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Critical Infrastructure Vulnerability and Protection

Critical Infrastructure Vulnerability and Protection

1.Why are refinery and storage stages more vulnerable than at other supply chain components?

2.IT-ISAC: Explain what this is and its role in IT and computer products.

3.�SCADA protection is scattered among governmental agencies and commercial groups.� Give some

examples of overlap.

Why Refinery and Storage Stages in Energy are More Vulnerable than at Other Supply Chain


Energy markets are known to be very complex, technically challenging and highly
competitive. Improving the performance throughout the supply chain and more so at all levels of
the operations could be at the top of all the agendas of all suppliers. The economic regulatory and
the changing business dynamic pressures are continuously faced by the energy providers.
Success can only be achieved in this area if the suppliers have responsive, flexible, and scalable
strategies that could deliver the profits to the shareholders and the service and value to the
According to the National Research Council (NRC) and the US Global Research Program
(USGCRP) assessments, it is clear that the US energy infrastructure is more vulnerable to the
impacts of the range of climate particularly the infrastructure in areas that are prone to bad
weather and shortages of water supply. The climate changes are most projected to affect the
infrastructure throughout the stages of the energy supply chain thus increasing the risk of
disruption (Andrews, 2008).
However, the key issues that affect the retail energy market include: the security of
supply in the short and long term, the unit cost of energy and its increasing competition,
simplification of the models of tariffs and setting the standards for billing of customers, the smart
meters, the carbon reduction commitments and its effects on the energy bills, the micro
generation, reduction and the removal of the fuel poverty, and finally the improvement of the
energy efficiency at the level of consumption.



IT-SAC is known in full as the Information Technology Services Advisory Committee. It
was established in the year 2002 to offer a forum say for the students as well as the IT staff in
order to discuss the technology priorities and issues. It involves the membership including the
representatives from the college and the members in general in order to discuss the current and
the new IT initiatives and is mandated to submit a report each and every year (Basham &
Campbell, 2009).

Role of IT-SAC in IT and Computer Products

The Information Technology Services Advisory Committee (ITSAC) is designed so as to
advice the Vice Provost of the Information Technology and the CIO on the IT services that are
provided to the community of the University by the Information Technology Services. Its
deliberations are known to be informed by the advice from the respective administrative units,
which have clear accounting for all the advisory committee recommendations and the
Simply, its primary roles include the making of recommendations on the levels of the
services offered to IT and their costs in general. Secondly, is to review the budget involved in the
Information Technology Services so as to ensure that the services that are provided to the
University are carried out effectively and even more efficiently. Lastly, the IT-SAC is designed
also for the purpose to provide advice and the input to the Vice Provost for the Information
Technology and the CIO regarding the annual preparation and the presentation of the budget of
the Information technology Services to the university Budget Advisory Committee (Shyh Chiuan
Chia, 2005).

“SCADA protection is scattered among governmental agencies and commercial groups.”
With the SCADA international, consulting, project solutions and engineering are offered.
Aside from that, they involve the execution of the Supervisory Control and data Acquisition
(SCADA) systems within the renewable sector of energy. The clear structures and processes
guide their work whether with the supply of an off the shelf solution or a project specific
solution. They implement the best SCADA solutions to the market, make puzzle to get into place
as well as the critical piece involving any good SCADA solution.
The SCADA systems are usually more complex with multiple components. They may be
fully automated where there is full control performed by the computers, fully manual in the case
where control is performed by the human operators or even a hybrid system. Many SCADA
systems include the following in order to perform the above functions: The field Interface
Devices which sensors the detecting and the reporting power levels, temperature, pressure, flow
rates and the local control devices like the controls of motors, valve actuators and the control
In addition, they involve the operating equipment where the motors, automated factory,
pumps and the valve are controlled by the SCADA network. They involve the management
computers whereby the computer terminals with a Human machine Interface (HMI) are
connected with the SCADA network. These computers have a provision of an interface for the
operators to monitor and control the devices on the SCADA network. Other than that, they
involve the interconnection to the business process systems. That is, the SCADA networks
frequently are connected to the corporate networks so as to allow them to interconnect with the
business process systems (Norman SCADA protection, 2012).



Andrews, C. J. (2008). Energy Conversion Goes Local: Implications for Planners. Journal Of
The American Planning Association, 74(2), 231-254.
Basham, M. J., & Campbell, D. F. (2009). Introduction to the Special Issue on Best Practices in
SACS Accreditation. Community College Journal Of Research & Practice, 33(8), 609-
Norman SCADA Protection. (2012). Pipeline & Gas Journal, 239(6), 85.
Shyh Chiuan Chia, C. (2005). Promoting independent learning through language learning and the
use of IT. Educational Media International, 42(4), 317-332.

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