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Closing the Deal

Closing the Deal


When a customer feels pressured into making decisions or taking action that he or she
feels is inconsistent with what is right, ethical conflict is said to have occurred. Sales people are
constantly faced with various ethical dilemmas as they interact with the customers, competitors,
and employers. They are frequently exposed to high levels of ethical pressures than employees

holding other positions in a company. This is as a result of the freedom they have, since they
tend to work in relatively unsupervised settings. They are also responsible for the generation of a
firm’s revenue, which may also be stressful.
Question 1

I disapprove of Wright’s sales tactic because the method being used is not ethical. The
whole technique is based on dishonesty and deceiving the customer (Ferrell, Johnston & Ferrell,
2007). It also puts pressure on the customer to seal the deal immediately. Wright, however, is
trying to cover up for it by giving directions that only customers who seem to want the product
can be persuaded. Direction is also given that the technique will only be influenced for someone
who actually needs the land. From this perspective, this sales tactic may be dismissed as moral
since the customer indeed needed the land, and the sales person knew that the land would satisfy
the client’s needs fully (Ruiz-Palomino & Martínez-Cañas, 2014).

Question 2

If I knew that the prospect in the case study would eventually buy the property or that it
would be in the prospect’s interest to buy it, my moral assessment of this closing technique
would not be affected. This is because I still think that it is morally wrong for salespersons to
play with their prospect’s psychology through deceit, just to seal deals. Dishonesty is a factor
that has been discouraged for a very long time, especially for salespersons (McClaren, 2013).
There are no way the sales person will be in a position to know if that prospect actually needs the
land. Hesitation does not mean that the land is needed; but that the client is not sure which one
will fully satisfy his or her needs. Therefore, when the sales person uses Wright’s tactic, the
pressure of missing out on a product is exerted on the prospect.

If the law allows three days for the prospects to change their minds, there will be
reasonable grounds for complaining about the closing technique used against them. First, the
sales person was being dishonest in the attempt of getting the prospect to sign the deal. Once the
prospect realizes that all the phone calls and reference to headquarters were all face, dishonesty
may be claimed. It is always important to be truthful about information given to the customer.
This is very important because the client needs to feel confident about the company in case of
complaints. Second, after a day or two, the prospect may discover that the product is not what he
or she hoped for. However, after being pressured using illegal means, he or she ended up signing
the deal. Therefore, the prospects may argue that they were pressured into purchasing a product
they were not sure satisfied their needs.

Question 3

There are many things which Jean needs to take into consideration before making any
decisions. First, she needs to consider how her action will affect her future deals. No prospect
would want to be associated with a dishonest salesperson. Lying about the presence of
headquarters, and making fake phone calls to lure a client into signing the deal may easily
backfire. If the client notices that all these were a lie, this may be the end of jean’s career.
Second, as a sales person, Jean has the obligation to ensure that her actions are not interfering, in
any way, with the rights of the customer. The customer has a right of making his or her own
decision; the duty of the sales person is to help the customer decide on a product and finally
make a purchase (Ross & Robertson, 2003). The duty of the sales person is not to pressure
customers into purchasing the goods or services.
Question 4

Jean should give very little weight to self-interest in her deliberations since ethics suggest
that a salesperson must always do what is best for his or her customers. It is not stated that she
should also consider her own interests. If this code of ethics is considered, the sales person will
be foregoing short-term profits but investing in long-term profits that may take longer to show
(McClaren, 2013). The long-term benefits are always better because the sales person will
eventually start gaining from referrals. Therefore, Jean should stick to her code of ethics and
avoid doing what she thinks is wrong. She should always be honest to customers and refuse to
pressure them into signing deals. Despite the fact that she is lagging behind, there is hope for
more prospects in future because the few she has closed deals with will refer others to her
because of her honesty and patience with customers.
Question 5

A rule utilitarian would encourage real estate agents in such a situation to follow a simple
rule: “Happiness is not the rational end and purpose of human life and action; virtue is a better
end or goal than happiness,” (Qtd. From Ferrell, Johnston & Ferrell 2007, p. 296). This rule
implies that the sales person should not focus on his or her own benefits, but rather on virtue or
goals. When this rule is followed, the real estate agents will always focus on taking the right
actions and making good decisions for the sake of their customers, since the more loyalty there
is, the better the performance of an organization.
The realtors’ professional code of ethics needs to reflect a lot on closing techniques. It
should warn against using negative means of influence on prospects just to seal a deal. The rights
of the customers must always be respected by ensuring that the closing techniques used are not
going to disrespect these in any way.


The ethics of salespersons is a factor that will almost never be followed. This is because
the job of salespersons has been closely associated with being dishonest, using pressure, and
many more activities that ensure the customer signs a deal no matter what. This case study is
basically an example of the decisions that salespersons have to make daily. At times, they are
often pressured into using the wrong techniques to ensure they sign the deals. However, it is
always advisable to use the proper means since the benefits associated with the latter outweigh
its shortcomings.


Ferrell, O. C., Johnston, M. W., & Ferrell, L. (2007). A Framework For Personal Selling And
Sales Management Ethical Decision Making. Journal Of Personal Selling & Sales
Management, 27(4), 291-299.
McClaren, N. (2013). The Personal Selling and Sales Management Ethics Research: Managerial
Implications and Research Directions from a Comprehensive Review of the Empirical
Literature. Journal Of Business Ethics, 112(1), 101-125. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1235-4
Ross, W. T., & Robertson, D. C. (2003). A Typology of Situational Factors: Impact on
Salesperson Decision-Making about Ethical Issues. Journal Of Business Ethics, 46(3),
Ruiz-Palomino, P., & Martínez-Cañas, R. (2014). Ethical Culture, Ethical Intent, and
Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Moderating and Mediating Role of Person-
Organization Fit. Journal Of Business Ethics, 120(1), 95-108.

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