African nations tend not to have lower health outcomes, experiencing epidemics of infectious and non-
communicable diseases across the continent. There is substantial health inequality among and within
many nations in Africa. Similar disparities in health also exist in Latin America. Cuba, Costa Rica, and
Chile have health outcomes comparable to the United States, while Haiti�s health outcomes are
comparable to the less healthy parts of Africa.
A variety of arguments can be made for the reasons why there is great health inequity in these regions.
Some relate to the different colonial histories since health is transmitted inter-generationally. Colonization,
neoliberal globalization, including free market, free trade, and the unrestricted flow of capital with little
government influence, has resulted in large wealth inequalities. Some countries have cut their
government spending on health programs, which has led to devastating health outcomes.
For this Discussion, examine countries and their health problems.
Select two countries with different per-capita income levels such that one could be classified as a �high
WEEK 11 GLODQ 2
income� nation and the other would not be classified in the same income category. Note: You may use
The World Bank website in your Learning Resources to identify countries and their income levels.
By Day 4, post a brief summary comparing the two countries and their health problems. Also, compare
how the economic level and income inequality in each country influenced other social determinants
(social dynamics, the status of women, education, or violence/homicide, etc.) for each country. Then,
explain the impact of the determinants on the health outcome in each country.
Week 11 GloDQ
Health outcomes in different countries varies due to various reasons such as policies,
economic, social, cultural political, colonization, neoliberal globalization, including free trade
free market, and the unrestricted flow of capital among many others. The paper compares two
countries health problems and impacts of determinants on health outcomes.
WEEK 11 GLODQ 3
USA and Kenya are example of two countries that have different health problems. USA
is categorized as a developed country. The country has a well and organized health system. It is
classified as high-income economy. The country has population of 316.1 million people with a
GDP of 16.80 trillion (The World Bank, 2013). Therefore, the health outcomes in USA are at
high level as evidenced with their child life expectancy of 79 years (The World Bank, 2013). On
the other hand, Kenya is categorized as developing country with middle-income economy. The
country has population of 44.35 million with a GDP of $ 44.10 billion. The poverty headcount
ratio at national poverty level line is 45.9% (The World Bank, 2013). The country therefore
experiences a lot of health problems relating to socioeconomic such as communicable diseases
such as malaria, typhoid and child mortality rates. The life expectancy at birth is 61 years.
Economic level and income levels of these two countries influence other social
determinants such as status of women, violence/homicide and education. In Kenya, the gender
disparity has decreased with empowerment of women. Education is provided to all the gender.
However many women and children are at higher risks of death due to lack of accessibility to
better quality healthcare. Initiate such as ‘beyond zero campaigns’ aims at reversing the trend
(UNAIDS, 2014). The rate of violence is also experienced in families. Situation in USA is
different as rates of mortality among woman and children are lower because of better healthcare
systems (Marotta, 2014). The education levels are also higher and women have equal status in
society because of economic empowerment.
Determinants of health outcomes such as the level of income/wealth, the education level,
the cultural ideologies impacts on these countries in different measure. In USA, for instance
income levels have enabled accessibility to quality and affordable healthcare reducing the level
of mortality. On contrary, in Kenya the level income has also affected the quality of healthcare
WEEK 11 GLODQ 4
(Mugo, 2012). People suffer from communicable diseases and face challanges accessing quality
healthcare. Cultural practices as well impact on the quality of healthcare as higher people still
use traditional medical practices.
Marotta, D. (2014). U.S. Health-Care Costs versus Health Outcomes. Business Journal (Central
New), 28(35): 4-7.
Mugo, M. (2012). Impact of Parental Socioeconomic Status on Child, African Development
Review 24(4): 342-357