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Reflection questions: Write 4- 5 sentences for each question. Look up the answer on the internet and
make it up .

  1. Provide specific examples of how and when you are using the instructional design principles and
    teacher delivery methods to make your instruction more explicit. Examples should include reference to
    particular design principles and delivery methods to demonstrate your understanding of each.
  2. How did you use your pre-assessment results? What other formative assessment did you use? Were
    your students allowed more than one way to show what they know? How could you improve the use of
    pre-assessment, formative assessment and summative assessment to inform your instruction?
  3. What did you do so students could self-assess and/or monitor their own progress? How did you use
    specific feedback to help students answer the question, �Where Am I Now? �
  4. Which of the instructional design principles or teacher delivery methods did you use and how did you
    use them? How can you improve your instruction in this area?
  5. What did you do to provide opportunities for creativity, collaboration and/or critical thinking?

Disability 2


As a teacher, I have been privileged to work with students with different capabilities, talents, and
skills, as well as some with difficulties comprehending the content and following coursework
instructions. Nonetheless, to boost their understanding and to ensure that the students move as
one unit, I have, in different circumstances, applied instructional design principles and teacher
delivery methods to make the instructions more explicit (Hammond, 2019). For instance, during
a math lesson, I taught the students an algorithm for solving complex equations such as
multiplication of big numbers, division, and subtraction, among others. The achievement of this
objective necessitated the use of instructional design principles such as conspicuous strategies
that facilitate solving problems. These were coupled with strategic integration which focuses on
the combination of essential information in different ways that result in the development of new
or more complex knowledge (Hammond, 2019). Similarly, these instructional design principles
involved characteristics such as offering the students an opportunity to integrate several big ideas
and the application of content in multiple contexts.
Most fundamentally, the teacher delivery methods used in the scenario mentioned herein
included appropriate pacing and the provision of appropriate processing time between the
presentation of tasks and when learners were required to respond. Additionally, I focused on
monitoring the responses, which involved watching, and listening to the responses provided by
the students and correcting them where they went wrong (Hammond, 2019). For instance, if the
students failed to get the right answer to the math equations I had given them, I would group

Disability 3
them into three or four members as ask them to attempt it together based on what each of them
understood. Subsequently, I would ask one of the group members to move to explain their
process by demonstrating their work and how they arrived at a particular answer. If still wrong, I
would then show the entire class how to handle the tasks and give them more related equations to
solve during their free time.
Explicit instruction plays an integral role in reviewing previously learned concepts,
checking whether students have understood them, and correcting misconceptions during the
lesson. It further serves as a guide that provides appropriate directions on what to do and how to
it. As such, the pre-assessment results obtained from the scenario mentioned above were used in
the identification of areas that need improvement, as well as concepts that were not understood
(Hammond & Moore, 2018, p. 114). Consequently, I used formative assessment techniques such
as the provision of learning opportunities that enable learners to develop their unique
understanding of the concepts being taught. This way, students were allowed more than one way
to show what they know through the emphasis on active construction of knowledge and
privileges hands-on learning aimed at solving real-world problems.
Nonetheless, the improvement of the pre, formative and summative assessment
techniques used in this instance to inform instruction would involve the incorporation of the
direct instruction approach. This approach necessitates teaching the same concept to students but
differentiating at the point of individual practice. It further involves breaking down information
into manageable bits and checking for understanding by giving the students an opportunity to
practice the skills during their free time.

Disability 4
Self-assessment for the students was achieved through the provision of learning
opportunities that allow them to develop a unique understanding of the content. For instance,
during the lesson, each student was required to attempt at least two math equations and show
their working without assistance from the other learners. Regardless of the mistakes they did, I
would correct them at the specific points where they omitted a step or used a wrong approach.
Moreover, the use of specific feedback in helping students answer the question where am I now,
involved the identification of their weaknesses based on the inability to follow instructions
(Hammond & Moore, 2018, p. 127). Subsequently, I would work closely with the student by
applying a system, I do, we do, and you do. This system entailed teaching the students the
content repeatedly, solving several math problems together, and assigning them different tasks
that they can work on during their free time.
However, the attainment of the above objective necessitated the application of
instructional design principles such as mediated scaffolding that involved providing temporary
assistance to the students in the form of steps, tasks, personal support, and material during the
initial learning process. It significantly contributes to the reduction of the complexity in tasks by
structuring them into manageable chunks aimed at increasing successful completion. Similarly,
these objectives required the use of teacher delivery methods such as the provision of feedback
for correct or incorrect responses (Hammond & Moore, 2018, p. 129). The feedback provided
was instructional and aimed at specifically reinforcing correct responses. Nevertheless, the
improvement of the instructions in this area would focus on the recognition of the efforts put in
by the students at different points in the step-by-step process.
Besides, the provision of opportunities for creativity, collaboration and/or critical
thinking would occur through the encouragement of the application of different strategies in

Disability 5
determining the answer to specific problems. These would be coupled with the recognition of the
unique approaches applied by the learners in solving different problems. For instance, the
instructions to different math problems would require the learners to apply their unique abilities,
talents, and levels of comprehension to determine the suitable option or the right answer
(Hammond & Moore, 2018, p. 131). The attainment of this objective would require them to think
critically about the situation described, the application of the content taught and relating it to
real-life situations.

Disability 6


Hammond, L., & Moore, W. (2018). Teachers Taking up Explicit Instruction: The Impact of a
Professional Development and Directive Instructional Coaching Model. Australian
Journal of Teacher Education, 43(7), 110-133.
Hammond, L. (2019, April 11). Explainer: what is explicit instruction and how does it help
children learn?

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