Managing Short term and Long-term Changes
Explain which change model you would follow for the short-term change and
which you would follow for the long-term change. Provide rationale for your
Decision and discuss the effects that these changes would have on the employees,
managers, and executives within the organization.
Change management is a process of managing the transition of individuals, organization or teams
to a state that is desirable in future. Organization change involves a structured approach that
ensures the smooth and successful implementation of the change process. Globalization and
technological advancement has led to large scale expansion and renewed growth to emerging
markets in different parts of the globe. Change in organizations affects all the departments and
employees in all levels in the organization. Companies need to quickly adapt to changes in order
to survive in a competitive environment.
XYZ must have a suitable strategy and an effective change model in order to succeed in its
expansion plans. For a company that sells expensive luxury watches, handbags and other jewelry
products to expand internationally, its marketing strategies and expansion plans must be
carefully analyzed and logically evaluated before the changes can be effected.
Change management involves setting corporate objectives and identification of the
organization’s mission and its purposes, and then on this basis the objectives are set as the
2 Change Management Models: Managing Short term and Long term Changes
foundation of strategic management. These objectives define what the corporation has to achieve
for itself and to the general society.
Corporate mission is part of the company’s strategic vision and it literally defines what the firm
presently is in, that’s what they are and where they are. It’s the fundamental and unique purpose
that identifies the scope of its operation in the market, product and eventually the change
process. Business goals and objectives are the performance set targets which the company aims
at achieving as results within a defined period during the organizations change process. Product
and market goals are part of profitability goals that aim at dominating the product’s market with
its own product. Each company has the competence and capability to entrench itself in a unique
market situation. Stakeholder goals and objectives are part of the corporate goals attributed to the
stakeholders that’s all those who are being affected by the internal and external activities of the
corporation. For instance suppliers, customers, employees and the society. These goals lean
towards the profitability goals and objectives. Their main target is to maximize their earnings.
Management objectives are long term performance targets that the company’s management
wants to achieve, they are formed from the corporate visions and mission statements. Short-
termism is associated with the company’s goals that target achievement or growth in the near
future. (Camp, 1989)
Strategic choice refers to the critical evaluation and assessment of various strategic alternatives
while comparing one set of alternatives against another. Competitive strategies are the strategies
chosen and adopted by the company for effective implementation. Product and market strategies
all target improved sales and strategic expansion in the change process. Product types refer to the
range of products available to enhance marketing strategy. Market share strategy allows a
3 Change Management Models: Managing Short term and Long term Changes
company to concentrate and limit its resources to the best and greatest opportunity to increase
sales and gain competitive advantage over its competitors.
Change management includes employee training, skills, innovation, training and corporate
cultural attitudes relating to individuals and the corporate improvement. In a related knowledge
worker organization, the people are the only repository of innovation and knowledge as the main
resource. It’s important for skilled and innovative personnel to be in a continuous learning mode.
This constitutes an essential foundation for the success of the knowledge worker in change
Change management models enhance company moves from a particular to a desired state in
future with the sole aim of improving its effectiveness. (Weiss, 2012) The contingency model
can be adopted for the short term development processes at the XYZ Company expansion to
Communication is a critical factor in change management and its contingent upon other internal
and also external contingencies like economic, legal, environmental or technological
contingencies while internal contingencies that may affect the organization and its employees
together with its entire management are its structural and output contingencies. While instituting
changes in an organization several other theories that assist in management effectiveness and
communication effectiveness have to be adopted by the organization. (Quirke, 1996) For
example while the organization is expanding its business to Shanghai in the people’s republic of
China, organizational effectiveness have to be matched with competent and innovative
employees who can adapt and also assist in the implementation of the required changes.
Application of evaluative measures such as bench marking and balanced score cards can be
used to measure the performance levels of the employees and the management regarding the
organizations expansion strategies.
4 Change Management Models: Managing Short term and Long term Changes
Balanced scorecard refers to a strategic planning, organization and management system that is
extensively used in many organizations, industries, businesses, governments, nonprofit making
organizations to stream line the business activities, its expansion and operations to be in line with
its vision and the short term growth strategy of the organization, improve its communication,
monitor and control its performance against its strategic targets.
Internal benchmarking or best practice benchmarking is the process used in the
organization where analysis and evaluation of various aspects of practices and processes in
relation to the best company’s processes and similar activities normally within a peer group are
compared to its own. (Bogan, English, 1994). This allows the organization to identify and
develop plans that will make the most impact in its improvements and increase its performance
substantially. It’s a continuous process whose results are gradual but effective. (Boxwell, 1994)
The effects of these processes may be positive or negative depending on the employees, the
management or on the senior executive staff perception. Some may view these changes as
stressful and resist the changes while others may cooperate and work positively towards the
implementation processes. The leader should be decisive when dealing with each category as the
results and targets of the organization depends on the cooperation of all the employees. (Drucker,
For the long term and large scale change, the leader will adopt the Kotter’s 8 step model foe
change management. The target for the change model is to ensure powerful and successful
change implementation process to the Bric Countries.
The first step in Kotter’s change management process is to create urgency which to spark the
initial motivation and draw the attention of the employees and the executives. (Kotter, 1996)
5 Change Management Models: Managing Short term and Long term Changes
These will involve analyzing the general trend in the organization performance trend and
explaining the nature of the change requirements and its impact on the employee performance
records. This is done by identifying and developing the scenarios that would show the negative
and positive impacts of the change management process and the effect of the employee input in
the whole process.
The second step in Kotter’s management model is to form a powerful partnership with all the
employees, management team and other senior executives in the organization. These will reduce
the resistance that’s normally associated with large scale changes. It will also assist in identifying
the weak areas in the change process.
The third process is to create a positive vision for the change process. The vision should
incorporate great ideas which should easily be identified with all levels of employees. The leader
should develop a strategy to achieve the vision. (Kotter, 1996)
The forth process is to communicate effectively the management change process and its vision.
The employees concerns and fears should also be addressed effectively and honestly.
All obstacles including the outspoken and resistant employees should be persuaded to change
their stance or be removed from the change process team as they can easily derail the whole
exercise in the fifth process. Reorganize the organizational barrier, employees’ job description
and their compensation systems. Reward all the employees who are contributing positively to the
The sixth process should evaluate the initial stages and positively motivate the team members for
their positive contributions to the long term goals in the organization.
6 Change Management Models: Managing Short term and Long term Changes
The seventh process involves building on the change process and launching the required services
or products. And the final process involves the process of anchoring the management changes in
the organizations corporate culture. These will positively create a positive vision behind the
company’s values. Other models may also be incorporated in some stages of the Kotter’s 8
processes change management processes. Kurt Lewings (1950) model of Unfreeze, Change and
Refreeze can be adopted between the first process and the last process of the Kotter’s principles.
Kotter’s principles are systematic and realistic. They are elaborative and can be easily
implemented without facing a lot of resistance from the employees and the management team.
Good change management works very well with the younger employees who easily embrace
new technology and other advancement related to the organization. They are frequently found in
the lower cadre of employment levels. The older generation is mostly attached to their
conservative experiences of performing their duties and any slight changes would normally face
resistance. These categories of employees are mostly found in the management levels i.e. the
older generation. (Armenakis and Bedeian, 1999)
To conclude, Change related strain affect individual employee job demands and also if it’s not
managed well it will create unfairness which eventually will result in personal problems. The
response to these changes may affect the production processes and erode the employee’s job
commitments. The senior staff and the executives may also be affected in the same way.
7 Change Management Models: Managing Short term and Long term Changes
Armenakis, A., and Bedeian, A.G. (1999) Organization Change. A review of theory and research
in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25: 293 – 315.
Boxwell, R. (1994) Benchmarking for Competitive Advantage ., New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bogan, C., English, M. (1994). Benchmarking for Best Practices: Winning through Innovative
Adaptation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Camp, R. (1989). The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance.
Drucker, P. F. (1999) Management Challenges of the 21st Century. New York: Harper
Kotter, J.P. (1996) Leading Change. Boston, M.A: Harvard Business School Press.
8 Change Management Models: Managing Short term and Long term Changes
Quirke, B. (1996) Communicating Corporate Change. McGraw-Hill: England.
Weiss, J.W. (2012). Organizational Change. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.