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Inferential Statistics

Inferential Statistics Article Critique

Read the article.”Differential Effects of a Body Image Exposure Session on Smoking Urge Between
Physically Active and Sedentary Female Smokers”; and identify the research questions and/or
hypotheses as they are stated. Consider the following questions: What are the variables (sample sizes,
population, treatments, etc.)? What are the inferential statistics used in this article? Were the proper steps

of hypothesis testing followed?

Write a two- to three-page paper presenting the information listed below. Include a title page and
reference page in APA style. Cite any references made to the article within the body of the paper in APA
style. Your paper should begin with an introductory paragraph (including a thesis statement) and end with
a concluding paragraph summarizing the major points made in the body of the paper and reaffirming the

thesis. When writing the article critique, your paper must:

1.Determine what question(s) the authors are trying to answer by doing this research.
2.Determine the hypothesis being tested and the concepts that were applied in this process.
3.Evaluate the article and critique the statistical analysis employed in the study. Would you have included

more and/or different variables? Explain your answer.

4.Examine the assumptions and limitations of the statistical study.;What would you have done differently

in this case? Why?

5.Identify how the authors applied statistical testing to the problem.
6.Interpret the findings of the author(s) using statistical concepts.


Inferential Statistics Article Critique

Most often, the female smokers use smoking as maladaptive weight control approach.
They smoke with the belief that they will develop an enhanced mood, their anxiety will reduce
and the act will have their weight controlled. Smoking is not healthy and all the benefits which
the smokers associate with it can also be achieved through physical body exercise. According to
this study, there is more likelihood of the women who are physically active to have a smoking
urge after a body image exposure than the sedentary women (Nair, Collins & Napolitano, 2013).
The main purpose of the study was to determine the effects which are associated with the
body image exposure (novel behavioral task). The research question was therefore based on
examining the effects of the novel behavioral task. It was modified to elicit the weight concerns
and the body image associated with the urge to smoke among the female smokers who are
between 18 and 24 years old and who vary in terms of the physical activities of the body (Nair,
Collins & Napolitano, 2013). Uma S. Nair of the Department of Public Health at Temple
University in Pennsylvania might have also an intention of examining whether engaging in the
physical activities can help the women to quit smoking.
A cue reactivity paradigm was used where 16 sedentary (SE) and 21 physically active
female smokers were used (≥5 cigarettes/day for past 6 months). These people were exposed to a
pilot tested body image exposure session. The test involved obtaining self-reported urge and
latency to the first puff before an exposure session and after an exposure session. There was a
significant increase in the paired sample t tests in the self-reported urge in self-reported urge (p <
.01) (Nair, Collins & Napolitano, 2013).
It was also noted that there was a fast latency to the first puff, that is, (P < .01) at the

posttest for the whole sample as when compared to the pretest. As per the partial correlation,
(controlling for body mass index [BMI], nicotine dependence, withdrawal, and depressive
symptoms) the results showed that the increase in the time while participating in the energetic
intensity physical activity was related to the low self-reported urge to smoke at post. That is, (r =
-0.44; p = .01) but was not associated with the latency to the first puff which was (r = -.10; p =
.62) (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013).
Though the results were appropriate, the variables used were not enough. The sample was
small and if I was carrying out the research I would have added more samples since the results
were only of the light smokers. The heavy smokers should have also been included to help in
getting results which are wide. I feel that in future, further research should be carried out to
examine the effects which the physical activities have to the reactivity on the body image and the
smoking cues. The research should also test the variability to the smoking cue- reactivity
associated with the physical activity. Appropriate statistical and the experimental approaches
which were used in the study were appropriate and it will be wise to use them while conducting
the research on the heavy smokers.
According to these results, it can be concluded that among the female smokers who are
concerned with the weight, smoking urges maybe attenuated by the physical activities in a
situation where there is an increase in the weight concerns.



Nair, U. S., Collins, B. N., & Napolitano, M. A. (2013). Differential effects of a body image
exposure session on smoking urge between physically active and sedentary female
smokers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(1), 322.

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