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Essentials of business communication.

The Prewriting Process

our organization relies heavily on teams to complete projects. Your boss wants you to develop a well-
researched report on Hackman’s comment. As you prepare to write this report, please respond to the
questions below. Post your responses in the discussion board.

� What are the first steps of the 3×3 writing process�the prewriting process?

� What is the purpose of your report? Why are you writing this report? What do you hope to achieve with
this report?

� What is the best channel to send your report? What factors did you consider in making this decision?

� Who is your primary audience? Do you have a secondary audience?


� What is the appropriate tone for your report?

� What techniques will you use to help you achieve a positive tone?

� How are you going to ensure your report has a “you” view?

� Give an example of how you will make your report:


The Prewriting Process

The statement by J. Richard Hackman presents a perturbing interpretation for our
company, given that it mostly utilizes teams in completion of projects. Responding to
Hackman’s statement requires thorough evaluation of factors influencing teamwork to determine
whether it is applicable. This paper presents the prewriting process, in readiness for the report


3×3 writing process
Based on the 3×3 writing process, the first steps in the prewriting process include analysis
of the context to establish the purpose of the report and how it should be delivered, such as
through presentation, email, memo or letter (Guffey and Loewy, 2012). The second step is
anticipating the audience, with a view of determining how they are likely to receive and react to
the report. This helps in setting the tone. The third step is adapting, which essentially refers to
development of the report based on the first steps above. Adapting ensures that the message is
delivered in a manner that will ensure the targeted audience understands it effectively (Guffey
and Loewy, 2012).
Purpose of Report
This report aims at responding to Hackman’s statement, which argues that the use of
teams may not be a good choice for companies in project completion; and its meaning for my
organization, which currently relies heavily on teams for.
Best channel for sending report


The best channel for disseminating the report is through email. This is considered
because of the nature of the report, which is regarded with high importance, hence the need to
use a reliable channel (Guffey and Loewy, 2012). Secondly, email ensures that the document can
be stored permanently and retrieved for reference at any time. Thirdly, the recipient can easily
share the email by forwarding it to others, thus easing dissemination (Hamilton, 2013).
Primary/secondary audience
The primary audience for my report is my boss. A secondary audience may consist of
other managers within the organization, project team members and project managers in other
organizations the report may be shared with.
Appropriate tone of report
The appropriate tone for this report is formal.
Techniques for positive tone
To achieve a positive tone, the following techniques will be utilized. Avoid personal
pronouns, avoid terms which may be wrongly interpreted, use gender-neutral words, use
polysyllabic words, use positive language and avoid contractions, edit, and proof-read report to
reduce grammar mistakes (Hamilton, 2013).
Ensuring “you” view
The “you” view will be achieved through avoiding first-person pronouns such as “I”,
“us”, “we” and “our”. Instead, second-person pronouns will be emphasized such as “you” and
Examples for skillful writing techniques for the report


  1. Conversational and professional: Use ‘Please consider providing a response on the report as
    soon as you receive it’. Instead of ‘Kindly respond with whether or not the report met your
  2. Courteous: Use ‘Encouraging team members to contribute to decision making will enhance their
    performance’, instead of ‘You do not allow team members to participate in decision making.’
  3. Bias-free: Use ‘John Deep is very committed to his work’ instead of ‘John Deep, 60, is very
    committed to his work.’
  4. Precise and vigorous: Use ‘There is a 50 percent improvement in performance after engaging
    more professional staff’, instead of ‘Performance has changed after engaging more professional


The pre-writing process forms a crucial aspect of the writing process because it prepares the
writer to ensure that the written message communicates effectively to the reader. The
information above will be utilized in ensuring that the report communicates well to my boss on
the importance of teams in project management.



Guffey, M. E., & Loewy, D. (2012). Essentials of business communication. Cengage Learning.
Hamilton, C. (2013). Communicating for results: A guide for business and the professions.
Cengage Learning.

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