The Conclusion Chapter of the Dissertation
Type of document: dissertation conclusion chapter
Please follow the following points for the dissertation conclusion chapter:
- Here you will bring together the work of the dissertation by showing how the initial research plan has
been addressed in such a way that conclusions may be formed from the evidence of the dissertation.
- No new material or references should be placed here.
- The conclusions should make a statement on the extent to which each of the aims and objectives has
- You should bring back your research questions and state clearly your understanding of those
- Be careful not to make claims that are not substantiated from the evidence you have presented in
- If you are undertaking a company project based around a business issue do not confuse
recommendations for the company with conclusions.
- If you want to include a list of recommendations then do so in a separate short chapter.
- The conclusions address the wider understanding of the issue you have been studying.
- You should include a short sub section on any suggestions for further research for colleagues who
might wish to undertake research in this area in the future. There should also be a short statement of the
limitations of the research.
- Often as a single case study or limited range of companies you can not really claim that your research
holds for all companies.
- However, by adopting a rigorous approach to your literature review and methods which have validity
and can be repeated you can make a reasonable but limited claim that your conclusions should be taken
From this research, it is evident that the oil and gas business is both the largest industry
and the wealthiest sector globally. However, despite this impressive economic aspect, the human
resource working in O+G companies in Qatar grapples with volatile working conditions, which
tend to impact their productivity. The instability of oil prices has often led to reduced oil profits,
and in reality, this culminates in serious implications for O+G companies and their employees.
As an external factor, any slight drop in oil costs has the potential to bolster the dollar – the
global currency in which all oil products and supplies are made. Consequently, because Qatar is
largely reliant on O+G, a strengthened dollar affects the performance of local currencies. While
Qatar had diversified the risks of this through non-hydrocarbon products, the failure of the
regime to put in place a tax structure that adheres to best practices has been its worst undoing.
As a result, the poorly formulated tax management structure in Qatar has helped tilt the demand
for oil and gas to the disadvantage of the producing country. Through the use of state of the art
HRM systems, O+G companies in Qatar can enhance not just their competitiveness but also
invest in employee growth.
6.1 Internal HRM practices
Nonetheless, from the findings; it becomes apparent that five internal HRM practices
impact employee performance as a result of plummeting oil prices. Most O+G companies get
cash-starved owing to reduced oil prices, as such, most of them try to restructure by doing away
with recruitment packages, dignified paychecks, elimination of training and development and lay
off employees to be to operate within not just lean budgets but enhance competitiveness. Apart
from impacting performance, reduced oil prices drive these companies into an economic
downturn, an issue that scales back investments in the O+G sector. As a countermeasure,
companies lay off workers hence impacting the HRM activities in terms of reduced productivity.
Consequently, the termination of a chain of projects among O+G companies to remain
competitive has also culminated to significant job cuts.
The reduced organisation activities have also been witnessed decreased oilfield service
providers owing to plummeting oil prices an issue that affects employee performance in general.
Again, the study established that while it is the prerogative of these O+G companies to ensure
employees get appropriate training to enhance production and career growth, the companies are
unable to meet these obligations because of the low incomes accrued from selling oil. On the
contrary, O+G companies have to use hefty finances to procure products and services, which has
a direct impact on the performance of poorly remunerated employees.
Reduced oil prices have the propensity to create a new market symmetry that has been
predicted to be around for the long haul. Essentially, all O+G companies in Qatar are likely to
face enormous challenges in trying to balance internal and external variables, an element that has
a negative bearing not just on employee performance but company financial portfolio as well.
An interesting observation is that Qatar relies on oil and gas to undertake many activities
like farming, powering irrigation contraptions and care engines and in the fabrication of fabrics
as well as drugs. As such, Oil and Gas is the basis on which many industries are developed to
fabricate products that are sold domestically and externally. Moreover, the study demonstrates
that plummeting oil prices leads to the decline when it to the production of not just products, but
hurt jobs, enhance debt defaults due to inflation, and declined export in oil. Subsequently, the
economy hurts in general because drillers may not be able to repay loans that are taken to
enhance these activities.
With all these variables, such as curtailed cash flows and new credit facilities that are all
time exaggerated, businesses tend to starve because of the high interest rates on loans. By and
large, reduced oil prices lowers the costs of other products and services, essentially this leads to
the restricted shares in the production of different merchandise, the effect of which is felt by
employees in different organizations. And yet, because employees matter a great deal when it
comes to performance of any organization, the prudent use of these employees could enhance the
company’s wellbeing on the long term. While hiring competent employees is necessary, the
HRM should ensure employees are aligned with the goals of the company to ensure performance
is measured towards this realization.
6.2 Training programs
There is need for training and education for O+ G Company in Qatar this is because
training and education can improve employee performance in comparison to others. As such, O+
G organisations in Qatar allocate enough resources for training and education programs to
enhance workers’ skills and knowledge on a regular basis. In turn, this can greatly increase
employee performance and achievement of target goals. With regards to findings, about 59.30%
of sampled workers disputed the presence of training plans in their companies, while 40.70%
affirmed their presence. This pattern can have significant impacts on employee performance in
O+G companies in Qatar as it contradicts previous studies that show that training programs are
necessary in terms of increasing employee skills to increase the general organisational goals as
well as their performance (Kent Romanoffken 1986).
Development and training programs are useful when it comes to increasing performance
of workers. In this respect, development initiatives help workers to learn about (Karasek &
Theorell 2012). With regards to O+G companies, development programs can assist in preparing
workers for future roles (Root 2014). Following considerable changes in consumer demands and
preferences, adoption of development programs is a must. O+G companies should therefore
implement development initiatives to help their employees gain the required up-to-date skills
while helping companies to remain competitive. This can only be effective is development
activities match each worker’s roles as well as skills since no employee is ready to take part in
development program that does match their performance goals. This is demonstrated in the
findings whereby approximately, 74.19% alleged that they are provided with timely feedback by
their managers. This is important when it comes to increase workers performance, which makes
them more dedicated to their duties in oil and gas companies in Qatar. Due to the decline oil
price O+G companies have reduced investments in training and development because of
involved financial restraints. For this reason, this greatly influences employee performance.
Findings illustrated that reduction in significantly job performance by roughly 74.44%. In
general internal and external factors including training and education programs; workplace
environment; management style; organisational culture; organisational structure; motivation;
development and training plans have considerable affected O+G companies in Qatar after 2015
oil and gas price reductions.
6.3 Employee performance
Good performance should focus on understanding employee needs and formulating
working systems that match with work related demands. High productivity is also an aspect of
linking employees in different departments in a given organization. The integrated application of
HRM systems to enhance the competitive aspect of O+G companies in Qatar should be
prioritized. Moreover, the attainment of quality outputs is anchored on the leadership style. The
democratic leadership style, for instance, has the propensity to motivate employees to work
towards meeting deadlines effectively. To this effect, it is vital to acknowledge the fact that
proficient human resource practices have a positive effect on the performance of workers within
Employee performance is also dependent on workplace environment. As such, in O+ G
companies’ employee performance is determined by workplace setting. For instance, a positive
working environment should involve support from senior executives, supportive colleagues and
motivation. On the other hand, in uncomfortable workplaces are associated with senior managers
undervaluing employees and hostile colleagues, which significantly minimises employee
performance. Generally, workplace setting as a vital aspect of performance as it can help in
ensuring that workers in O+ G organisations are contented. Satisfied workers with working
environment are likely to perform better. This should however be accompanied by promotions
and participation in recreational activities that is useful in enhancing health, self-esteem and
confidence while minimizing stress. Recreational activities in working environment help in
increasing employee performance due to improved job satisfaction, service quality and
productivity (Saira et al. 2016). According to the findings, majority of employees about 74.73%
like their current working environment compared to roughly 27.27%. This means that O+G
companies in Qatar have a supportive as well as positive workplace environment for enhanced
Nonetheless, work related stresses can significantly employee performance. Therefore,
O+G companies should reduce employee job stress and in turn address issues like absenteeism,
poor motivation and less efficient. In turn this can contribute to significant amount on sick
leaves, reduced efficiency, litigation and medical costs (Karasek & Theorell 2012). This also
affects these organisations competitiveness.
6.4 Leadership style
Leadership style is also important in increasing employee performance. For that reason,
senior executives in O+ G companies should have strong management style to trigger
performance of workers. There is a significant relationship between leadership behavior and
degree of performance of workers, or instance, leaders that motivate employees within the
organisation get the best o workers (Lepine et al. 2016). By and large, leaders are instrumental
when it comes to influencing workers to achieve O+ G companies’ goals. For that reason,
management behavior and styles can be beneficial on work results and the way in which duties
are performed. The widely used management style in oil and gas firms in Qatar is democratic
leadership style that gives workers opportunities for autonomy as well as personal growth. About
41.30 % of participants reported that their companies used democratic leadership style while
17.39%, 19.57% and 21.71% practice authoritarian, Laissez-Faire and autocratic styles
respectively. With regards to employee autonomy in O+G companies has decreased following
the reduction of oil prices. When it comes to influence of leadership style on employee
performance, about 32.62% agreed, 33.70% disagreed, while 33.70% stated that management
style does not impact employee performance. In general, leadership style affects employee
performance in oil and gas companies in Qatar.
6.5 Organisational culture
Again, organisational culture is an essential element that influences performance of
workers in O+ G companies. These Organisations’ culture greatly influences the manner in
which employees interact with not only suppliers but also clients and colleagues. Organisational
culture comprises of firms’ growth strategies, employee empowerment and management
attitudes towards employees (Lefifi 2015). Therefore, organisational culture has various
influences on performance O+ G companies. For example, organisational culture has different
degree of influence on employee performance. Usually, workers strive to work hard to realize the
firm’s goals if they are considered part of the organisational culture. This is because
organisational presents a structure about employee behaviors.
As such, O+ G companies should see organisations as part of the organisation to foster
their expansion and growth and dedicate of workers towards the firm. This way the
organisational culture can help workers align their goals with the O+ G companies’ objectives
while being accountable to the wellbeing of firms. Continuous recognition as well as reward of
workers in O+ G companies by senior executives considerably increases job contentment. In
such organisational cultures, workers are committed to realize target objective, thus a positive
impact on the general performance of the O+ G companies. Managers should be facilitators to
help address the challenges of the lack of cooperation within organisation that can contribute to
performing tasks in silos or reducing attempts o the organisation, which ultimately affect the
general wellbeing of the firm. Basically, organisational culture is an important determinant of
performance of workers in O+G companies; therefore, negative elements that hinder worker
performance must be eliminated to foster a positive culture in workplace (Root 2014). Another
internal aspect important is job position, which does not affect employee performance though
essential when it comes to organisational structure. According to the findings, there are three
major job positions including staff, middle level management and senior executive that was
represented by 57.45%, 29.79% and 12.77% respectively. This position must be reflected in the
organisation’s job positions.
Motivation is another factor that can considerably increase employee performance
in O+ G companies. In this regards, motivation can take many forms including monetary
benefits, training programs to further career growth, participation in organisation’s projects
among others. Findings demonstrated that career paths that allow employee growth and are
found common in oil and gas companies in Qatar, this was reported by 74.47% of employees.
This is an indication the majority of employees in oil and gas companies can undertake career
growth through education and training programs provided by these firms. Good motivation
strategies can guarantee employee productivity. In particular, motivation is the driving force
when it comes to attain the organisation’s goals and objectives. The degree of worker motivation
can directly influence performance of workers in O+G organisation in Qatar. Motivation alone is
not adequate; instead it should be integrated with knowledge, skills and competencies to lead to
increased performance. Positive reinforcement are important in increasing workers performance
level, as regular feedback and recognition presents employees with psychological feeling that in
turn affects performance in a positive manner (Ewenstein, Hancock & Komm 2016). Based on
the findings a number of workers are satisfied with their respective job positions in O+ G
organisations. These findings demonstrate significant degree of motivation among workers that
subsequently increase their performance.
6.7 Organisational structures
There are different organisational structures such as innovative, divisional, professional,
bureaucratic and flat organizational structure. Employee performance is determined by the type
of organisational structure (Lefifi 2015) As such, O+G companies should adopt a bureaucratic
structure where tasks are formalised as well as structured and characterized by policies and
procedures, which hinders workers from being innovative. On the contrary, O+G companies can
adopt informal and unstructured organisational structure as it widely used in other regions and
gives employees the freedom when it comes to carrying out tasks (Lefifi 2015). Findings show
that many workers in oil and gas firms in Qatar work under stringent management, however a
few do minimum tasks to keep their jobs. For example, approximately 45.26% reported that they
do minimum duties to keep their jobs while 54.73% do not such an idea.
It is acknowledged that international decrease in oil price has affected job performance,
therefore; oils and gas companies in Qatar should adopt empowerment motivational tactics to
help counter these reductions. Based on the fact that employee performance is reliant on various
factors, O+G companies in Qatar should understand such factors and its influence on
performance while adopting necessary strategies. This is vital when it comes to harnessing the
potential of such factors to enhance the overall performance of oil and gas organizations in
Qatar. Largely, internal as well as external forces significantly affect worker performance in
workplaces (Ewenstein, Hancock & Komm 2016). Therefore, understanding these forces can be
an important milestone as it can help to leverage, tackle and in turn increase workforce efficiency
and performance. In particular, decreases in global oil prices greatly affect the performance of
workers. For example, reduction of oil price after 2015 in Qatar, external and internal forces like
motivation, firm expenditure on workers and dedication. Based on the findings of the study,
work experience is important in factor in employee performance. However, future research
should be dedicated to understanding why reduced oil pricing bolsters the dollar currency against
the local currency, which in turn impairs the smooth functioning of not just O+G companies but
employee performance owing to the scarcity of resources.
Karasek, R & Töres T 2012, Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and the Reconstruction of
Working Life. New York City, NY: Basic Books.
Lefifi, K 2015, The relationship between organizational culture, structure, and performance.
Journal of Business Research, 61(7): 123-134.
Lepine, M, Yiwen, Z, Crawford, E, & Rich, B 2016, ‘Turning their pain to gain: Charismatic
leader influence on follower stress appraisal and job performance’, Academy Of
Management Journal, 59, 3, pp. 1036-1059, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost,
viewed 20 September 2016.