This would lead to an increase in storms, a shift in rain patterns, melting of mountain
glaciers, and subsequently, loss of animals.


Map of Lagos, Nigeria (Source: Lonely planet)

Map of Lagos State showing the Twenty Local Government Areas. (GIS map by


4.2 Outline of data collection
Research Objectives Research Questions Methodology
To address some gaps in
knowledge by exploring how
the local communities can
assess the level of air
pollution and its impacts on

To what extent do residents of
the community perceive air
pollution as a health hazard
and take precautionary

Collaboration with the
grassroots CBOs, interactive
interviews, focus group
discussions and all-inclusive
community forums. Through
religious groups (celestial
church) in Mushin and
(cherubim and seraphim
church) in Alimosho/Oshodi

What is the spatial variation in
the perceived rate of air
pollution and the health risk
among the residents of the
What can the community do
to reduce the air pollution and
the chances of contracting
diseases that are related to air



There is need to identify
indicators of air quality that
are used by the
communitieseven if this tend
to be more qualitative than

What are the indicators of air
quality in the community that
you know?

based. The discharging to the
air (oil refinery flare,
stackmotor vehicle emissions
and wood/charcoal fires)
others noticed residues (dust
on window screens, clothes
and indeed furniture, particles
on pool surfaces, white socks
turning black and in
household buildings become
dirty). Again, the irritant
reactions, e.g. red eyes, are
stinging in the eyes, nose and
throat, chest tightness,
wheezing, coughing, and
shortness of breath. Through
religious groups (celestial
church) in Mushin and
(cherubim and seraphim
church) in Alimosho/Oshodi


What are the potential health
effects of air quality
To what extents can indicators
actually cause change in
human health and the
immediate environment?

To explore the possibility of
encouraging the community to
monitor air pollution using
some simple experimental
devices (Citizen Science).

What are some of the simple
experimental devices
instrument measure that the
community can use to monitor
the extent of air pollution?

Using simple experimental
devices such as diffusion tube
and laboratory testing for
analysis. Through religious
groups (celestial church) in
Mushin and (cherubim and
seraphim church) in
Alimosho/Oshodi community.

What are the accuracy level,
quality, reliability, and
credibility of what users think
they are measuring?
How often do you encourage
the members of the
community to use these
simple experimental devices


to monitor the extent of air
pollution in their
How do the experimental
devices help each and
everyindividual in the
community to understand and
reduce the harmful effects of
air pollution exposure?

4.2.1 Interviews and focus group discussions
The objective of a participatory approach is to engage the local community, stakeholders,
environmental agencies, actors and government in this research. The research methodology and
research design define the course of analysis of the research. This chapter therefore focuses on
research design, data sources and search strategy and ethical concern. The research will be based
on past secondary sources of relevant academic research. The research is a hybrid of qualitative
and quantitative methodologies. The system will exploit both the primary and secondary
techniques in data collection. Past journals related to the topic of the study will be used to narrow
down to the relevant literature.
However, first-hand information will be obtained from industrial experts and scholars with
reliable knowledge. The researcher will collect data using in-depth semi-structured group
interviews. An interview can be defined as the purposeful conversation between two or more
persons, and can also occur on a group basis. It requires that the interviewer establishes an

agreement and ask succinct and distinct questions to a group of participants, to which the
participant is willing to respond, after listening attentively (Boddy, 2005). The interviews will
help elicit valid and reliable participant response, thus capturing data that is relevant to the
research question(s) and objectives. It is also essential as it helps the researcher refine new ideas
prior to the formulation of a research question and objectives. Still, interviews can take different
formats. They can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured, also referred to as in-depth
Focus groups can be defined as group interviews in which the topic has been clearly and
succinctly stated. This could involve capturing interactive sessions between participants (Carson
et. al.2001; Krueger and Casey 2009 ;). It is also important that the researcher provides very
group member an ample opportunity to respond to interview questions hence expressing their
divergent standpoints, and thereafter capture the interview data. Focus groups also referred to as
focus group interviews investigates a specific problem, product, service or topic by providing an
environment that is conducive to interaction, and sharing of knowledge and perspectives
(Krueger and Casey 2009).Inter-group discussion are an important aspect of focus groups, even
though interactive discussion are better suited for specific distinct purposes. Positivist
researchers have for a long time used this approach to encourage interaction between
participants, as it is ideal in capturing pre-held views related to a specific case study. On the
other hand, the interpretivists use the focus group approach mainly to capture construct meanings
through social interactions. The primary reason for using focus groups in this study was to help
in evaluating participant interactions. In addition, it was selected as it is able to capture different
group dynamics that lead to the formation of shared perspectives (Belzile and Oberg 2012). A
researcher who moderates the focus group is often referred to as a moderator or facilitator.

Moderation is critical as it helps focus the group discussions, generates interest in the topic and
further promotes interactive engagements, and directs the group discussion towards a predefined
The sources of data and information extracted from the studies and primary data collected
through questionnaire and interview will be quantitatively analyzed using software such as excel
and SPSS. Therefore, there would be no data falsification or intentional misinterpretation
(Resnik 2011, p. 56). The researcher is given the freedom to improve, analyze and interpret the
research knowledge in a fair, accountable and trustworthy manner.
4.3 Phase 1
During this phase, development and environmental experts engage in a selection process where
they pick the most applicable indicators and participatory methods that will help the community
identify their own unique indicators. The application and continued use of the bottom-up
community participatory model in environmental management has been largely due to past
failures of the top-down model. Although a modification involving both approaches can be used,
the hybrid approach requires intensive evaluation of multiple case studies in which both have
been used in measuring diverse development indicators. This is important as it helps e
Ascertain the successfulness and efficacy of this hybrid model. Still, community participation
can be used as a means of selecting the most suitable indicators is associated with a number of
different benefits (Bell and Morse, 1999; Pretty, 1995). Firstly, the method is realistic and entails
the involvement of the locals in ensuring that the identified indicators do actually measure what
is meaningful to the local community. Therefore, community contribution should be consistent
and aim to capture the dynamics of the changing times and situations (Carruthers and Tinning,

2003). Furthermore, it should permit continuation of the project even after funding is terminated
(Freebairn and King, 2003). Additionally, primary research has established that local
commitment is key to improving community capacity so that they can be able to deal with
difficulties that could emerge in future. This requires that the methods used in data collection,
interpretation and display be simple and effective to allow the participation of all stakeholders.
Those who participated in the study identified several local indicators based on their five senses.
This involved the use of a visualization technique where the sky was evaluated. Some of the
indicators include haziness, visible smog in the sky and a visible yellow air appearing a cross a
clear blue sky and the intensity of the emitted smoke. Alternatively, sources of discharging such
as oil refinery flare stack vehicular emissions and visible wood or charcoal burning were also
considered. Other participants identified residues (dusty windows, dusty clothes, dusty furniture,
visible particles on pool surfaces and white socks turning black inside residential buildings).
Participants were cognizant of the great danger posed by specific diseases and the severity of the
adverse effects that they pose to human health. One case example is where they complaint of
irritant reactions (e.g. red eyes, stinging in the eyes, nose and throat, chest tightness, wheezing,
coughing, and shortness of breath). Asthma, cancer and lung respiratory complications are just
but few of the health conditions that are caused by air pollution. Assessment of the association
between indicators established that rapid population growth, urbanization, industrialization and
motorization are some of the factors that are causing persistent emission of toxic pollutants into
the environment. The associated air pollutants include particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide
(SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon oxide (CO) and Ozone (O3). During the study,
participants were able to locate ground level ozone and smog as indicators of air pollution.
Below is a summary of the indicators of air quality and their associated health risks

a) Wood and charcoal fire: Number of households using wood and charcoal fire for home
and industrial heating
b) Motor vehicles: Number of motor vehicles and average ages of vehicles
c) Air pollutant level: Particulate matter on monitoring data on particular matter (PM10).
d) Other air pollutant: Monitoring data for greenhouse emissions
e) The health effects of air pollution: Air pollution has numerous health risks. Firstly, it can
cause eye, nose and throat irritation. Besides it causes wheezing, coughing, chest congestion,
breathing problems, and a host of other heart complication such as asthma. Still, prolonged
exposure to air pollution can cause cancer, immune system impairment, neurological and
reproductive dysfunction and a number of respiratory complications. However, severe cases can
lead to sudden death (Pemberton & Goldberg, 1954).
4.4 Phase 2
The study will largely rely on collaboration and community participation whereby the grass-roots
organisations will be used. Data collection methods will include in-depth interviews, interactive
focus group discussions and other community focus that will evaluate various air pollution
indicators and further suggest appropriate action. A through and more comprehensive interview
approach will be used where participants will be drilled on their knowledge of air quality
indicators and further make recommendations on the appropriate action through religious groups
at Seraphim church, situated in Mushin, Oshodi and Agege motor way in Lagos metropolis, in
Nigeria. Similarly, the researcher will involve the above religious groups in measuring the levels
of Particulate Matter (PM) and have this data conveyed back to the participants through
interactive focus groups.

A review of the problem from the community standpoint suggests that an urgent solution is
required to address the problem. Nevertheless, a majority of the participants were of the view
that knowledge of the various indicators will be invaluable in the measurement of air quality,
trends and improvement strategies. In addition, participants argued that both internal and external
sources were needed to adequately create, implement, and communicate and effectively use the
identified air quality indicators. Four qualities of indicators were proposed by the participants
who were believed critical in measuring the adverse effects of air quality in their respective
communities. These qualities are credibility, relevance, and behavioral change. To increase
credibility of the results, the identified indicators should enjoy widespread credibility within the
target community.
4.4.1 Data collection

4.4.2 Data analysis

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