Ethical Decision Making: Evaluate the social and ethical implications of decisions made in the
Write a paper in which you discuss how you will ensure that all aspects of your doctoral research, from
literature review to conducting research, to writing the dissertation manuscript will be done with care and
integrity and will meet the ethical standards of scientific research. Reference the two publications above
and at least five additional peer-reviewed articles.
You must justify all the steps you will take to ensure the ethical integrity of your dissertation project and
not simply describe standard practice. You must show that you have your own clear set of ethical
principles and that you know how to apply them to your work. You must do more than just paraphrase
ethical guidelines. You must explain specifically how you will apply published ethical guidelines and
concepts to what you will do in your research (as you envision it at this point).
TO: The Mayor
FROM: Planning Staff Member
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 2
DATE: November 25, 2014
RE: Possible Plans for a Publicly Funded Water Park
Given that the city is a tourist destination that draws thousands of summer and winter
visitors to a variety of privately-owned amusement parks in the city’s immediate area, there is
need to outline plans for a possible publicly funded water park in the city. A recommendation on
whether the city should or should not move forward with the water park project will be based on
merit (Philippe, 2009).
The arguments in favor of the publicly funded water park can be outlined as follows.
Establishing a public funded water park will usurp corrupt and unfair city and government
policies. This project will help to demonstrate that corruption can be managed through openness.
Corruption has been a major menace to the economy as millions of money has got lost in the
hands of few greedy individuals. Secondly, this is a step that will improve the access to the water
park. Water is very important in the park and this project is an opportunity s as it will make it
easier for the users of the park to access it. In addition, another positive outcome that will be a
result of the publicly funded water park will result to improved efficiency and consequently
water will be treated as an economic resource for the city as a result of the implementation
(Philippe, 2009). This means that, part of the water will be sold to the people or visitors hence
generating income that will be ploughed d in the other development area of the region.
Establishing a public funded water park will be a solution to the deteriorating public water
systems that are currently feeling the triple-pinch of the dwindled federal and local funds. Water
is considered a human right and not a business enterprise and hence this project would be a
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 3
response to the rising public concern regarding water service availability.
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 4
The arguments against also underline the fact that water must not only satisfy the use
domestically but also serve agriculture and the industry. This argument arises from the aims of
this project failing to consider the farmers that as well require this water for their farming.
Farming is an important ventured that allows the people in the city to have food on their tables
and therefore, it need not to be out of the equation. The points against are that water should be
provided by the government since the appropriate incentives will encourage it to solve the
looming crisis. The government has an obligation to ensure that it provides water and other
essential needs to the people. Secondly, it is argued that water companies should pay
accountability to their shareholders, and not conversely to the society and hence they will not
seek to provide the water to all citizens (U.S. Geological Survey, 2005). Additionally, opponents
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 5
of the possible plans to a publicly funded water park will argue that water privatization will
impact the poor negatively, besides stating that since water is a universal human right, it can
therefore not be privatized or sold to humans. People with low level of income are vulnerable if
this water will be sold at a fee. They will not be able to benefit from the water projects and yet it
is the obligation of the government to ensure that such individuals as well access to clean water.
As the pressure to investment in sufficient water supply increases, this burden will fall on the
public water utilities that service over 80per cent of the US population. The problem of these
artificially low rate public water utilities will be witnessed in the city if the public water park
plan goes through (U.S. Geological Survey, 2005).
There several groups in the city that are concerned with the concerns of water provisions
will obviously take a side of the plan to a public funded water park; some of the groups will
favor the plan while others will oppose this project (U.S. Geological Survey, 2005). It is
expected that the opponents will demand that the idea to create public funded water will salvage
the right to water for the city participants and hence the mayor should prevent any privatization
forms of these essential resource. The group may also demand their participation in the project to
allow them criticize on the areas that require more amendments. The groups that are expected to
be opposed to the plan are numerous environment, community, labor and youth organizations,
and will rally against this plan. There are groups that will be expected to be at the fore front of
favoring the implantation off the plan for a public funded water park including NGOs, The
World Bank, Private water companies and a large number of the public that are not aligned to
opposition (U.S. Geological Survey, 2005). These categories of group that favor implementation
of the plan will have their specific reasons. For instance, the World Bank would view this project
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 6
as a solution to the water shortage in the region. It is an opportunity to uplift the living standards
of the people in the region, as they will be assured of receiving water.
Techniques for measuring the revenue and costs of water will need to be implemented to
ensure that the financial planning is done. The Non-revenue water (NRW) refers to water that is
lost after production before the customer manages to use it. The NRW will be a typical measure
of the ‘lost’ volume of water as net water produced share (Foshee, 2007). NRW has a variety of
audits and components that will ensure that the costs and revenue of water are well documented
for the public funded water park. The International Water Association (IWA) has come up with a
comprehensive methodology for the assessment of the various NRW components, which are
accordingly: authorized consumption that is unbilled; losses that are apparent as a result of
metering inaccuracies and water theft; and the real losses accrued from the mains of
transmission, facilities of storage, mains for distribution or service connections (Foshee, 2007).
A general cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the plan for a public water park can be
enumerated to find out the costs and benefits that are associated with putting in place a public
fund water park. The benefits that are both direct and indirect will impact the consumers, the
industry investors, the government and the environment (Foshee, 2007). The consumers will
have a better access to water more reliably securely and recreationally; employment
opportunities will be provided, and water for recreational use will be available then on. The
investors in the plan will have revenue increases, reduced costs and will achieve improved
margin of reserve. The city-level water markets will be integrated allowing sufficient scale in
water provision. There will also be an indirect benefit for irrigation water for purposes of
farming. Farmers will therefore receive water at a reduced cost helping them increase their farm
productivity. The government and hence the city council will have reduced fiscal strain as a
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 7
result of the reduction of water cost investments. Additionally there will be reduced
environmental impact as deforestation will be dealt with through the growth of land cover has
ultimately resulting to sustainable development due to the more efficient use of the water
resource (Foshee, 2007). Government as well stands a chance to gain from the revenue to be
gained as a result of income tax on the people that will gain employment to render various
services relating to the water park (Laslo & Gurevich, 2014).
Notably, there will be cost to the plan to create a public funded water park. There will be
displacement of people in large scale as the communities in the areas that will be used in the
implementation of the plan will be forced to relocate (Deutsche Welle, 2011). There will be costs
to the investment as a result of the high cost of the initial phase of the investment. The
government and hence the city will incur high costs of setup associated with the installation of a
new water park. They will have to cater for the costs of the human resources, raw material and
the costs in refunding the persons to be relocated to pave way for the implementation of the
project. Environmentally, the ecosystem will be disrupted, as the project will involve disturbance
of vegetation and animal population; this is a danger to the destruction and possibly extinction of
various plant and animal species (Deutsche Welle, 2011).
Industry reform will make it possible to use tools to identify the location and timeframe
of the public fund water project. The tool that will be utilized is a project management approach
that will apply a purpose-developed geographic information system in the streamlining of the
installation of 50,000 meters in just 15 months – identification of properties, expenditure
forecasting, installation scheduling, contractor workflow implementation, and obtaining the first
meter readings (Deutsche Welle, 2011). This innovative IT project tool for management has been
previously acclaimed with an award as a result of the installation of efficient water meters as
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 8
well as the automation of thousands of transactions daily , reduced water waste and leakage,
while reducing the cost of water metering by over 50 per cent. This tool is efficient and will
ensure compliance in compact time frame through technology, leveraging the expert’s knowhow,
meeting strict deadline, hence resulting to efficiencies (Deutsche Welle, 2011).
The groups that are anticipated to favor the projects are also expected to collaborate with
the city on the project, and consequently those groups anticipated to oppose the project are
expected to actively campaign against the project (World Bank, 2011). The groups that are
expected to be opposed to the plan are numerous environment, community, labor and youth
organizations, and will rally against this plan. They will especially use the costs identifies in the
CBA as the frameworks for arguing against the projects. There are groups that will be expected
to be at the fore front of favoring the implantation off the plan for a public funded water park
including NGOs, The World Bank, Private water companies and a large number of the public
that are not aligned to opposition. These groups will argue on the basis of the benefits of the
project and will support the implementation to achieve the projections according to the
innovative IT project tool for management (World Bank, 2011).
Since it is a public funded project there should be avenues for providing public input and
dialog about the progress of the project. There are key consideration that should be put into place
to ensure the involvement of the public, and consequently, the project management team should
incorporate details on the involvement of stakeholders, identification and deliverance of
message, developing a plan for public involvement, citing the requirements for the public
involvement in the various capacities especially in compliance with the National Environmental
Protection Act, as well as incorporating the techniques and tools for the success of the project
(World Bank, 2011). The public input would be crucial in pushing the project on the required
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 9
timeframes and satisfying the customer needs. A flexible approach should be implemented to
involve the public in all the stages of the implementation through including them in the
management teams. Inclusion of the members of the public in most of the stages of
implementation of the project will help the project move on smoothly with less resistance.
Members of the public will feel valued and appreciated if the project incorporates them in all
processes of its implementation (Viesojo et al., 2013). The project will affect them and therefore
it is critical that they are included in its implementation and management. The avenues that can
be identified in this setting are all the employment opportunities from blue-collar jobs to
documentation, to stratification to involvement in compliance teams and the project management
team of course. This is a public project, and for every stage, there should be avenues for
identification and involvement of public stakeholders (World Bank, 2011). Involving public
stakeholders is a clear indication of openness and transparency and therefore cases of
misappropriation of funds will not surface.
There are financial constraints and gains that would be effected by the water park. Much
of the financial gains will be aligned in the elimination of water stress. As a result of the
combination of problems, that include the growth of population, constrained supply of water and
high poverty levels in the city, this project will assist the city from being hit hard by the water
stress (Bosch et al, 2011). Resource-constrained and finance-constrained water stress which is
part of many cities today will not be a trend that will affect the city. However, constraints will
come in terms of the finances that will be channeled to the project leaving a vulnerability in the
management of the health crisis of malaria, HIV/AIDS, TB, and now probably Ebola. These
constraints may make the issue of the project lose its importance (Bosch et al., 2011). This is a
heavy project that requires huge investments. For the project to conclude, it is expected dto
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 10
costs colossal amounts of money meaning that some sectors budgets will be reduced to allow
for completiodn of this project. Lack of high professoanl staffs to implement the projdect
may compromise of the project. The project smay fail to meet the expect7ations sleadindg to
losses. Other constraints include, resources wastage due to inappropriate management practices.
There are various instances of research, evidence, figures and comparisons that will need
to be considered for the project on the city’s behalf. The city will really need a water park due to
the decreased reliance and safety of water;
This a project that will improve on the number of people that are accessing improved
drinking water, especially compared with urban growth;
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 11
Fig: Urban population gaining access to improved drinking-water compared to urban population
growth 1990-2008 (Economist, 2003)
Consider the case of water pricing for a majority of Southern Tasmania urban areas was
based on land value. There was a Regulator requirement for two part pricing (service fee and
volumetric consumption fee) by 1 July 2012. Therefore, 52,000 meters water meters needed to
be installed. Project Management applying a purpose-developed Geographic Information System
streamlined the installation of 52,000 meters in just 12 months (Economist, 2003).
I do believe that the information provided is sufficient in enhancing understanding of the
pros and cons of the project. Information provided is credible and substantiated with evidenced
based research. It is therefore, up to you to deliberate on this information and evaluate whether
indeed the project is worthwhile or not. I therefore hope this comparison will provide a merit on
the best move regarding the project.
Planning Staff Member,
Bosch, Christophe, Hommann, Kirsten, Rubio, Gloria M., Sadoff, Claudia and Travers, Lee
(2011), “Water, Sanitation and Poverty”, Intussen,[Accessed November 25, 2014]
Deutsche Welle (2011), “Water is a Human Right, UN Says”, Deutsche Welle,[Accessed July
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 12
Economist (2003), “Private Passions”, Economist Magazine, [accessed November 25, 2014]
Foshee, Jack, et al. (2007), “Thirsty for Change: Concidering Water Privatization in Developing
Nations”, Columbia University, [Accessed November 25, 2014]
Laslo, Z., & Gurevich, G. (2014). Enhancing Project on Time Within Budget Performance by
Implementing Proper Control Routines. Management (1820-0222), 72: 53-69.
Philippe, Marin (2009), “Public-Private Partnerships for Urban Water Utilities”, World Bank,
[Accessed July 11, 2011]
U.S. Geological Survey. “Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000: Public Supply.”
February 7, 2005. Accessed November 25, 2014.
Viesojo S et al., (2013). Public sector project management efficiency problems, case of latvia.
Region Formation & Development Studies, 11: 177-188.
World Bank (2011), “Paraguay – Community Based Rural Water Systems and the Development
of Village Committees”, World Bank, [Accessed November 25, 2014].
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 13
Recycling electronic wastes is one way of protecting environmental degradation. This
practice goes on in many states in the world as it contributes to resource utility. Conserving
environment has become essential across the world to remedy environment and to ensure that the
future generations enjoy their lives on this planet. This discussion deliberates on various aspects
including social, political, and ethical implications in this case study
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 14
Background on case study
In the case study, the leader has signed the law I authored on protecting the environment.
However, the law has seen transportation of electronic waste to third world countries. These
wastes are melted down in the countries exposing children and workers that melt them to
hazardous chemicals. Some of the workers have died due to this exposure to chemical
compounds. Land, water, and food supply have been contaminated exposing people lives at risk
Political systems in a country are fundamental in shaping the laws and the way processes
run. The government has the duty to ensure that it protects the people it serves by ensuring that
they pass laws that are just and fair. Even though this bill was signed into law, it is apparent that
it had some flaws that could be sealed. It is a law that supports environmental conservation but
on the other hand, it fails to provide tangible information that will ensure that people does not
misuse its loopholes (Fahlquist, 2009).
The law has various loopholes that contribute to these implications experienced. One of
the loopholes is that it fails to state clearly the procedures that should be taken to recycle the
products once they are taken out of the industry (Kidwell, Farmer & Hardesty, 2013). These
procedures should state clearly the location the recycling should take place and the processes or
procedures to be used. The law also failed to highlight the chemical inherent in the products and
their impacts to the people that participate in their recycling (Fahlquist, 2009). This would
therefore informed the decision of their recycling as people would not be allowed to take part in
this processes. Further, it is apparent that the region the law was signed into law was initially
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 15
unaware that their recycling will ultimately have a child-labor component in the third world. It is
clear that the region does not have much authority to control what happens in the third world
region since it is governed by a different legislation (Duke, 2010.). The political economy of a
place plays a major role as per capita income in the determination of the child labor level in the
region. Therefore, political implications of this is that the bill signed into law should be
amended to specify the procedures and the processes to help avoid subjection of children and
experiencing of these deaths in the third world countries.
The political implications are that the third world regions practicing child labor should be
coerced to increase their prosperity levels because this will reduce the incidence of child labor
the total workforce proportion. Child labor cannot be eliminated with just one political
legislation that bans the exercise, it is argued the elimination of child labor may leave then at a
worse of a position than they were. It is also clear that the political system in these regions is
defective. We cannot therefore blame the legislation entirely because it is the responsibility of
the leaders to ensure that procedures are followed during this recycling. The fact that law exists
does not mean that it is effective until it is implemented in the practical terms. Furthermore,
ultimately wealth cannot explain or determine the child labor incidence and proportion of
children in the workforce and the hazardous exposure. It is actually a structural reflection of the
local economy and although most of the time it is correlated with poverty, most of the time it is
determined by economical local structures, production and finance, as well as cultural practices
and norms (Duke, 2010).
The regions will need to involve their political tenets to stimulate economic growth to
increase demand for adult, skilled labor and increased educational returns, besides incorporating
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 16
measures to curb hazardous waste impact on the locals. It is all about government policy in these
regions, exclusion of children from the formal sector setting does not imply they are precluded
from working, nor does excluding industrial recycling from these regions increase the safety
levels; it’s all about poor environmental and labor policing in these countries. This logic is hard
to sink, and this may result to the third world region blaming it on the region that signed the
legislation into law (Duke, 2010). The third world countries experiencing this problem have
the obligation to as well come up with their laws pertaining tor environmental conservation
when it comes to recycling used products. The law should address the loopholes in the laws of
the country where these products come from. The law should indicate clearly the processes and
procedures that require adherence, the age of persons expected to work in the recycling company
among many other things. This will help to reduce the level of child abuses and deaths
experienced in this country. By doing so, the political system should as well expected to incur
some economic losses. The country even though has many children in these industries, it will
loss revenue the children generate and therefore, it will face financial challenges that will require
it to look for alternative sources.
The practices experienced in this third world country as well have social implications.
Actions of the company affected society on different levels and magnitude. It is unfortunate
incidence that require urgent measures to ensure that the lives of many chidden and workers and
members of the community is not put at risk. Society is for many years believed to be the center
of the nation. Putting at risk the lives of the people is like killing the society. The fact that the
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 17
company is helping in conservation initiatives through recycling, these practices have very
severe consequences/implications (Mangla, Madaan & Chan, 2013).
The first implication is exposing the lives of people at risk. Children and workers that
work in this industry are exposed to hazardous chemicals that affect their health and even cause
death. The chemical compounds may cause some deformities or disabilities to these children and
workers making them encounter complications in future (Mangla, Madaan & Chan, 2013). These
complications will then require the family members and the government to spend colossal sums
of money in treating them the implication here is increased future costs of seeking health care.
The taxpayers who are the members of the society will be expected to pay more to allow
provision of healthcare. The member of deaths is also likely to increase (Mangla, Madaan &
Chan, 2013). This is a liability to the society; as such individuals would have helped to develop
The toxics that flow into waters bodies such as rivers and those left on land will have
negative impacts on the productivity. They will also affect other users of this water in areas the
rivers flows (Hird, 2013). The community members will therefore have to suffer as they may
develop various kinds of diseases that would deter them from attending to their everyday
activities. They will not be able to provide for their family and this is likely to lead to family
wrangles and conflicts leading to separations or persistent conflicts that will make it hard to
provide good care to the children.
Children working in these industries are not attending to school and this is a great
implication on the education sectors, the society will have people with little or no education. This
is a serious path this will have negative consequences in the future of the children and schools.
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 18
A society without people that are educated has no focus and is preparing for hard times in future.
The only solution is to allow these children to attend to school to gain skills and knowledge that
will help them to lead a better life in their future. Furthermore, the child labor practices and
instances of negatively impacting hazardous waste will change the lives of the third world locals
by a very big proportion. These practices will result to significant financial losses as a result of
health complications caused by the industrial activities. This will be a significant blow to this
local economy (Lee, 2013). Surprisingly, workers will still work no matter the condition of the
work environments and the impact they have on them, even for the child laborers. A National
Hazardous Waste management Pan should be provided to these regions as a suggestion to
improve the management of hazardous waste, while borrowing from the progress that has
already been achieved by the local policy as well as the legislative changes that have been
incorporated before this recycling efforts were introduced. These efforts will be targeted in
enabling prevention collection, regulation, self-sufficiency, and legacy issues in terms of child
labor, guidance and awareness, implementation of the suggested plan, and public consultation
and involvement in any policies that will impact their lives by this magnitude in the future (Lee,
2013). This is a firm that generates negative externalities and that will need to consider its effects
of its location on the surrounding population and social environment since their respective
neighbors have a right to demand for compensation from the impacts of the hazardous waste as
well as increase the transaction costs of location.
It is clear that the region that signed this legislation into law varies both in value
individuals place on the environment and in the residents ability to organize socially. Firms like
this one that process hazardous waste, when making a decision on where to expand capacity,
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 19
should put into account the variations in the potential for the collective action against the
negative impacts of the waste and the child labor instances (Lee, 2013).
Practices and behaviors of individuals and entities are expected to uphold to ethical
standards every time. Human beings are different animals from other animals and they must
exercise their moral obligation well when making decisions pertaining to various aspects in their
lives (Etzioni, 1991). Being in a position to differentiate between right and wrong is part of
In this case, scenario, it is evident that there are breach of ethics and this has a number of
implications to various parties including the government, political systems, individual and the
community members among many others. Allowing children to work in the factories is
unethical. Children are protected by the law and do not require subjection to industrial or
commercial practices (Guiltinan, 2009). This behavior needs discouragement. This violates the
rights of the children, exposing children to such environment affects their psychological/mental
abilities that is likely to impact on their development and perception about life.
Allowing workers to get exposed to these materials requiring recycling is also unethical.
Such workers require appropriate protective gears to protect and prevent them from working in
the factories without such gears. The implication of denying employees protective clothes
increase rates of diseases, hospitalization and increased hospital costs. The affluent left to seep
into water bodies as well as on land causes risk to the users of this water. This could be avoided
because the act that harms others.
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 20
Furthermore, it can as well be argued that the issue discussed in the scenario involves
three principles directly related to ethical issues regarding child labor and inappropriate waste
management: protection beyond national borders; protection of future generations; and the
burdens of future generations. Radioactive waste should be managed in such a way that it should
make sure that possible effects of the radioactive waste on the human health and the environment
beyond national borders is taken into account; part that the signed legislation failed to consider
(Bogard, 2009). In regard to protection of future generations, hazardous waste should be
managed in these third world countries in such a way that the predicted environmental, health
and beyond impacts will not exceed the relevant impact levels that are acceptable in the third
world region. This legislation signed into law, and unfortunately, it will result into a burden for
future generations if not checked. It is a provision for the region that signed the legislation into
law to assist the third world regions impacted by hazardous waste and child labor to manage the
waste firm such that it will not impose burdens on their generations in future; at least they owe
them that for a faulty legislation (Bogard, 2009).
The legislation therefore, has not considered the future of the people in the country and
the future generations. The law seven though aimed at ensuring environmental conservation, it
however seems tor makes the situation worse. These children and workers face risks of
succumbing to death or failing sick because of the chemicals (Guiltinan, 2009). This are things
that can be avoided and ensure that the workers work in a conducive environment. There is no
effort by the government institutions to help the workers with protective gears even as they
provide their services in these companies.
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 21
In conclusion, this case has provided an insight on how legislations that pertains to
environmental conservation can be tricky and complex. Such legislations before becoming law it
is important that they are scrutinized to determine their impacts on political, social and ethics.
Political systems in place should scrutinize the bill and as well evaluate the impacts of the bill on
these systems. Society is important unity and it must be factored when making such decisions
similarly to ethical consideration. In this study, the political, social and ethical implications of
the child labor practices and the negative impacts of hazardous waste exposure are manifold. The
legislation needed to have put into considerations these loopholes before signing it into law. A
collective effort from these regions to the third world countries where the impact is felt will
ensure successful mitigation of these negative implications, fast forward even, the law might be
pulled down if these trends cannot be contained (Bogard, 2009). Children face many challenges
and risks just because of breaches and loopholes in the law that is supported to protect them.
Environmental issue on initiatives needs to focus on the future generation. Parties should
therefore play their roles with diligent and commitment.
Bogard, W.C (2009). Bringing theory to hazards research: conditions and consequences of the
mitigation of environmental hazards. Sociological perspectives. 31, 147-68.
Duke, L. (2010.). Pollution Prevention and Hazardous Waste Management in Two Industrial
Metal Finishing Facilities. Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials, 435-457.
Etzioni, A. (1991). Reflections on the teaching of business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly,
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING 22
Fahlquist, J. (2009). Moral Responsibility for Environmental Problems—Individual or
Institutional? Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics, 22(2): 109-124
Guiltinan, J. (2009). Creative Destruction and Destructive Creations: Environmental Ethics and
Planned Obsolescence. Journal of Business Ethics, 89: 19-28.
Hird, M. (2013). Waste, landfills, and an environmental ethic of vulnerability. Ethics & the
Environment, 18(1): 105-124.
Kidwell, B., Farmer, A., & Hardesty, D. (2013). Getting Liberals and Conservatives to Go
Green: Political Ideology and Congruent Appeals. Journal of Consumer Research,
Lee, S. (2013). Development of an above-grade hazardous waste disposal facility for future
hazardous waste management. Waste Management, 336-336.
Mangla, S., Madaan, J., & Chan, F. (2013). Analysis of flexible decision strategies for
sustainability-focused green product recovery system. International Journal of
Production Research, 51(11): 3428-3442.