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Financial consultant

You are a financial consultant and your company has been asked to help with the following
queries from a client who is considering investing in MDM plc, a medium sized quoted company.

a) Which ratios should the client use if he wanted to assess the profitability of the company? (Guide

approx. 500 words)

b) Which ratios should the client use if he wanted to assess the riskiness of the company? (Guide approx.

500 words)

c) Your client knows that MDM are considering a project which will cost �200 million. Advise the client on
the different possible ways of financing this project, clearly explaining the benefits or otherwise of each

(Guide approx. 1000 words)

State the word count at the end

The balance of the grade will come from the presentation and the use of proper referencing both in the

text and bibliography.

Important note:

The coursework should be in essay format and must be structured, with separate sections and,

preferably, headings.

Your essay should be 1600 – 2000 of your own words

Much of your source material may be more recent but you still must reference the newspaper, journal or


Any material that you quote or refer to in your work must be referenced fully giving details of its source,
author etc. It is not sufficient merely to include a source in your bibliography, neither is it permissible to

just use the name of a website on its own.

It is not acceptable to include large sections from such sources: the vast majority of the essay should be

in your own words.

The sources of financing a business or an enterprise are all those avenues that funding for a
business can be obtained from to finance a new project. Companies use the budgets to weigh the
cost implications of all the different sources of funds and their sole benefit to the business. Some
sources of financing are very suitable for short term financial periods while others are best for
long term periods. Large capital investments require longer financial periods while short term
financing are suitable for short term investments and in acquisition of revenue expenditure and
which are mostly repayable within the same financial year (Securities and Exchange
Commission, n, d).

The following are the sources of finance;
Before deciding on any suitable source of funds, the business manager must consider the cost
and the period of time that the funding is required. The cost of funding plays a critical role in
determining the kind of funding. The total funding required and the amount of risk involved in
the business or investment to be undertaken can also influence the source of funding that the
business would go for.
Short Term Internal Source Financing
Bank Overdrafts
Bank overdrafts are short term loans that business men with current accounts qualify for. These
loans are advanced when requested for but their interest rates depend on the type of bank and the
amount required.

Retained Earnings
Retained earnings can be used as a source of funds depending on the amount of financing
required. Retained earnings are reserves that a business sets aside from the profits for future use.
These reserves can be used as a source of revenue. Retained earnings are retained in bank
accounts as reserves and they mostly influence the payment of dividend in a company. Retained
earnings are often utilized to finance new investments in most companies as they provide flexible
sources of funding with no conditions attached (FAO, Corporate Document Repository, n, d).
The major problem is that it reduces the reserves available to the business and it may also affect
the company’s policy on dividend payment.

External Sources of Funds
Loan Stock
This is a long-term debt capital that is raised by a company and it attracts the payment of
interests. Loan stock holders are mostly long-term company creditors (Gitman, 2000).

  1. Ordinary (equity) Shares
    These shares are normally issued to the shareholders of the company. The nominal value of the
    shares is mostly $1 or even $0.5.The market value of the shares are not related to the nominal
    value of the shares. The only exception occurs when the shares are handed out for cash, then the
    price at which they were issued must be equal to the nominal value of the shares nominal value
    (FAO Corporate Document Repository, n, d). The company can offer new ordinary shares to the
    existing share holders or to new prospective investors. The following are ways of raising
    financing through the issue of shares;
    Deferred ordinary shares
    These shares are issued to any investor who may be interested but they carry limited voting
    rights and they are mostly limited to dividends only (FAO Corporate Document Repository, n,
    Rights issue
    Rights issue is a process where a company sells its shares to the existing shareholders in
    proportion to their holdings. For example, an offer maybe for one share for two held for all the
    shareholders. However a company may decide to issue shares directly to the public to raise
    financing plus also to float its shares on the stock exchange.

New Shares Issues
The issue of new shares to the public can provide a better way of raising financing for the
company. The amount the company requires to fund its projects is very large and raising it
through the public would be the best option. The company can apply to be listed at the stock
exchange in order for it to float its shares for the public to buy.
Preference Shares
Preference shares can be issued to raise money for the company. These shares have no voting
rights and they do not participant on the profits of the company but there interest rates are fixed.
There interest must be paid notwithstanding whether the company makes losses or profits. Their
profits are cumulative and all their interests must be paid first before the ordinary share holders
are paid.
Since all preference share holders do not participating in voting exercises they mostly do not
dilute the shareholders control rights in the company. If the company’s preference shares are
redeemable, the frequent issue of the shares lowers the gearing ratio for the company as they are
considered as debts for the business.
Loan Stock
Loan stock capital is a long term financing option for a business and it attracts interest payments.
Loan stock holders are mostly long-term business creditors. The interest is mostly paid at a
particular Coupon yield on the said amount.

For instance a business can issue 10% loan stock and where the coupon rate is 10% nominal
value hence some $1000 worth of stock would earn a total interest of $100 per annum and
without any taxes.
It’s a type of loan stock that involves a written acknowledgement of debt that a company has
incurred and it also involves provisions of interest payments and eventually the repayment of the
initial capital. Debentures may be fixed or floating. Fixed charged debentures relate to specific
charge that has been secured on a particular asset. The company is restricted from selling the
asset until when the charge is removed after complete payment of the debt.
Floating charge applies to an overall or floating charge on some assets and the lenders charge is
on whatever asset that is appropriate and which the company owns. The company can dispose of
any asset even those which the floating charge is secured on but a restriction is placed upon
payment default on payment by the company.
2). Profitability Ratios
These are ratios that indicate how profitable a business unit is. Profitability is a relative term and
it’s mostly equated or compared to the company’s competitors or to industry’s average ratio
rates. Profitability ratios indicate the rate of profit that a company is making compared to the
industry’s average. The ratios also indicate whether the company’s market share is on the rise or
if it’s falling
The following ratios are used to indicate the profitability of a business.
a). The Net Profit Margin = Profit after taxes/sales.

A higher ratio indicates how profitable a company’s position is while a lower ratio shows a weak
company. However, some company’s prefer to invest their funds in investments hence retain low
levels of profit margins.
b). Return on Assets (ROA) = Profit after taxes/Total Assets
The returns on asset also reveal the rate of profitability of the company. The higher the ratio the
more profitable the company is.
c). Return on Equity (ROE) = Profit after taxes/shareholders equity
The returns on equity also reveal the rate of profitability of the company. The higher the ratio the
more profitable the company is. This ratio is more frequently used to reflect a company’s
financial position.
d). Earnings per common share (EPS) = profits after –Preferred dividend/(the number of
common shares outstanding.
This ratio is very critical to investors as it indicates the company’s ability to earn income for the
investor. A Company with higher rates of earnings per share have greater demand and their
shares are more expensive.
5). Payout Ratio = cash dividends/Net income
The payout ratio is also critical for the investor as it reveals the rate of dividend payments
compared to the net income. The higher the rate the better it is for investors. However, a
company may be paying most of earnings as cash dividends at the expense of other investments
or the company maybe making less profit hence the ratio should be used in comparison to the
rate of profits the company is making.

3). Ratios that assesses how risky a business are;
Liquidity Ratios
Liquid assets are those assets that can be quickly converted to cash. Short term liquidity ratios
indicate a company’s ability to honor its short term commitments. A higher ratio indicates
greater financial liquidity and consequently lower risk susceptibility for the short term borrower
or lender. Most standard ratios are 2:1 for current ratios and 1:1 for quick ratios.
Higher liquidity reflects a financially sound company that cannot literally default on all its short
term commitments. However, maintaining large assets as cash collaterals may tied capital on
unproductive assets when investment on valuable projects would have generated far much more
income for the company. Cash generates no return if not invested but one can benefit in future if
the money is invested wisely. The following are the ratios for liquidity ratios.
The current and quick ratios are commonly used to assess the liquidity and riskiness of a
business. Current ratio is obtained by dividing the current assets with current liabilities while the
quick ratio is obtained by dividing the current asset less the closing stock and dividing the
balance by the current liabilities.
Leverage Ratios
Leverage ratios reveal the rate at which a company relies on debt to finance its projects and
investments. If a company cannot pay its debts then it would mean that it would be declared
bankrupt. Such positions are very risky for any kind of business hence when the leverage ratios
reflect a negative trend for the business it indicates the nature of risk that the business is exposed
to. The following are the ratios that indicate the rate of leverage that a company posses.

a). Debt to Equity Ratio = Total Debt/Total Equity
This ratio indicates the company’s degree of leverage or the rate at which the business is relying
on external debts in its operations. The higher the ratio the more risky is the business. When the
debts of a company exceed its total equity, the company’s financial position would be threatened
as lack of funds to repay back the debts would mean the closure of business.
b). Debt to Asset Ratio = Total Debts/ Total Assets
This ratio also indicates the company’s degree of leverage. The higher the ratio the more risky is
the business. When the debts of a company exceeds the businesses total asset then the company
would not be in a position to repay back the debt as the total value of the assets are less than the
total debts owed. The risk of insolvency would be very high.
Most industry average indicates that the total debt of a company should not exceed 50% of either
its total assets value or its equity.
Interest Coverage Ratio = Earnings before Interest & Taxes (EBIT)/Annual Interest Expense.
This ratio indicates the company’s ability to pay its fixed interest rates using its current earnings.
A company with a very high margin would reflect a company that is more risky as it would mean
the ratio of interest payable are higher than the earnings of the company.
Finally, the business can opt for a long term bank loan because of the large financing required.
Long term financing have favorable payment terms and the interest rate are affordable than for
short term lending. The interest rates depend on the purpose of the loan, the duration, the amount
involved and whether there is security (Garber, C. (1997) 


FAO Corporate Document Repository (n, d) Basic Finance for marketers, ACP,

Garber, C. (1997) Private Investment as a Financing Source for Microcredit. The North-South
Center, University of Miami

Harrison, W.T. & Hongren, C.T., 2001, Financial accounting (4th Ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall.
Securities and Exchange Commission (n, d) retrieved on July 29, 2015 from www.sec.gov

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